In the House of Death: Story of a Boy-Nachiketas

Introduction:-

This is a legendary story of a little boy Nachiketas, barely ten years old, son of Sage Vajasravasa. Nachiketa meets Yama (The Death God in Hindu philosophy) and get answers of his question: ‘What is Death?”

Through conversation, Lord Yama reveals “Supreme Knowledge” to Nachiketa, the knowledge of the nature Atman and the path to gain Wisdom,  Moksha (liberation from the cycle of birth and death).

Sage Vajasravasa wished to perform a sacrifice called Vishwajit (Sarva Dakshina), meaning victory over the whole universe. Through such sacrifice, the performer aims to gain the fruit of gaining a higher world and enjoy the pleasures there. (Vajasrava means a Giver). The boy faced wrath of his father after completion of sacrificial fire , when he found there was fault in the part of his father. As such the boy was offered to Yama, by his father in anger.

Finally he got the desired knowledge from Yama when he exhibited “Mumukshautva” (intense desire to seek Wisdom) and Vairagya(dispassion for all worldly pleasures).

The Story in details:-

Sage Vajasravasa, desiring Heaven, rewards, performed the Visvajit sacrifice, in which he gave away all his property as gift[Dakshina]. He had a son by name Nachiketa.

Gifts not worth the name:

When the gifts were being distributed, Nachiketa, who was still a boy said to himself: Joyless, surely, are the worlds to which he goes who gives away cows no longer able to drink, to eat. to give milk, or to calve. He went to his father and said: Father! To whom will you give me? Nachiketa repeated this question second and a third time. At last his father got angry and replied: ‘Unto death I offer you’.

Nachiketa then proceeded to meet the king of Death: “Yama”

Nachiketas at the door of Death

Nachiketa thought: whether I die now or later matters a little. What purpose of the King of Death will my father serve today by thus giving me away to Death? Nachiketa said: Think of those who went before, those that will come after. Man dies and born again like a blade of grass. A mortal ripens like a corn and corn springs up again.

"Man dies and is born again like a blade of grass. This means seed grows only to fall and fall only to grow. This is the cycle of human life because birth and death are correlatives."

Lord Yama’s Instructions on Hospitality: 

Nachiketa went into the forest and sat in meditation within the house of Death. Death king Yama was out of his kingdom on his job. When Death appeared his servant said: Lord! when a holy man enters a house as guest it is as if fire has entered. The wise man cools him down. So bring him water O king of Death!

If a holy man comes into fool’s house and is given nothing, the fool’s family, public and private life, ambitions, reputation, property, hopes alliances, all suffer. Thereupon Lord Yama said to Nachiketa: ‘A guest should be respected. You have dwelt in my house three nights without eating; I bow to you O holy Boy! Take from me three boons[gifts]. Choose now three boons, one for each night, O Brahmin! may all be well with me’!

The First Boon: 

Nachiketa said: ‘O Death! may Gautama, my father, be calm, cheerful and free from anger toward me! may he recognise me and greet me when I shall have been sent home by you! This I choose as the first of three boons’.

Death grants the first boon!

King of Death said:  ‘I will so arrange things, that your father, will recognise and love you as before and he will sleep peacefully at night and his grudge against you will vanish’.

The Second Boon: 

Nachiketa said: ‘ There is no fear in the kingdom of Heaven, because you are not there, nobody there is afraid of old age. man is beyond hunger, thirst and sorrow. You know, O Death! Please explain me what Fire leads to Heaven, show it, I am full of faith. I ask this as my second boon.’

Death said: ‘ I will explain it, listen! find the rock and conquer unmeasured worlds. Listen, for this came out of cavern.’

Death grants the second boon! 

Yama told him that out of Fire comes this world, what bricks and how many go to the alter, how best to build it. Nachiketa repeated all. Death encouraged ran on. I give you another gift. This fire shall be called by your name. Count the links of the chain: 

*Worship the triple  Fire: 1) Knowledge, 2) Meditation, and 3) practice.

*The triple process: 1) Evidence, 2) Inference, and 3) Experience.

* The triple duty: 1) Study, 2) Concentration, and 3) Renunciation.

Understand that everything comes from Brahman. That Brahman alone is sought and found, attain everlasting peace; mount beyond Birth and Death.

***Here, Fire means Energy-

King of Death continued: ‘ When man understands himself, understands Universal self, the union of the two, kindles the triple Fire, offers the sacrifice; then shall he, though still on Earth, break the bonds of Death, beyond sorrow, mount into Heaven.[ **This is liberation, while living on Earth]

The Nachiketa Agni[Fire]:

The perfect sacrifice is explained by Yama.

 Out of fire arises all that exists in the Universe. Mastering this, one gains mastery over any field of human activity, and acquires whatever one desires in terms of worldly prosperity and power. However, it is all within the transitory realm; all gains here are impermanent. Nachiketas very attentively listened and was able to follow what was said. He repeated all that Yama explained. Being happy with Nachiketas, Yama encouraged and said " I will give you another gift. This fire shall be called by your name." And it is known as "Nachiketas Fire". 

‘The Fire that leads to heaven is your second gift, Nachiketa! It shall be named after you. Now choose the third gift.’

The Third Boon: 

The secret of Death!!!

Nachiketa said: ‘Some say that when man dies he continues to exist, others say that he does not. Explain, and that shall be my third gift.’

It is too difficult for you Nachiketa!

Death said: ‘ This question has been discussed by the gods, it is deep and difficult. choose another gift, Nachiketa! Do not be so hard. Do not compel me to explain.

Nachiketa said: ‘Indeed on this matter, even by the gods doubts have been entertained. You also say, O Death, that this principle is not truly comprehendible easily. But a teacher like you can explain this. Another such teacher I shall never find. therefore, I have no option before me but this. No other boon equal to this there be for me to choose!

To continue in the next part….

Third gift was indeed granted and it is a great part of the story, where the words of wisdom are the main essence. To be published in the second part, or else it will be a very lengthy blog.

Interested readers may go through the following post

Essence of Katha Upanishad :Part 4C of 4: -The Concluding Part-

*** This story is from Katha Upanishad. Kathopanishad is part of Krishna Yajurveda and consists of two Chapters. Each Chapter has three sections. This Upanishad is a favourite one in all ages and it is placed in third position in the list of Ten Principal Upanishads.

Conclusion:-

Through this dialogue between Nachiketa and Lord of Death, the response of Death has to be observed minutely! Every one is interested to know the secret of Death! But what are the conditions that an aspirant should posses to know the secret. That discussion proceeds from here onwards.

NEXT PART !!..COMING SOON…😊🙏❤️

I Do Express my Gratitude ! ! !

     🙏🙏🙏🙏🙏🙏🙏🙏🙏🙏🙏🙏🙏

Let me express my sincere gratitude for all your blessings, prayers, good wishes.

  • I am now back to you after successful eye surgery[CATARACT]

  • Post surgery, I find my vision is clear. Colors are bright and distinct.

  • Left Eye was operated upon on 22nd July-2022.

  • After recommended rest of eye, I am here to say :

THANK YOU ALL MY DEAR FRIENDS

Very soon I shall publish my Blogs those are ready for final touch!

 

Brain Waves & Meditation on OM[AUM]: An insight

Introduction:-

Please go through this simple content which is nothing but my experience only. Just as it is: Thought of sharing my experience. Please spare few minutes. 🙏😊❤️

IMPORTANCE OF MEDITATION:

Since ancient time function of brain and meditation have been linked.

We can understand the relationship between brain activity and meditation by the use of modern  technology such as EEG. Basically we are all vibrational beings living in the vibrational universe.

Frequency of vibration determines our experience of reality. The fundamental elements of our physical vibrations are known as brainwave frequencies. Frequencies are measured in Hertz. In brain mapping the frequencies are measured in Hertz which are typically in the range between 0.5 to 60Hertz. According to studies, published in different websites, during meditation a discernible brainwave patterns seen  on EEG.

In neuroscience, there are five distinct brain wave frequencies, known as Alpha, Beta, Theta , Delta and Gamma.

To  understand the function of brainwave frequencies, which affect our daily life following vibrational patterns are described in brief.

Delta(0.5-3.0 Hz): The deep sleep Wave.

The Delta frequency is the slowest of the frequencies and it is experienced in deep, dreamless sleep and in very deep, transcendental ,  meditation where awareness is completely detached. Delta is the realm of unconscious mind. It is the Gateway to the Universal mind.

Alpha(7.5-14 Hz): The Deep Relaxation wave:

Alpha brain waves are present in deep relaxation with the eyes usually closed and while day dreaming or during light meditation. It is an optimal time to program the mind for success. It is the Gateway to the Subconscious mind. It heightens imagination, visualization, memory, learning and concentration. It lies at the base of consciousness of human mind.

Theta (4-7.5 Hz): The Light Meditation and Sleeping Wave.

Theta brain waves are present during deep meditation and light sleep including REM dream state. It is the realm of Subconscious mind. It is also known as twilight state as it is normally experienced between Alpha (drift off to sleep)and Delta(arise from deep sleep).A sense of deep spiritual connection and with the Universe can be experienced at Theta. Voice of Theta is silence.

Beta(14-40Hz): The waking Consciousness and Reasoning wave.

Beta brain waves are associated with normal waking consciousness and a heightened state of alertness, logic and critical reasoning. Daily activities are performed in this state. Too much Beta can translate into stress, anxiety and restlessness. The voice of Beta is the little nagging chatterbox of inner critic.

Gamma(40-80Hz): The Insight Wave.

This range is recently discovered. Little is known about this state of mind. Gamma waves with the highest frequency can have a frequency of anywhere between 25 and 100 Hz. Initial research shows that Gamma waves are associated with bursts of insight and high level information processing. Gamma brain waves are fastest brainwave frequency with smallest amplitude. Feelings of Blessings with peak concentration has been reported by experienced meditators.

Neuroscientists believe that gamma waves are able to link information from all parts of the brain-the gamma wave originates in the thalamus and moves back of the brain to the front and back again @ 40Hz.This is the brainwave state of that feeling that any thing can be done.

Now we may draw analogy of the above topic with Mandukya Upanishads, which is shortest among all Upanishads. According to the Mandukya Upanishad, four conditions of Spirit can be described as below.

1)Waking condition: Perception turned outward.

2)Mental condition : Perception turned inward, known as dreaming condition. Self enjoys subtle matter.

3)Deep sleep condition: No desire, no dream. This is intellectual condition. Because of union with Self and his unbroken knowledge, one feels joy. He knows joy. His mind is illuminated.

ॐ~AUM

A~ Waking

U~ Dreaming

M~ Deep Sleep

Turiya: The Fourth condition of the Self which can be achieved through deep meditation that corresponds to “OM” as ONE , invisible Word. Self is Whole and beyond bargain.

The world disappears in HIM. SELF is one without a second.

This condition is known as #Turiya#

Please read Mandukya Upanishad in two parts to understand the topic which you will find inline with Brain waves pattern. Links are here:

1:MaNDukya Upanishad- The Nature of OM: – Part-1

2:MaNDukya Upanishad- The Nature of OM: – Part-2

Any decrease in mind clutter is an increase in our vibrational connection to higher Consciousness.

MaNDukya Upanishad- The Nature of OM: – Part-2

Introduction:

Mandukya Upanishad belongs to Atharva Veda. It is the shortest of all the Upanishads with only 12 verses and placed in the 6th position in the list of Ten Principal Upanishads.

This Upanishad teaches the significance of the sacred syllable ॐ~AUM (OM) and it correlates with four states of Consciousness. It describes the Turiya state, the state of transcendental Consciousness in which all the divisions and Duality disappears. The SELF alone exists in its pure state.

Among the Upanishads, the “Mandukya” may be regarded as the most important. It is said : ” mandukyam ekam eva alam mumukshunam vimuktaye”. For the liberation from bondage, for a seeker, the maNDukya alone is sufficient.

Upon meditating on the Mystic Syllable OM [AUM], mind can be trained to achieve freedom gradually to attain ultimate Reality.

Please read my previous post on Mandukya Upanishad, Part-1, where I have discussed up to 7th mantra out of total twelve mantras. 7th mantra is most important among the Vedic scriptures. This mantra describes the nature of Absolute reality~ Brahman. Please read first part of the post. Link is here:-

In this post, I will discuss the last five Mantras [from 8th mantra to 12th mantra].

माण्डूक्योपनिषत्

॥ अथ माण्डूक्योपनिषत् ॥

Mantra-8:- ॐ~AUM (OM) with four quarters:

“सोऽयमात्माऽध्यक्षरमोंकारोऽधिमात्रं पादा मात्रा मात्राश्च पादा अकार उकारो मकार इति “॥ ८॥

“so.ayamAtma.sdhyakSharamo~NkAro-adhimAtram pAdA mAtramAtrAshcha pAdA akAra ukAro makAra iti” – [8]

“The same Atman, (which has been described in 7th Mantra as having four quarters) is again, AUM, from the point of view of the syllables. The “AUM “with parts is viewed from the stand point of sound. The quarters the letters and the letters are the quarters. The letters here are A, U and M”.

According to Shankara, 7th mantra have concentrated on the abhidheya meaning ‘that which is being spoken of’, i.e. the thing named or denoted. OM [AUM], therefore, is effectively the abhidhAna-name or appellation. This means that Atman is equated to OM in the linguistic sense. The letters constituting OM are A, U and M.
Mantra-9:- The first mAtra of OM-akAraH: the letter “A” : vaishvAnara- the waking state.

“जागरितस्थानो वैश्वानरोऽकारः प्रथमा मात्राऽऽप्तेरादिमत्त्वाद् वाऽऽप्नोति ह वै सर्वान् कामानादिश्च भवति य एवं वेद “॥ ९॥

“jAgaritasthAno vaishvAnaro-akArah prathamAmAtra-a-apteraadimattvaadvA-a-apnoti ha vai sarvAnkAmAnAdishcha bhavati ya evaM veda”.-[9]

“He who is VaishvAnara, having for its sphere of activity the waking state is A, the first letter of AUM, on account of its all-pervasiveness or on account of being the first. One who knows this attains the fulfilment of all desires and becomes the first of all”.

prathamA mAtra: – The first mAtra of OM-akAraH: the letter “A” vaishvAnara- the waking state. AdimatvatvAt: being the first. Pervasiveness-“A” which pervades all sounds. “A” is the fundamental sound. We can not speak any word without opening the mouth and the sound thus produced is “A”. We can regard this sound as pervading every other sound. Similarly we we regard the waking state as having primacy. We only know of the existence of the dream state and deep sleep states when we are at waking state. Obviously we have to be awake in order to pursue this enquiry and to attain enlightenment.

In the scripture VaishvAnara is said to pervade the whole of the Universe. In Bhagavad-Gita, Ch10.33, Lord Krishna says: ” I am the letter “A”, describing himself as Ishwara. This mantra is advocating Upasana on OM, with specific attention on the first letter “A”.

One who understands this, gets all he wants; becomes leader among men.

Mantra-10:- The letter “U”, the second mAtra of OM is “taijasa”, the dream state

“स्वप्नस्थानस्तैजस उकारो द्वितीया मात्रोत्कर्षाद् उभयत्वाद्वोत्कर्षति ह वै ज्ञानसन्ततिं समानश्च भवति नास्याब्रह्मवित्कुले भवति य एवं वेद” ॥ १०॥ 

“svapnasthAnastijasa ukAro dvitIyAmAtrotkarShAdubhayatvAdvotkarShati ha vai j~nAnasantati-nsamAnashcha bhavati nAsyaabrahmavitkule bhavAti va evaM veda” -[10]

“The dreaming condition [taijasa], called mental condition, corresponds to the second letter “U”. It upholds; stands between waking and sleeping. He who understands, upholds the tradition of Spiritual knowledge. looks upon everything with an impartial eye. No one ignorant of Brahman is born into his family”.

The letter “U”, the second mAtra of OM is “taijasa”, the dream state, because both are regarded as superior and also are in the middle of their respective series. Whosoever knows this will become superior in knowledge and accepted by all. All members of his family will be wise. As a matter of fact, A being the first of all sounds is superior to all letters. But “U” coming after “A” may be said superior to “A” in all indirect way. as such the subtle taijasa is regarded as superior to vishva because subtle is superior to gross. Gross can be considered as the effect of the subtle cause. Gross equates to matter, subtle to energy. Mind is superior to physical body. State of mind makes us superior to the animals. Gross body returns to earth on death, but the subtle and causal body remains present for rebirth. 

Note:- At the macrocosmic level, at the end of the Universe[Pralaya], the entire gross creation [Virat] is subsumed into Hiranyagarbha. 

Mantra-11:- Deep sleep, the intellectual condition, called “Prajna” corresponds to the third letter “M”.

“सुषुप्तस्थानः प्राज्ञो मकारस्तृतीया मात्रा मितेरपीतेर्वा मिनोति ह वा इदꣳ सर्वमपीतिश्च भवति य एवं वेद” ॥ ११॥

“suShuptassthAnaH prAj~no makArastRRitIyA mAtra meterapItervA minoti havA idaM sarvamapItishcha bhavati ya evaM veda”-[11]

“Undreaming sleep, called the intellectual condition [prAj~no], corresponds to the third letter “M”. It weighs and unites. he who understands, weighs the world; rejects; unites himself with the cause”.-[11]

Sankara Explains:-

One who is prAj~no associated with deep sleep is “M” , the third letter{sound) of AUM. The key word “miti” in the mantra needs to be understood. “miti” means measure. As food grains are measured in utensils before use and that is filled again when it is reused on regular basis, which means grains reappear again. similarly, at individual level, the waking and dream states as though disappear in deep sleep, emerge again sometime later. Similarly, at the macrocosmic level, the gross[Virat] and subtle[Hiranyagarbha] worlds disappear at the end of creation into the causal state(Ishwara~antaryamin) and reappear at the next creation. This is analogous to the scientific theory of “Big-Bang & Big-Crunch”. In the same manner, while chanting OM (AUM), the sound “A” and “U” disappear when we close mouth and only sound “M” remains. And the sound “A” and “U” reappear again when the mouth is opened for chanting AUM. waking and dream states are merged in deep sleep. As we have seen in mantra-4 of this Upanishad, that they[ A= Vishva & U= Taijasa] become “mass of consciousness” (prajnanaghana)  in M (deep sleep state).

In deep sleep, all perceptions and cognitions converge into a single mode of the mind: It becomes mass of Consciousness[ ekibhutah]. There is no modifications of the mind[ due to absence of Vrittis].

The happiness of deep sleep is greater than all other forms of happiness. 

Therefore one who knows this, comprehends the real nature of the Universe. He realises himself as Atman and the cause of the Universe i.e. Ishwara.

Mantra-12:- “Amaatra”- The fourth letter: “Turiya”

“अमात्रश्चतुर्थोऽव्यवहार्यः प्रपञ्चोपशमः शिवोऽद्वैत एवमोंकार आत्मैव संविशत्यात्मनाऽऽत्मानं य एवं वेद “॥ १२॥

“amAtrashchaturtho-avyavahAryaH prapa~nchopashamaHshivo-Advaitaevamo~NkAra-atmaiva saMvishatyAtmanA-a-AtmaM ya evaM veda ya evaMveda”-[12]

“The fourth conditioned of the Self corresponds to OM as one, indivisible word. He is whole; beyond bargain. The world disappears in Him. He is the good; the one without a second. Thus OM is nothing but Self. He who understands, with the help of personal self, merges himself into the impersonal Self.”

The part less “OM” is the fourth quarter; It is beyond all conventional dealings; It is the limit of the negation of the phenomenal world. It is all- Auspicious, all-Blissful; It is One without a second; the Non-Dual Reality; This OM is verily the same as the Atman or Self within. The Self realises Itself through the Self; He who knows thus, merges himself  into the impersonal Self.

Conclusion:-

A) Individually( for Jiva), the waking consciousness is called Vishva. It is called Taijasa in dream and Prajna in deep sleep state. Correspondingly, from the view of Cosmic level, these are: Virat in waking, Hiranyagarbha in dreaming and Ishwara in deep sleep. 

B) The relationship between individual and the cosmic, between Vishva & Virat, Taijasa & Hiranyagarbha, Prajna & Ishwara is integral part of ONE [ Non-Dual Consciousness]. This realisation will put Jiva in Ishwratwa and make it  Omnipresent, Omniscient and Omnipotent.

C) The knower of Brahman, who has realised the highest Truth, will enter into the Self by burning away the Third state of latency[ the dormant Vasanas~ (causal) are burnt]. Henceforth, he is not born again, as there are no Karmas to cause a further birth.

D) AUM is realised when the illusion of DUALITY vanishes.

Recommended readings:

  1. Back to the Truth: 5000 years of ADVAITA by Dennis Waite.**
  2. THE TEN PRINCIPAL UPANISHADS: Translated by Shree Purohit** Swami and W.B.Yeats
  3. Brahma Sutra Bhasya of Sankaracharya: Translated by Swami Gambhirananda.**
  4. Commentary of Mandukya Upanishad: By Swami Krishnananda.
  5. MANDUKYA Upanishad By Swami GuruBhaktananda.
  6. The Mandukya Upanishad: with Gaudapada’s Karika and Sankara’s commentary: By swami Nikhilananda
  7. EIGHT UPANISADS -VOL-1 with commentary of Sankaracharya, Translated by SWAMI GAMBHIRANANDA.
  8. THE TAITTIRIYA UPANISHAD: SHIKSHAVALLI-ANANDAVALLI-BHRIGUVALLI with Sri Shankara’s Commentary By Sri Swami Satchidanandera Saraswati.
  9. A-U-M Awakening to Reality : By Dennis Waite***
  10. Information available on internet.

             It is my sincere request to the esteemed readers to share their opinion or queries if any. Suggestions to make the site attractive will be highly helpful for me. Readers are requested to read all the posts to have continuation of the topic from the beginning. My mail ID is :   arun7663@gmail.com 

A Brief Note on Ten Principal Upanishads.

Introduction:-

One of the three basic Texts of Vedanta is “Upanishad”. Other two are Bhagavad-Gita and Brahma-Sutra. Together these three Texts constitute “Prasthana Traya”: known as Triple canon of Vedanta. Upanishads constitute the revealed Texts, known as “Sruti Prasthana”. Vedanta is the name given to them because they are End means concluding part of the Veda. Bhagavad-Gita is “Smriti-Prasthana”, which occupies an unique place in Vedantic tradition. A popular verse compares the Upanishads to the cows, The Bhagavad-Gita to the milk, Sri Krishna to the milk man, Arjuna, the Pandava Hero to the calf and the wise people to the partakers of the milk. The third of the canonical text is “Brahma-Sutra” which is regarded as “Naya-Prasthana”.

“samasta-vedanta-sarasangraha-bhutam”

In this post we will discuss about Upanishads in brief:

Salient features on Upanishads:

  • Upanishad = Upa + Nishad: Spiritual knowledge obtained by disciples sitting near or at the feet of The Guru [ means the Teacher].
  • Scholar says that Upanishads were composed during 4000-5000 BC. Some says: 2000-14000BC.
  • Nowhere it is mentioned about any author n the Upanishads. No date of origin can be fixed.
  • Teachings were imparted in stillness, noise free environment like forests where tranquillity can not be disturbed. Those Upanishads are known as Aranyaka and these were specially intended for Vanaprastha.
  • Teachings were transmitted orally and hence called as “SRUTI”.
  • Value of Upanishad for Mankind is for all time, all places and all ages. Lessons in Scriptures are very practical and applicable for modern world as it was for Indo-Aryan period.
  • Upanishads were transported to western countries initially through Persian translation[1700 AD].
  • French scholar Anquetil Duperron brought a copy of manuscript from Persia to France. Later on it was translated in French and Latin.
  • First English translation was made by Raja Ram Mohan Roy. [1775-1833].
  • Every Upanishad begins with a Peace mantra.(shanti path).
  • There are 108 Upanishads. Among them 10 Upanishads are considered as Principal Upanishads.
  • Who Am I? What is this Universe? Whence and how we are born? What is mortality or Immortality? What is Atman or Brahman? What is liberation(from cycle of birth)? What is death?- All questions have answers in Upanishads. 

The Ten Principal Upanishads are:

1) IshaVasya Upanishad: Occurs in the Samhita portion of  Shukla Yajur Veda.

2) Kena Upanishad:  It is embedded inside the last section of the Talavakara Brahmanam of the Samaveda.

3) Katha Upanishad: Belongs to Katha Branch of Krishna Yajurveda

4) Prashna Upanishad: Comes from the Brahmana portion of the Atharva Veda, belonging to Pippalada Sakha.

5) Mundaka Upanishad: It is Part of Atharva Veda.

6) Mandukya Upanishad: The Mandukya Upanishad, belongs to Atharva Veda. It is the shortest of all the Upanishads with 12 verses and placed in the 6th position in the list of Ten Principal Upanishads.

7) Taittiriya Upanishad: It is a part of the Krishna Yajur Veda and placed in the seventh position in the list of Ten Principal Upanishad.

8) Aitareya Upanishad: Belongs to Aitareya Aranyaka**(Teachings in the forest), part of Rig-Veda.

9) ChAndogya Upanishad: It is part of ChAndogya Brahmana of the Sama Veda

10) BRRihadAraNyaka Upanishad: It forms the fourteenth Kanda of Satapatha Brahmana of “Shukla Yajurveda.” This is the biggest one.

ब्रह्म` ~ “Brahman” : The Principal word in Upanishad: What is It?

First of all, we need to know the true meaning of “Brahman” [ब्रह्म`]

Brahman: IT is That which is Absolute, fills all space, is complete in Itself, to which there is no second and which is continuously present in everything, in every being and everywhere. It is homogeneous in nature.

The word ब्रह्म` “Brahman” will be used repeatedly. Meaning of Brahman is VAST. This is to be noted here that the word “Brahman” does not refer to any Cast , Creed or Sect. According to Vedanta the word ” Brahman” has been derived from the root word “brh” which means growing or expanding and suffix “man” added to it signifies absence of limitations. In Vedanta, the word Brahman is a neuter gender and hence it is referred as pronoun ” That”. It is very difficult to describe Brahman, which is ultimately indefinable, indescribable, and utterly beyond all human comprehension. Brahman can not be described through senses alone. Vedanta has however taught us how to realize Brahman which is “Supreme Consciousness”

 The oneness of Soul(Jiva~Atman) and GOD(Param Atman), the ultimate Truth is the principal essence of all Upanishads. 

Please visit my website for more details. https://arunsingha.in

Pictures shown below are relevant to the Text of Upanishads.

A special note On International Yoga Day-2022:

Introduction: 

The word “YOGA” has been derived from the Sanskrit word “YUJ”. This means “to Connect or to Combine”. In very simple word it is “UNION”. 

∪ ⇒ Union: Union with Source(Brahman/ Purusha)

∑ ⇒ Summation{Of All that we perceive or do not perceive }

∫ ⇒ Integral[ Non-Dual]

+ ⇒ Add [ All good qualities]

There are multiple paths for Union. After deep studies of Vedanta (ten Principle Upanishads) and Patanjali Yoga Sutras, I have found and adopted two easy paths to achieve my goals.

1) Vedantic Approach( Advaita- Non-Dualism)

2) Yogic Approach ( Patanjali Yoga sutras)

Vedantic Approach:

What should be my (our) goal?

Answer: To be United with Supreme[ The absolute “Brahman”] : Complete cessation of sufferings and attainment of Bliss is the goal of everyone.

” Attyantika Dukshya Nivritti, Paramananda praptyachya”

Most important condition to remove sufferings is “fearlessness”.

A vision of Oneness is the sole condition that brings fearlessness.

There is nothing to fear. Everything is Self-created. HE( The Absolute) is that Essence, by drinking which, man rejoices. That Self is the sole giver of Joy (Bliss). When man finds invisible, nameless, homeless, shapeless, he is no longer terrified. He becomes free from fear who attains such Oneness. But if the slightest ” Otherness” is allowed to enter then he is smitten with fear. That man, thinking himself wise, becomes terrified. ” 

The knower of Brahman reaches the Supreme”.

How to Know Brahman?

Knowledge of Brahman can not be gathered by mere reasoning. Knowledge can be attained through intuition or revelation. Intuition is the final result of the enquiry into Brahman. There are three stages which are very essential for progressing in this path. Three stages are as below:

Following are the steps: 

1.Sravana :  Listening to the teachings of the sages on Vedanta. Now instead of Sravana, we can use the word Study of Vedanta, because Sravana was the practice during early Vedic period as no method of writing existed.

2.Manana : This stage is the reflection on the teachings. This means thinking about what has been heard and subjecting that into a reason based on experience gained.

3.Nididhyasana : Stage of meditation on the truth [MahaVakyas]. It is the culmination of the practice of Sravana and Manana. BRRihadAraNyaka Upanishad says  on Nididhyasana. ” The Self , my dear Maitreyi, should be realized-should be heard of , reflected on and meditated upon; by the realization of the self, my dear”.

Sravana, Manana, Nididhyasana leads us to intuition (aparoksha anubhuti). In this way, “Brahma Kara Vritti ” is generated from ” Sattvic anta Karana ”  This ” Brahma Kara Vritti” destroys the mula-Avidya or primitive ignorance which is the root cause of all bondage, births and deaths.

When this ignorance or veil is removed, Brahman which is Self effulgent reveals itself in its pristine glory and splendour. 

Now the Text is for whom?

 The Vedanta is for the person who is competent to understand and study sastras(Scriptures) ,has tranquil mind, with required attributes as described in Vedanta.

After attainment of certain preliminary qualifications which are known as four salvations(Sadhana Chatustaya) ,one can progress towards the direction of knowing Brahman.

Four salvations are:

  1. “Nitya-anitya-vastuveveka” which means discrimination between the eternal and non eternal.
  2. ” IhamutrarthaphalabhogaViraga” : Indifference to the joys in this life or in in Heaven, and of the fruits of one’s action.
  3. ” Shatsampat” : Six fold virtues that are : i) Sama (Control of mind), ii) Dama ( Control of senses),iii) Uparati (Cessation from worldly enjoyments), iv) Titiksha ( Endurance of pleasure and pain, heat and cold), v) Sraddha (Faith), vi) Samadhana (Deep concentration).
  4. “Mumukshautva” (Desire for liberation).

Why one should enquire Brahman? Why?

Most of the religions believe that life in earth or life in heaven are attained on the basis of one’s virtuous deeds(“KARMA”) which is transient. But once you know Brahman, you will enjoy everlasting bliss and immortality.

Knowledge of Brahman destroys ignorance which is the root cause of all sufferings. 

” Sastrayonitvadhikaranam” : Brahman is realisable only through the scriptures. The scripter is the source of right knowledge.  Through scripture only we get a comprehensive understanding of the nature of Brahman. Brahman is formless, colourless, attribute less. Hence it can not be grasped by the senses alone. Brahman is ONE, infinite and without second.

THE FOUR GREAT VEDIC STATEMENTS

Yogic Approach: Ashtanga Yoga: Patanjali Yoga sutras:

Photo by Pixabay on Pexels.com

According to Maharshi Patanjali , Ashtanga Yoga is  not limited to any class, place, time and circumstances.

This path of Yoga is Universal. 

The essence of Patanjali’s Yoga sutra is in the second sutra(1.2):

” yogashchittavrittinirodhah” [sutra-1.2] : Yoga is for the control of thought-waves in the mind. To still the fluctuating mind.

Yogas citta-vritti-nirodah” which literary means “Yoga is the stilling of the modifications of the mind”.

Principal Teachings of Yoga Sutras: 

“Ashtanga Yoga” : Eight limbs of Yoga are as follows.[8 steps]

All the steps are scientifically designed. That is the specialty of Ashtanga Yoga. If one has followed all the steps properly, then only Dhyana is possible

1. Yama – Restraints.

2. Niyama – Observances.

3. Asana -Physical postures.

4. Pranayama – Control of Prana (Breathing control).

5. Pratyahara – Withdrawal of the senses.

6. Dharana – Concentration

7. Dhyana – Meditation.

8. Samadhi – Absorption.  

Details of Each of the Limbs of Yoga:

Yama: The first “anga” 

This consists of prohibitions against unethical deeds. These are basically restraints. Following are to be noted: 

  • Ahimsa-Non violence:  Non-violence truly  meant here as  to refrain from causing harm , showing anger , being harsh to others including self. Love  must be unconditional and universal. At the same time we must love ourselves equally.                                                                             
  • Satya-Truthfulness: : This means, on being firmly established in truthfulness ,the Yogi gets the power of attaining for himself  the fruits of work without the work . 
  • Asteya-Non-stealing: With the establishment of virtues like honesty, aspirant develops an intuitive awareness.                                      
    Brahmacharya- celibacy:  Right use of energy: sutra 2.38 says Brahmacharya pratisthayam viryalabhah”. It is about controlled and disciplined sex. 
  • Aparigraha- non possessing, non accumulation: sutra 2.37: ” Aparigraha sthairye janmakathamta sambodhah”  which means : On becoming steady in non-possessiveness, there arises the knowledge of how and from where is it generated. 

Niyama: Second  limb (“anga” )

It is composed of some injunctions to develop various ethical virtues. Following are the components of Niyama.

  • Saucha (cleanliness) :  Purity of body and mind.
  • Santosha ( Contentment): To keep mind away from dwelling in the past or future. One should not  regret on missed opportunities and also need not worry about future. Contentment is  the way to live in present moment, NOW.    
  • Tapas (discipline, austerity etc.) : Mandates spiritual disciplines.  A state of spiritual maturity.  With the practice of austerity, all kinds of impurities are removed from body and mind. 
  • Svadhyaya ( study of self and sacred texts): This sutra teaches for self-observation, study of scriptures, recitation of mantras and union  with the desired deity ( Ishta devata).                                                                     
  • Isvara Pranidhana (Total surrender to the Supreme being):   Dedicated services for the welfare of others including mankind, animal kind, plants and nature.               

The third anga ” Asana”

It is important part of Ashtanga Yoga. The importance is to make spine held erect and relaxed with the three upper parts of the body, the chest, the neck and the head in a straight line. This is required for nerve currents to channelize for further improvement in concentration.

The object of  Yoga is to make a man rise above body consciousness. In Patanjali Yoga sutra, it is simply stated that asanas should be stable and comfortable for meditation.

The fourth anga “pranayama” 

Commonly believed as control of breath but scholars says this is actually control of Universal Energy. The Prana  moves the whole Universe. Prana is believed to be a cosmic energy. It is prana vibrating at the beginning of cosmic cycle that shapes akasha (space) out of which all energies are evolved. Biological functions of all kinds are performed by this vital energy. The knowledge and control of this prana is known as pranayama.

Practice of pranayama is done after mastering asana. When pranayama is practiced under the guidance of right “Guru” (Teacher), one can have control over prana and it becomes possible to feel the vibrations which helps attaining higher insight. Thereby ,the power generated will help the nerves in getting optimum functions. It is believed that Pranic healing, faith healing etc. are  the results of doing pranayama. 

Pratyahara” : the fifth anga.

“Pratyahara”  : Withdrawals of senses:  It helps in attaining a mind without fluctuations, since withdrawals of senses bind the mind to a fixed point. It is impossible to concentrate unless the mind is purified.  Pratyahara gives our mind a moment to not evaluate and teaches us to be free from any reactions developed by senses. 

Sixth anga: Dharana- Concentration: 

“deshabandhashchittasya”  => this suggests to confine mind in a territory, a very limited space, which disallows movements of mind. That is called “Dharana”.

One pointed attention: Dharana is the process of fixing the attention of mind to a certain point. That may be any object of concentration (internal or external), sound, deity or  noble idea for the benefit of creation. After successful practices of first five limbs, one becomes ready for Dharana

Dharana, Dhyana & Samadhi: These three limbs together lead aspirants to the ultimate goal. 

If the fourfold qualities are dealt with right actions, then the practitioner of Yoga will overcome the distractions of mind. These are : 1. friendliness towards happiness, 2. compassion towards misery,  3. rejoicing for virtues and 4. indifference to vices.  With such preparation and practice, “Dharana” comes much more easily and naturally. 

 Seventh Anga: Dhyana- meditation: 

Definition : DhyanaThe extension and lengthening of Dharana is Dhyana. Dharana continued without interruption is Dhyana. One has to change his or her way of life to reach unto this stage of Dhyana (concentration). Let us look into sutra 3.2 again for further analysis.  “tatra pratyayaikatanata dhyanam” :  If we now split the sloka like this =>>  tatra + pratyaya +ekatanata, then  tatra => means ” in that place” which refers to “desha” as mentioned in sutra 3.1. pratyaya=> means total content of mind which occupies the field of consciousness at a particular time.  Mind remains in continuous contact in Dharana.                        Ekatanata=> means extending continuously without interruption. Before practicing Samadhi, this kind of un interrupted continuous Dhyana is essential for the aspirant. 

Therefore let us keep in mind that when Dharana is stretched for a long period it becomes Dhyana. In other words elongated condition of Dharana is Dhyana. 

SamadhiThe state of Cosmic Consciousness- the 8th anga: 

sutra 3.3: "tad evarthamatranirbhasan svaroopashoonyam iva samadhih" means=> In that absolute state, then there is no meditator or the thing that is meditating upon. What remains only is the meditation, that is called samadhi. 

When Dhyana enters into Samadhi , the Gate which leads into the world of realities opens. Samadhi means a state of mind which through the practice of Dharana and Dhyana has become so  completely tranquil and the person meditating  is so absorbed that the he or she even forgets own existence.

Let us analyse the word “svaroopashoonyam”  of sutra 3.3. ” svaroopa” + shoonyam”  means that ” svaroopa” which is the residual consciousness of its own action disappears completely i.e. becomes “shoonyam” .

When you are fully absorbed with the vastness of the Supreme being and even the sense that I am meditating is not there and the ego “I” goes then, only the true Self, higher Self ,the Big I” remains.  This is possible when there are no Vrittis in chitta. In other words mind does not fluctuate. In Samadhi, Mind  surrenders all its resistances to the union with the object of meditation. In this state, field of observation and the observing intelligence merge and total intelligence shines as the sole substance of reality. 

sutra 3.4 "trayamekarta samyamah" means => The three practices Dharana, Dhyana and Samadhi together on same object is called samyamah.

If we analyse the word samyamah”  we will find it has two parts. Sama + Yama. Sama means perfection and Yama means control. 

Conclusion:

Eight limbs as a whole constitute one complete path which leads the aspirant upwards.

If followed properly, the person will definitely feel joy and peace of mind which will accompany to the bed at the end of the day. 

When the mind is set into a pattern, automatically one connection will be established with higher Self. That is individual’s experience which can be considered as Self-Realization

 

HAPPY FATHER’S DAY [2022]: TO ALL FATHERS

Introduction: (Conceptual):

Generation and procreation is an autonomous system. That is what the essence of this part.

KHANDA-II of AITAREY UPANISHAD

The creation of human body is described in order to inculcate a sense of dispassion by showing the impermanence of the body. Creation continues through procreation. A man is born, he gives birth to a son and he takes rebirth after death. This signifies that a person has really three births. The procreative fluid of a father is said to be the essence of his Self. The mother looks after it during pregnancy as her own Self. After birth, the parents nourish the child so that he can be their substitute for performance of pious deeds.

The importance of natal care and oneness of the father and the son are emphasized.

KHANDA-II (Chapter-4)

Three Births of the Self [ Three incarnations]:

Sloka: 4.1- First Birth :”The Pregnant Father”

This Jiva in the male body of his father first becomes semen. This semen is the vigour extracted and transformed from all the limbs. First the father holds and nourishes it in his own body and rears it which is not different from him. When he injects this in mother’s body he procreates himself in the form of a foetus. This is his first birth.

Sloka: 4.2- :”The Development of the Foetus”

That semen becomes one with the woman-just like a limb of her own. That is why it does not hurt her. She nourishes this self of his that has come into her.

Sloka: 4.3- Second Birth :”The Pregnant Mother”

She, being the nourisher of the child , should be nourished. The woman nourishes the embryo. Immediately after its birth the father nourishes the child. Nourishing the child from birth onward, he thus nourishes himself for the continuation of these worlds. For thus alone are these worlds perpetuated. This is one’s second birth.

Sloka: 4.4- Third Birth :”The Pregnant Son”

Father himself becomes son. When son comes of age, father entrusts him with all the family duties and responsibilities and frees himself from parental debt. As life span of father shortens, father departs from this world and takes birth in another womb according to his Karma. This is his third birth. Thus the cycle of birth and death continues and become a bondage till he does not realize the truth, the reality.

Sloka: 4.5- “Breaking Through Iron Fetters”

 Rishi Vamadeva realized the truth while he was in mother’s womb.

Rishi said ” While yet in embryo, I knew all the births of these Deities!, i.e. the inner senses and Indriyas are subjected to birth and death and not the Atman. Before I realized  this secret I had to pass through several Births which are compared with cages made of Iron. I was so attached with them that it was very difficult for me to get rid of those iron gates. Now by applying full strength of knowledge I broke all the fetters, became detached. Like a hawk, I escaped, being free and now I have no relation with the body. I am not the Body.”

Sloka: 4.6- ” The Jivanmukti and Videhamukti of Vamadeva”

Having gained the knowledge of Atman, and freedom from Body Consciousness, Vamadeva took his Upward path. He attained the heavenly world of Bliss and fulfilled all his desires. He became immortal, yes He became immortal !!!

” Freedom from Body” : We can understand this in two ways:

  1. Death: This is applicable to a mortal
  2. Freedom from Body-Consciousness: Upward path towards Nirvikalpa Samadhi.

For a man, once the highest state of True realization is reached, the attainment of the Heavenly worlds of Bliss accompanies him, while still in the Body. While still in the body, the realized state experiences the Supreme Bliss. He enjoys all he desires.

Self Realization is the only way to come out of the bondage of repetitive cycle of Birth and Death. For that one should have Vairagya.

The three “Aavasthas”(states) and “Swapnas”(Dreams): in relation to Three Births:

Three Aavasthas are three dwelling places occupied by the Supreme Being after HE enters the body. The three Swapna state (Swapna Aavasthas) because of ignorance.

Until man realize the Supreme truth and awakens to his spiritual destiny, he is considered to be in the state of Dream(Swapna).

The Essence of IshaVasya Upanishad- Part-2

Introduction:

 IshaVasya Upanishad appears in the Samhita portion of  Shukla Yajur Veda. It is one of the Ten principal Upanishads. Isha Upanishad has Eighteen Mantras. Among Ten Principal Upanishads, this comes in the beginning of the list. Isha means the Lord of the Universe. In my previous post on this Upanishad I have discussed Mantra no-01 to Mantra no -07.

Link of the previous post : The Essence of IshaVasya Upanishad- Part-1

In this part we will discuss Isha Upanishad Mantra no-08 to Mantra no-13 .

§ Eighth Mantra: The Path of Renunciation:

1) Sah paryagat shukramakaayam avarnam; asnaaviragm shuddhamapaapa-viddham; 2) kavih maneeshee paribhooh, swayambhoo yaathaa-tathyatah; arthaanvyadadhaatshwateebhyah samaabhyah.

The Self [ the atman] is everywhere, without a Body, without a shape, whole, pure, unpierced by evils, wise, all knowing, far shining, self depending, all transcending, functions and duties are allotted by HIM alone to the Creator for eternity.

Analysis: 

There is no place where He is not there. He is everywhere. He is in everything. He is not limited by Time and Space. There is nothing that He needs to possess and nothing that He needs to achieve. He is the seed, the substratum, the cause of all. He has no physical body. As long as there is body, there is happiness and misery. He is immortal. He is beyond all the three gunas: Tamas, Rajas, and Sattwa. He is His own father and mother. None conceived Him. No one is the cause of His being. He is Self-existent.

§ Ninth mantra: Avidya & Vidya:

1) Andham tamah pravishanti ; ye avidyaam upaasate; 2) tatah bhooyah ive te tamah; ye u vidyaayaam rataah.

Pin your faith to natural knowledge, stumble through the darkness of the blind, pin your faith to supernatural knowledge, stumble through a darkness deeper still.

§ Tenth mantra: The fruits of Avidya & Vidya:

Anyat eve aanuh vidyayaa, anyat aahuh avidyayaa; iti shushruma dheeraanaam, ye nah tat vicha-chakshire.

They enter into blinding darkness who are worshippers of Avidya alone; but they enter even greater darkness, who verily are worshippers of Vidya alone. One thing, they say, is obtained from Vidya, and another thing, they say, from Avidya; Thus we have heard from wise, who have explained it to us.

§ Eleventh mantra: Combination of Avidya & Vidya:

Vidyaam cha avidyaam yah, tatvedaubhayam saha; avidya mrityumteettvaa, mashnute vidyayaamrita.

They that know and distinguish between natural knowledge and supernatural knowledge shall by the first cross the perishable in safety; shall, passing beyond the second, attain immortal life. 

Vidya (Knowledge) and Avidya(Ignorance: he who knows them both together, overcomes death [darkness] through Avidya and obtains immortality through Vidya.

Above three mantras are very important. We must understand the essence of the mantras. The essence is that we should equalise jnana (vidya) and ajnana (avidya) and should not adhere to either the one or the other alone. According to the scholars, knowledge of Ishwara can not be obtained by Karma alone nor by knowledge alone. Avidya = Karma and Vidya = Knowledge. Avidya yields fruits of karma, which has time bound existence. Hence attainment of Moksha [ liberation] is not possible, since several births are required to enjoy the fruits of Karma. This is called falling into utter Darkness which is nothing but SAMSARA. The mantra further says that if Upasana of Vidya means devotion is offered alone , it is still worse, because it will lead to greater Darkness. He who understands the correct meaning of this avidya and vidya and maintains balance between them and does Upasana, accordingly, can cross the world of Death and attains mortality.

Different scholars of different darshanas has given different opinion on vidya and avidya. Let us look into Shankaracharya’s commentary. His method of analysis is on the basis of subtle meaning of both the words. He always considered Advaita Philosophy to explain these two words: avidya and vidya. The knowledge of the world is Avidya and the knowledge of Ishwara is Vidya. The world of objects is presented to us by our senses and we see the world [jagat] as real. We are ignorant about the thread of Consciousness running through each and every object. There is certainly connection between the visible world and unseen Ishwara. In general we believe that we the jivas are separate entity and Ishwara is separate entity. The cause of existence and experience of the world is due to the presence of Ishwara. So long as we are in the world with a sense of separate existence as the Jiva, the world has to be accepted as though it is real.

§ Twelfth mantra: Worshipping Unmanifest and Manifest:

1) andham tamah pravishanti; ye asambhootim-upaasate; 2) tato bhooya iva te tamo; ya u sambhootyaagm ratah.

Pin your faith to the seed of nature, stumble through the darkness of the blind; pin your faith to the shapes of  nature, stumble through a darkness deeper still.

They enter into blinding darkness who aim to conquer the Unmanifest cause of creation; but they enter into even greater darkness.

§ Thirteenth mantra: Fruits of Unmanifest and Manifest:

1) anyat evaaahuh sambhavaat, anyat aahuh asambhavaat; 2) iti shushruma dheeraanaam, ye nah tatvicha-chakshire.

The seed of nature brings one result; the shapes of nature another. We have heard it from the wise, who have clearly explained it.

Readers are requested to read the Sanskrit version of this Upanishad from the site whose link is here:

Conclusion:

Action: Karma: Duty

Karma is to be performed without expecting the fruits of Karma: Niskama Karma.

Jnana: Knowledge: The Truth

The nature of the  Oneness : One Unity is the Ultimate Jnana: True knowledge.

Oneness: It is that, when: 

  • A person does not see as mine or not-mine.
  • No more love and hate for objects
  • No more likes and dislikes.
  • One transcends all pleasure and pain.
  • There is no more Duality of subject and object.
  • The waves and ocean are both seen as water alone.
  • The blazing sparks are not different from the fire producing them.

Rebirth continues until Realization.

Katha Upanishad Mantra-2.3.4 says: If one does not succeed in realizing Him (The Self), before the fall of the Body, then in the worlds of created things, a rebirth for the Body is ordained.

Recommended readings:

  1. Back to the Truth: 5000 years of ADVAITA by Dennis Waite. **
  2. THE TEN PRINCIPAL UPANISHADS: Translated by Shree Purohit** Swami and W.B.Yeats
  3. Isavasya Upanishad for Beginners: By Swami Krishnananda.
  4. Brahma Sutra Bhasya of Sankaracharya: Translated by Swami Gambhirananda.**
  5. Commentary of ChAndogya Upanishad: By Swami Krishnananda.
  6. IshaVasya Upanishad: By Swami GuruBhaktananda.
  7. EIGHT UPANISADS -VOL-1 with commentary of Sankaracharya, Translated by SWAMI GAMBHIRANANDA.
  8. THE TAITTIRIYA UPANISHAD: SHIKSHAVALLI-ANANDAVALLI-BHRIGUVALLI with Sri Shankara’s Commentary By Sri Swami Satchidanandera Saraswati.
  9. A-U-M Awakening to Reality: By Dennis Waite***
  10. Panchadasi: Swami Vidyaranya:
  11. Information available on internet.

∝ζ::  Concluding part will consist Mantra-14 to Mantra-18: Will be published soon!😊🙏🙏❤️

It is my sincere request to the esteemed readers to share their opinion or queries if any. Suggestions to make the site attractive will be incredibly helpful for me. Readers are requested to read all the posts to have continuation of the topic from the beginning. My mail ID is: arun7663@gmail.com

Spark of the Flaming Fire

 

My journey through Books: Part-3 [ A Quantum Touch]

In this post, I will emphasize on my miraculous experiences, which I consider as chances in my favour. This was possible by the effective study and practice of  activating “Power of Subconscious Mind”.

I consider those events as miracles, because I got links and guidance from unseen and invisible Power within. It is as if someone is guiding through several means, continuously, to get whatever is required in the path to progress.

As I mentioned in my previous post that the most important scientific Book helped me was:

” THE BIOLOGY OF BELIEF: 10th Anniversary Edition: Unleashing the Power of Consciousness, Matter & Miracles: Lipton Bruce H.”

What Influenced me while reading the book?

Research made at Stanford University’s School of Medicine by Bruce Lipton revealed that the environment operating through the cell membrane controlled the behaviour and physiology of cells, turning genes on and off.  I was reading the book and at the same time I was watching his series of lectures at different places all over the world. Bruce mentioned in his lectures about Quantum Physics.

Quantum physics says that the world visible to us we believe, is composed of matter, which is nothing but illusion. Everything is Energy. There is no such thing as matter. as such I felt an urge to study ” Quantum Physics” . As you know that by this time, I finished the famous book The Power of your Subconscious Mind”: By Joseph Murphy

Study of Quantum Physics became a necessity for me. 

And Miracle Happened [16/12/2018]!

One fine morning, all on a sudden, one of my senior colleagues, Shri Amar Kanti Pal, came to my residence and suggested me to do ongoing physics course from IIT/KANPUR under the leadership of well known prof H C VERMA. Immediately enrolled first course “Basics of Special Theory of Relativity “.

I am happy to share my certificate here:

I developed immense interest [intense desire] to learn more and more on Subconscious mind, Quantum , Philosophy, life experiences, life cycle, human sufferings, etc. which are all interrelated topics. As a result, I got chance to study further and further from the courses conducted by Indian Institute of Technology. KANPUR.

Another Miracle!

The Second course, the most desired and most important was ” Basics of Quantum Mechanics” which helped me to grasp sacred Texts of Upanishads[ ADVAITA VEDANTA]: 

Initially, I found the course very interesting which started becoming tough later on, but managed with rigorous studies.

Max Planck is said to be father of quantum Mechanics. see what he said :

That is why I consider these studies as chances (as miracles).

Course on Quantum mechanics was highly beneficial for me because, when I was studying ancient Indian philosophy (Advaita Vedanta) , I came across so many writers , speakers, scientists who referred quantum physics, quantum biology for understanding the Reality as mentioned in Vedanta. To some extent understood what the subjects says. 
I noticed that most of the modern writers, pointed towards quantum physics for understanding the Subject/object , Observer/observed, seer/seen related topics mainly when the subject is consciousness. Advaita Vedanta focuses on consciousness which is the cause of this Universe, not the matter. Material realism can no longer be the only ontological explanation for the Universe. Human consciousness can not be ignored.

Classical Physics vs Quantum Physics:

Laws of classical physics [ NEWTONIAN PHYSICS] is based on matters and 3D system which affirms that there is always separation between the KNOWER & KNOWN (object). Classical physics doesn’t work in the study of subatomic particle’s behaviour and thus in the study of life science. Here matter creates Consciousness
Where as Quantum physics works well in the study of subatomic particles which are building blocks of this Universe and basically it’s nature is waves. This quantum mechanics theory suggests to abolish absolute separation between the KNOWN & KNOWER. Here Consciousness creates matter.

In quantum theory, we have seen objects exists in more than one place at the same time like a wave.

Three distinct and major areas of Quantum theory gives bewildering results.

1. Entanglement:

It is connectedness between two objects so intimate that they behave as one, instantly and forever, even if they are separated by the width of galaxies. Double slit experiment clears it’s spookiness. 

2. Complementarity:

As formulated by Niels Bohr, a leading founder of quantum physics, the principle holds that objects can display themselves in one way or another, but not the both. In fact the object does not have an existence in particular location with specific motion. Only the observer’s knowledge and activities cause it to come into existence in some place or with some particular animation. At an instant, an object may be either a wave or a particle, but not the both.

3. Wave function collapse:

This supports that Biocentrism is wave function collapse when we try to measure an object in its subatomic level it’s wave function collapse. At the moment of observation, it takes a definite existence.

According to German physicist MAX BORN (1926),Quantum waves are “waves of probability”, not waves of material.

A wave of Probability is nothing but a likely outcome. Point to be noted here that materials are made of subatomic particles. Subatomic particles behave as wave until OBSEVER tries to measure it. And wave is intangible.
Noble physicist John Wheeler once said” No phenomenon is real phenomenon until it is an observed phenomenon” Above statement is very important in the perspective of Vedanta and Quantum mechanics. There is more to write. May Maybe next time.

And the third course  was “Advanced course on Special theory of Relativity”

" Learning is the only thing the mind never exhaust, never fears, and never regrets" This was stated by Leonardo Da Vinci, who was well known Italian painter, draftsman, sculptor, architect and engineer(1452-1519)."

Thus, I believe very clearly, that our consciousness creates our life experiences. We no longer have to view ourselves as passive, or unable to influence our material circumstances. We are not victims of what’s happening.

My personal experiences made me understand, that our Consciousness creates reality in life as because mind sends signals to the nervous system, which controls genes and that is Epigenetics(Above genes). 

We need to rewrite our Subconscious programmes.

Conclusion:

a) Study of Quantum physics made me believe that Thoughts create Reality!

b) I realised that there is a mechanism where Higher Intelligence works inside our body and mind and it is connected to Universal Mind.

c) Many people have heard about placebo effect. This is a term that is frequently used in modern science to describe how conscious mind creates healing of body thinking positive.

d) All my conscious attention are focused in gaining knowledge [Brahma Vidya]. As such my energy has been invested mostly in learning and sharing. I wish to live my life in a state of love.

It is my sincere request to the esteemed readers to share their opinion or queries if any. Suggestions to make the site attractive will be highly helpful for me. Readers are requested to read all the posts to have continuation of the topic from the beginning. My mail ID is : arun7663@gmail.com

Please read my previous post : Link is here:- “ My journey through Books: Part-2″

My next part will focus on the following Books

 

The Essence of IshaVasya Upanishad- Part-1

Introduction: ईशोपनिषत्

§ The IshaVasya Upanishad is the only one which occurs in the Samhita portion of  Shukla Yajur Veda. It is one of the Ten principal Upanishads. Though,  one of the shortest Upanishads, yet it is loaded with profound thoughts.

§ Isha Upanishad is a smaller one with 18 Mantras. This appears in the final chapter of Shukla Yajurveda. Among Ten Principal Upanishads, this comes in the beginning of the list. Isha means the Lord of the Universe. 

What is Upanishad?

Upanishad is Brahmavidya:

Upanishads are ancient Texts which do not construct any complex system of ideas and beliefs. They are plain and straightforward, yet very difficult to grasp. Require repeated reading and thinking on the context [SRAVANA, MANANA & NIDIDHYASYANA]. This is the science of Mind. Upanishads are instructions of Teachers to disciples through dialog between the two.

Upanishad literally means ” To learn the teachings, sitting rear the Teacher,( or sitting near the feet of Teacher). Upanishad is Brahmavidya [ sacred knowledge]which leads the aspirant towards Brahman who are desirous of liberation. There are 108 Upanishads. Out of 108, Upanishads, Ten Upanishads are regarded as Ten Principal Upanishads. They are: 

  1. IshaVasya Upanishad
  2. Kena Upanishad
  3. Katha Upanishad
  4. Prashna Upanishad
  5. Mundaka Upanishad
  6. Mandukya Upanishad
  7. Taittiriya Upanishad
  8. Aitareya Upanishad
  9. ChAndogya Upanishad
  10. BRRihadAraNyaka Upanishad

In this part we will discuss Isha Upanishad.

Study of this Upanishad will deliver teachings on both ” Jnana Yoga” and  “Karma Yoga”. Aspirants who seek freedom from the bondage of this World will go for ” Jnana Yoga”, where renunciation is the most appropriate path to achieve goal. And ” Karma Yoga” is for the aspirants who are very desirous of attaining highest degree of closeness with GOD, such as achieving “Brahma Loka”.

This Upanishad starts with the Shanti Mantra as below:
ॐ पूर्णमदः पूर्णमिदं पूर्णात् पूर्णमुदच्यते । पूर्णस्य पूर्णमादाय पूर्णमेवावशिष्यते ॥ 
ॐ शांतिः शांतिः शांतिः ॥
Om poornamadah poornamidam poornaat- poornam-Udachayate; Poornasya Poorna-maadaaya Poorna-mevaa-vasishyate. Om Shanti! Shanti! Shanti!

Meaning of this mantra is :   ∞ + ∞  = ∞ 

” That is Whole, this is Whole; from the Whole, the Whole becomes manifest; from the Whole, when the Whole is negated, the Whole alone is what remains”

॥ अथ ईशोपनिषत् ॥

First mantra: The Path of Renunciation:

1) Ishavasyam idam sarvam yat kim ca jagatyam jagat; 2) tena tyaktena bhunjitha, ma gridhah kasyasvid dhanam.

Analysis: The Lord Pervades the World(s)

  1. Whatever exists in this changing Universe is full of the Lord. All this is enveloped by the Supreme being. That supreme reality pervades everything here and there. There is no such place where It is not there. It exists in everything.
  2. Protect the Self by renunciation. Claim nothing; enjoy, do not covet anybody’s property. Let go and rejoice. Be practical. It does not mean giving up.

Though it is believed that possession and acquisition lead to happiness, but possessiveness creates attachment. Attachment brings unhappiness. Renunciation is the path for true happiness. An aspirant who devotes himself or herself entirely to contemplation of the Self as the Lord, has no further need of worldly duties. This renunciation leads to the knowledge of the Self and finds immortality.

Second mantra: “Niskama Karmayoga” is the concept we get from the second mantra.

1) Kurvanneveha karmani jijivisecchatam samah; 
2) evam tvayi nanyatheto'sti na karma lipyate nare.  

Kurvanneveha karmani” means only by doing Karma [ karma means duties]( here karma means all rituals like Agnihotra etc). “jijivisecchatam samah”  means like to live for 100 years. By doing such karma , bad karma will not touch you. It is recommended that such karma should be done with constant selfless attitude. Performing duties without any motive, one will not be bounded to the actions. This path of action is known as ” Pravritti Marga”

Second mantra emphasize on doing our duty as an act for Ishwara ( means His creation) as His agent and not to act for own self, to benefit self. Doing so, live as long as you wish. 100 years of living is just symbolic here.

 All we know that , when we reach at the core of the Consciousness, the Awareness, we find there a stillness in mind which has no conflicts, no disruption in mind. We can then think of a state of ” NO MIND” what we say as ” Chitta Vritti Nirodah” the beginning of Patanjali Yoga Sutras. Here mind is calm, quite and still. In reality that is our true nature. “YOU ARE THAT’ according to ChAndagyo Upanishad. If we can live this way, karmic law can not bind us. “na karma lipyate” Therefore let go and be pleased with what you have and enjoy.

Third Mantra: 

§ The Sunless World: The path of sufferings:

1) Asurya nama te loka andhena tamasavrtah; 2) tamste pretyabhigacchanti ye ke cat mahano janah.

They that deny the Self, return after death to a godless birth, blind, enveloped in darkness. [ These births partake of the nature of Asuras, the demons”)

The third Mantra says about the darkness which has to be understood in depth. This is the world of demons filled with demoniac wealth. Asurya = a + surya: means where Sun is not there. This literally means that there is only darkness in that world. There is no light there. This darkness is meant for ignorance. Light of Wisdom shines this darkness. 

The Upanishad says this world of  darkness [ Asurya loka] as world of a) Spiritual Blindness, b) Spiritual darkness, c) Spiritual ignorance and engaging in the deeds that kill the awareness. Such darkness keeps away from the freedom of the Eternal, Immortal, Divine Self.

Here lokas are referred to those dimensions, also known as astral planes, where births takes place according to fruits of karma which are enjoyed “lokyante”. Ignorance which block the realization of one’s true nature of Self, thereby becomes the cause for repeated births according to the deeds. ” ye ke catmahano janah” : This means that those who do not know atman due to ignorance are slayers of atman(atmahanah). And for this fault of slaying atman they return to Samsara( this world).

Q) What causes rebirth? 

Answer: So long you are away from knowing your true self, you yourself is the cause of your rebirth.

 Fourth Mantra: Nature of the Self(Atman)

 1) anejadekam manaso javiyo nainaddeva apnuvanpurvamarsat ; 2) tad dhavatah anyan-atyeti tisthat tasminnapah matarisva dadhaati.

§ Unmoving, it moves swifter than thought. Remaining still, It outstrips all that run.

The Self is One. Unmoving, it moves faster than mind. The senses (Devas) lag, but Self runs ahead. Unmoving, it outruns pursuit. Out of Self comes the breath, that is the life of all things. In It, as Water by the Air, all action of all living beings are supported.

Analysis:-

This Self, the Absolute Truth, the Awareness, Infinite, Immortal, Omnipresent, indescribable, known as Brahman in Vedas is without attributes and beyond Space and Time. This Self is truly ONE, the WHOLE and therefore all-embracing.

This is to be understood that there is a centre which is not fixed in one place but it moves. Everything moves, such as this Universe is expanding. Galaxies are going far away from one another. Subatomic particles, electrons move. Mind moves. Everything moves but One remain unmoving and that is Awareness.

This Self is beyond the senses, beyond the understanding, beyond all expression. It is pure Awareness[ NIRGUNA BRAHMAN]. It is BLISS. It is ONE without SECOND. Know it Alone!

The Devas represent the mind and senses. The ignorant mind, not aware of who the Self is, tries to catch It, through different paths, different knowledge, but never succeeds. The Self, as it were, is always ahead of the mind. 

All the objects are perceived through five senses. We have limitations of perceptions. These five senses are five instruments. The Brain system processes data inputs received through these five instruments. There are creatures, whose instruments are different from us. Whether it be vision or hearing or sensing through skin etc. As like in case of snakes, which can sense 0.02 degree of difference in temperature. Similarly there are examples in case of audible sound frequencies. For vision too there are different creatures with different abilities. Therefore different impressions, and different perceptions work. Nothing is impossible. so, the interpretation of existence is quite relative according to difference in perceptions.

Essence of existence (SAT) is that It is all pervading. If we can activate the core of everything, that is Consciousness, then we can perceive some extra, more than what is ordinary. For that we must remove avidya (ignorance). We have to search for extra which can not be perceived through sense organs. That is known as “seeking the truth”. 

So nearer yet far away. For that we have to realize that : I am not separate from the Truth, the Existence(sat), the Consciousness(chit). I am the Consciousness. I am aware that I am pure Consciousness. Pure Consciousness is that Consciousness, where there is no thought.

Fifth Mantra:

§ The Self appears to move-yet It moves not. It is far distant-yet It is near. It is within all, and It is without all.

1) tat ejati tat na ejati tat doore tat u antike, 2) tat antarasya sarvasya tat u sarvasyasya bahyatah.

1) The meaning of the mantra in this part is that: the Atman moves and yet It moves not; It is far away and yet is near. 2) The second part of the mantra says: It is within all of this; and yet It is also outside of all this.

Analysis:

The Self is beyond all mental concepts. far and near, within and outside, moving and unmoving – all these are concepts of mind with respect to space and time. Mind tells us that we can not catch the Self. The mind and the Self are in two different realms of reality. But let us look into the pictures given below: 

This is how ONE became many.

 Sixth Mantra: The Jnani- Seer of the Self:

1) yas tu sarvani bhutani aatmani eva anupashyati 2) sarva bhutesu ca aatmanam tatah na vijugupsate.

1) He who sees all beings and forms in the Self, he alone really sees. 2) He also sees the Self in all beings and forms, there after he feels no hatred towards anyone.

Analysis: Everything in the creation is Atman:

The sixth mantra says that seeing all beings in the Lord, means as being superimposed on the Lord and seeing the Lord in all beings means as the substratum of all beings. God- realization ceases the existence of individuality and creates Universality. Sarvatma Bhava must be the feelings for equality. This is the true essence of God-realization. This will ensure the absence of all ill feelings in human. We should see the Virat [jagat] as our own Atman. There should be neither Raga nor Dvesa, nor the feelings of exhilaration nor grieving. When one has such an integrated vision of life, it becomes impossible to hate any being. Dislike and hatred only come when we see others as different from us.

Seventh Mantra: Freedom from Delusion and sorrow:

1) yasmin sarvani bhutany atmaivabhud vijanata 2) tatra ko mohah kahsoka hekatvam anupasyatah.

1) When all beings and forms have become one in his own Self-knowing thus; 2) how can he feel delusion and grief thereafter, who sees oneness (Non-Duality) alone everywhere.

Analysis:

When the feeling of Oneness will be permanent, the person will not consider any event or object as his or her. The thinking of mine or not mine will vanish. There will be equality in all spheres of life under all circumstances. One transcends all pain and pleasures. Then there will be no more duality of subject and object. No more experiencer, experiencing and experienced. As in an ocean, the waves are not separate from ocean. Arises in the ocean and merge there itself.

Conclusion:

Reward of Realisation: The Birth of Universal Love

When we realise the Text so far discussed above, we will be to establish an World free of Hate. The vision of Unity will prevail then. Universal Love will be seen everywhere. The experience of Oneness with all beings comes as a result of the highest knowledge by discovering the true nature of Self.

Readers are requested to read the Sanskrit version of this Upanishad from the site whose link is here:

Recommended readings:
  1. Back to the Truth: 5000 years of ADVAITA by Dennis Waite. **
  2. THE TEN PRINCIPAL UPANISHADS: Translated by Shree Purohit** Swami and W.B.Yeats
  3. Isavasya Upanishad for Beginners: By Swami Krishnananda.
  4. Brahma Sutra Bhasya of Sankaracharya: Translated by Swami Gambhirananda.**
  5. Commentary of ChAndogya Upanishad: By Swami Krishnananda.
  6. IshaVasya Upanishad: By Swami GuruBhaktananda.
  7. EIGHT UPANISADS -VOL-1 with commentary of Sankaracharya, Translated by SWAMI GAMBHIRANANDA.
  8. THE TAITTIRIYA UPANISHAD: SHIKSHAVALLI-ANANDAVALLI-BHRIGUVALLI with Sri Shankara’s Commentary By Sri Swami Satchidanandera Saraswati.
  9. A-U-M Awakening to Reality: By Dennis Waite***
  10. Panchadasi: Swami Vidyaranya:
  11. Information available on internet.

It is my sincere request to the esteemed readers to share their opinion or queries if any. Suggestions to make the site attractive will be incredibly helpful for me. Readers are requested to read all the posts to have continuation of the topic from the beginning. My mail ID is: arun7663@gmail.com

 

Happy Mother’s Day: 2022: O Mother, salutations to your feet.

Happy Mother’s day to all Mothers of this Universe. 

Devi is Mother! Universal Mother! 

English literal meaning of the above mantra is this: ” To that Devi Who in All beings is abiding in the form of Mother, Salutations to Her. Salutations to Her, Salutations again and again.”

I bow down and surrender myself  to you, O’ Devi, The Universal Mother! 🙏🙏🙏

Today, on the occasion of Mother’s day I am going to share one Text written by Adi Shankaracharya    “Matripanchakam”

But, before that I must share a story on Adi Sankaracharya and his mother Aryamba. Shankaracharya got his primary education from his mother as he lost his father Sivaguru.  when he was just 7 years old. Mother Aryamba played a key role in teaching Vedas and Upanishads to the young Shankara.

Without going into details about Shankaracharya, I would like to share one significant event here.

From the early childhood Shankara was very keen on becoming a monk. His mother opposed this idea of Shankara on becoming a monk. However Shankara had firm determination on becoming a monk.  One day Shankara accompanied his mother to a nearby river and took a plunge into the river. Suddenly, a crocodile appeared from beneath the river and caught hold of his leg. Shankara then cried out to his  mother for help. His mother saw that crocodile was pulling his son into the river. His mother also felt  helpless. Shankara then urged her to allow him to die as monk. As soon as his mother gave her a consent, the crocodile spared his life and went back to the river. Shankara was saved miraculously. After that he began his journey to become a monk after his mother gave him permission with one condition that he would be present during her death and follow all the rituals that are recommended in shastras.

Shankaracharya promised his mother that he would be present during her death and follow all the rituals

At the age of 12 he left home. Once, when Adi Shankaracharya was in the North India, he intuitively came to know that his mother is sick and death is near. Upon realization, that his mother has limited time in this world, he walked all the way back to his native Village : Kaladi, Kerala, India. He stayed for few days beside his mother’s death bed. Finally she died and Adi Shankaracharya went back to Himalaya. 

Adi Shankara expounded the doctrine of Advaita Vedanta. He advocated the ancient concept of Hinduism which explains the unification of Atman and Brahman. He started his writing his own analysis on Upanishads, Brahma sutra, Bhagavad Gita and other sacred Texts. ” Matripanchakam” is one among them.

Following Five verses are believed to be composed by Adi Shankaracharya on the death of his mother.

1)The unbearable pain endured by her at the time of delivery, the lack-lustre feeling and the emaciation of the body during pregnancy, the year-long sharing of the bed dirtied by the baby, none of these sufferings borne by the mother because of pregnancy can be compensated in the least by a son, however great he may be. Salutations to that mother.

2) Having dreamt of me as clad in the robes of an ascetic, she rushed to the gurukula where i was studying and wept aloud. The entire gurukulam also wept with her at once. O mother, salutations to your feet.

3) O mother, I did not give you even water at the time of death. I am barred from performing the prescribed religious rites for you on your death anniversary. O mother I could not taraka mantra for you at the time of death. O mother, bestow your incomparable compassion on me who was late in coming.

4) When you fondled me as a child these affectionate words came out of your mouth: “You are a jewel, you are my eyes, O my dear one, my son, may you live long!” To that mouth I am now giving these dry grains!

5) O mother, who at the time of delivery cried aloud in pain, ” O mother, O father, O Lord Shiva, O Krishna, O Govinda, O Hari, O Mukunda”, I offer this obeisance to you.

The Sanskrit document can be read at this site: Link is here. https://sanskritdocuments.org/doc_z_misc_shankara/maatri5.html

Salutation to the Divine Mother!

Ancient Hindu Scriptures expound a reverence for the Divine Mother. The 10th Chapter of Rigveda, known as Devi Sukta [ Hymn on Goddess] says:


I am the Queen, the gatherer-up of treasures, most thoughtful, first of those who merit worship.

Thus, gods have established me in many places with many homes to enter and abide in.
Through me alone all eat the food that feeds them, -each man who sees, breathes, hears the word outspoken.

They know it not, yet I reside in the essence of the Universe. Hear, one and all, the truth as I declare it.
I, verily, myself announce and utter the word that gods and men alike shall welcome.

I make the man I love exceeding mighty, make him nourished, a sage, and one who knows Brahman.

I bend the bow for Rudra [ Shiva], that his arrow may strike, and slay the hater of devotion.
I rouse and order battle for the people, I created Earth and Heaven and reside as their Inner Controller.
On the world’s summit I bring for the sky the Father: my home is in the waters, in the Ocean as Mother.

Thence I pervade all existing creatures, as their Inner Supreme Self, and manifest them with my Body.

I created all worlds at my will, without any higher Being, and permeate and dwell within them.
The eternal and Infinite Consciousness is I; it is my greatness dwelling in everything.
                                      ——- Devi Sukta: Rig Veda: 10.125.3 – 10.125.8.

Conclusion: Without mother there can not be a father.

YOU ARE MOTHER!!!

Published in your name, O’ my Mother! I love YOU.

It is my sincere request to the esteemed readers to share their opinion or queries if any. Suggestions to make the site attractive will be highly helpful for me. Readers are requested to read all the posts to have continuation of the topic from the beginning. My mail ID is : arun7663@gmail.com

Jesus Loves Us: A Good Friday Message:

HE is the innermost reality, and you have an innermost relationship with Him. HE is your Eternal Father, Eternal Mother, Eternal Friend, Eternal Companion. All worldly relationships are intended to devlop within you and this is Awareness which is the One and the only One, and that is GOD.

Photo by MART PRODUCTION on Pexels.com

St. Paul said:

This is what lord Jesus Christ has demonstrated by undergoing crucifixion. It is one of the gloomiest days in the human history, yet it is called “GOOD FRIDAY” because on this day Lord Jesus Christ showed that death cannot touch the Spirit. Death is for the body, not for the Divine Spirit that is ever shining within. 

Jesus Christ did not try to defend himself. He did not try to save himself, but he sacrificed His life so that human beings can find the way to immortality.

The Grace of the Lord is ever ready to descend upon you. Just open the door.

We must believe that we not only belong to this physical Universe, but we are ever with The  Supreme  Spirit that pervades the whole Universe. Just as a wave exists in the ocean, similarly we exists in the Supreme Spirit beyond time and Space.

The Pure Consciousness which is Self shining, upholds this Universe. Let us realize that, our unity with the Supreme Spirit is the ultimate truth. A person who realizes his or her unity with the Divine being sees no Death, Death is meant for the Body which is perishable. 

This is why Lord Jesus Christ did not resist. He knew that one Soul dwells in all beings. So He said: ” Resist not Evil. Return good for Evil. Love your enemies. Bless those who curse you. Do good to them who hate you. Pray for them who despitefully use you and persecute you.”  [ Matthew: 5.39 ]

That is the message Jesus Christ has given to the mankind. He has exemplified by His crucifixion. This cross is the symbol of love and forgiveness.

Hear me, O children of Immortal Bliss, those that dwell in this Universe, those that dwell in the worlds beyond, hear me; I have realized that Supreme Being, the Self-effulgent One, beyond all darkness, resplendent like the glorious SUN. By knowing HIM alone, one goes beyond death. There is no other way out of Death. [Svetaswar Upanishad. II:5; III:8]

Photo by Felipe Balduino on Pexels.com

No Eye can see Him, nor has He a face to be seen:

His Form does not exist within the range of vision; none can behold Him with eyes(senses). But, through Meditation, by controlling the mind with the Intellect, He can be found in the Feart (By intuition is He revealed ).Those who know this become Immortal. [ Katha Upanishad: Mantra-2.3.9:]

Published in your name, my Lord. I love YOU.

It is my sincere request to the esteemed readers to share their opinion or queries if any. Suggestions to make the site attractive will be highly helpful for me. Readers are requested to read all the posts to have continuation of the topic from the beginning. My mail ID is : arun7663@gmail.com

Awareness: The Ultimate Truth

Introduction:
Awareness: IT is That which is Absolute, fills all space, is complete in Itself, to which there is no second and which is continuously present in everything, in every being and everywhere. It is homogeneous in nature. It is known as “Brahman in Vedanta”

Awareness is pure Consciousness.

There is no full proof scientific definition of Awareness in general . However, according to Advaita Vedanta philosophy, Reality is identified as “Brahman” . Brahman is identified as singular in nature, identical to the Self and known as Pure Being (Sat) , Awareness (Chit) and Bliss (Ananda). The visible world(Matter) is considered to be illusory (Maya~ Mithya). Bhagavad Gita says: Awareness is one and undivided in all beings , but it appears to be divided, when shinning through many bodies and minds. [ Ch-13: 16-18.]

Awareness is that, in which all experiences appear. It is that with which all experiences are made.

The common name is “I ” or “Self”. According to Vedas (Sacred Texts of ancient India), Brahman is Infinite being. All these refer to “THAT” in which experience appears. With which it is known and out of which it is made. Conventional view is that our thoughts and feelings, perceptions appear in ourselves through awareness.

Please read the following Paragraph carefully:

If we observe carefully, we will see these thoughts appear in some kind of Field. They appear in that space. Consciousness is not though a space but say a field or space like. Now may we close our eyes and allow our thoughts to move freely wherever it goes according to previous experiences. Think for a moment. It can be observed minutely. Does my attention ever leave the field of Awareness? Thoughts inside “I AM” and sound outside “I AM” are not separate. They are linked. Allow our attention to go wherever it goes and have a single question. Does ever my attention leave the Awareness? Try to leave the field out. Imagine out of box now, such as that experience which you have not experienced earlier. or remember that you landed on the Mars. New sets of perceptions appear. Now, are these new perceptions inside Awareness or outside Awareness? Is there any feeling, perceptions outside Awareness? Can we leave our Awareness where there is no feeling?

Simply and clearly nobody has ever come in contact with any experience outside of Awareness. Strangely our entire world culture is founded on a single belief . According to Science, there is a substance which exists outside Awareness and that substance is Matter. Matter is the fundamental reality of all existence. Classical physics, reductionists and science at least believe this that Consciousness is derived from Matter. This is the primary assumption as a whole. Since the invention of matter, scientists are saying that Awareness is product of Matter.

Now question arises. Q-1) What is the nature of Universe? Q-2) How Awareness can be derived from matter? Both are contradictory. For question no. 1): Science do not ever acknowledge that we have answer. For question no. 2): How is Awareness derived from Matter (from brain arises consciousness…but brain is matter). We presumed that the stuff called matter is Universe and then we ask how Awareness derived from matter. Now, the question is how the Universe has come up?

Awareness is our experience.

Now therefore, Awareness is our subject to be known, the field of study. We are aware of what we have experienced. What is the nature of that knowing that is more important. Until we know the nature of knowing with which our experience is known, or until we know the nature of the Awareness where our experience appears we cannot know anything that is true about the body, mind and beyond.

We must first know what the nature of Awareness is?

Now if we ask ourselves ” Am I aware”? Then comes the answer “yes”. There is some gap between two thoughts. What happens is that after putting the first question “Am I aware” question makes some pause and ask the system to get the reply and there it collapses and reply the answer “yes”. During this gap of time, awareness tests itself momentarily. In the pause between the question, I am aware that I am aware. Awareness knows itself. That is the pause and it is Awareness itself who replies yes I am aware. I AM AWARE THAT I AM AWARE.

“No mind” : What is it?

Think of that which is not objective and see.

Awareness recognizes its own Being. Only awareness knows that it is awareness. No mind is the answer. Although thought is made of awareness only, yet it cannot know the stuff it is made of. Awareness is a field which is aware that it is a field adding a space like quality. It is empty from the point of view of objective. It is free from objective. It is like a screen of awareness where all the experiences appear. There is single Awareness (NON DUAL).

Awareness is fundamental:

We can say it is Universal Consciousness. It has no border, it has no shape, no form, not distinguishable, the single infinite, indivisible entity(The whole, the ONE).

Now, imagine a scene of dream. Dream breaks, then what remains in mind? What was in dream? Where is the scene seen? Seen by whom?

In the study of Awareness , there is a break through by Upanishads: NON-DUAL VEDANTA (ADVAITA VEDANTA). It is not about mystical experiences too. It is about daily experiences like awaking , dreaming and deep sleep. Now let us apply some logical thoughts and investigate.

Vedanta is an investigation to find out who or what we are? When we will realize that we are not limited to this body of flesh and blood, but we are immortal Awareness.

It is a journey from not knowing to knowing. There are methodologies to understand, to establish logics. We may refer the text “DIG DRISHYA VIVEKA which has been written some 700 years back.

  • We see the world through eyes. Eyes are distinct from what it sees. Here, eyes are the seer.
  • I am aware of the eyes , that eyes are object. Mind is seer and eyes are now object. Eyes and mind are separate.

Let us think deeply. Mind is the observer of the body , because it observes through all sense organs. it is seer here. Let us observe Mind now. Mind itself which constitutes our thoughts, feeling ,emotions , ideas are changing, which are never static. I am aware that whether,

  • I am happy or not.
  • I understand or do not understand.
  • I like or do not like.
  • I love or do not love.
  • I hate or do not hate.
  • I am angry or not angry.

All above are expressions of our mind. These are wave of thoughts. So, I am aware of all the changes in my mind. Therefore, I am the witness of the mind. Hence mind is seen by Me. Evidently , I am distinct from the MIND. I am not the mind, but witness of the mind. Seer and seen are different. I am that who illumines my MIND.

Now that I am distinct from this Body and Mind . So, Who Am I?

Answer is :– I Am the Awareness. I Am the Witness of the Body and Mind. This Self, this pure Subject, is not an object. It cannot be known. I AM always Awareness, not something else.

Conclusion:

The knowing of consciousness with which we experience, cannot be divided into parts. Trace the “I” to its origin after removing all experiences to the essence of nature of our minds, we will land into same Consciousness. Our finite minds overlap, and we call that the outside world and part of minds which do not overlap, we call it that thoughts and feelings. Our minds are the elements of the Universal consciousness. We do share the world of same Consciousness.

List of Books : Recommended For Interested Readers:

  1. Thought As a System: By DAVID BOHM
  2. BIOCENTRISM:– How life and consciousness are the keys to Understanding the True Nature of The Universe: By Robert Lanza, MD with BOB BERMAN
  3. Beyond Biocentrism- Rethinking Time, Space, Consciousness and the illusion of Death. By Robert Lanza, MD with BOB BERMAN
  4. Entangled Minds- Extra Sensory Experiences in A Quantum Reality. By DEAN RADIN.
  5. Expand Your Consciousness through DAVID K MILLER
  6. QUANTUM ENIGMA -Physics Encounter Consciousness: By Bruce Rosen Blum and Fred Kuttner.
  7. Back to the Truth: 5000 years of ADVAITA by Dennis Waite.**
  8. THE TEN PRINCIPAL UPANISHADS: Translated by Shree Purohit** Swami and W.B.Yeats
  9. Brahma Sutra Bhasya of Sankaracharya: Translated by Swami Gambhirananda.**
  10. EIGHT UPANISADS -VOL-1 with commentary of Sankaracharya, Translated by SWAMI GAMBHIRANANDA.
  11. A-U-M Awakening to Reality : By Dennis Waite***
  12. Panchadasi: Swami Vidyaranya:
  13. Information available on internet.

It is my sincere request to the esteemed readers to share their opinion or queries if any. Suggestions to make the site attractive will be highly helpful for me. Readers are requested to read all the posts to have continuation of the topic from the beginning. My mail ID is : arun7663@gmail.com

Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-8C

Introduction: Eighth Chapter:

The ChAndogya Upanishad is part of ChAndogya Brahmana of the Sama Veda which is one of the largest important Upanishads with Eight Chapters (Prapathakas) with many Mantras(verses )including some stories as themes to gain Upanishadic knowledge. This Upanishad is placed in the 9th position in the list of Ten Principal Upanishads. The name of the Upanishad is derived from the word   “Chanda” (Rhythm~ poetic meter).

**This Upanishad directly deals with the true nature of Brahman, the Supreme Self, without a Second.

*Self is Atman; Atman is Brahman*

ChAndogya Upanishad consists of Eight chapters. The first five chapters forms the part of Karma Kanda[ rituals] and Upasana Kanda [worship and meditation]. Chapter- 6, 7 and 8 form the part of Jnana Kanda[profound Self-knowledge].

The essence of the Teaching is: – “Brahma Vidya”

Brahma Vidya: It is the knowledge of the ultimate Truth which results in Self realisation. The knower of this Truth remains untouched by any situation in life.

This chapter is especially intended for those who are unable to grasp the vastness of “Absolute”, the subject like Bhoomaa Vidya (Infinity), taught in the previous chapter. Though this chapter confines itself to the Heart of an individual, but that does not limit itself to the body of an individual. The heart here mentioned is used as symbol as the centre of the pure subjectivity in us and therefore heart refers to consciousness, which is apparently located within the walls of the body, but never limited to physical body.

A) Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-8A: Section-1 to Section-3  has been published. Here is the link.

B) Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-8B: Section-4 to Section-6  has been published. Here is the link.

A request to my readers: Please read my previous posts on ChAndogya Upanishad, especially 6th & 7th chapter. Links are given below:

  1. Chapter Six: Section-1 to Section-4(Khanda-1 to Khanda-4). The link is here:  Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-6A of 6
  2. Chapter Six: Section-5 to Section-8(Khanda-5 to Khanda-8). The link is here: Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-6B of 6
  3. Chapter Six: Section-9 to Section-16(Khanda-9 to Khanda-16). The link is here: Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-6C of 6[END OF 6TH CHAPTER]
  4. Chapter-7 : Section-1 to Section-6 has been discussed. The link is here:- Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-7A
  5. Chapter-7 : Section-7 to Section-12 has been discussed. The link is here:- Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-7B
  6. Chapter-7 : Section-13 to Section-22: The link is here:- Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-7C
  7. Chapter-7 : Section-23 to Section-27: The link is here:- Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-7D[FINAL PART]

This post is part-3[8C] from 8th Chapter of ChAndagyo Upanishad. Section-7 to Section-11 will be discussed here. 

Section-7 [Four Mantras]: 

Prajapati’s Instruction to Indra on the Real Self:

In this section we will concentrate on stages of Consciousness. In  Mandukya Upanishad we have seen three conditions of Self waking, dreaming and deep sleep.

On one occasion, Prajapati made an announcement in his celestial assembly hall. The gods and the demons both were present there and both heard the proclamation. He proclaimed the great Truth. The announcement made is as below:

Mantra-1: Prajapati said: ‘The Self is free from sin, free from old age, free from death, free from sorrow, and free from hunger and thirst. It is the cause of desire for Truth and for commitment to Truth. This Self has to be sought for and thoroughly known. The person who has sought for and known the Self attains all worlds and all desires’.

Mantra-2:  Both the gods and the demons came to know from people what Prajapati had said. They said: ‘ We shall search for the Self, by knowing which we can attain all the worlds and whatever things we desire.’  With this object in view, Indra among the gods and Virochana among the demons went to Prajapati, carrying fuel in their hands. But they did not let each other know their plans.

Mantra-3: Both of them spent 32 years with Prajapati by maintaining Brahmacharins (Austerities). One day Prajapati asked them: ‘For what purpose you are here?’ They replied: “The Self is free from sin, free from old age, free from death, free from sorrow, and free from hunger and thirst. It is the cause of desire for Truth and for commitment to Truth. This Self has to be sought for and thoroughly known. The person who has sought for and known the Self attains all worlds and all desires-Sir this is you message. We hope to attain that Self and therefore stay.’

Mantra-4: Prajapati said those two: ‘ That which is seen in the eyes is the Self.’ He also said: “This Self is immortal and fearless. It is Brahman.’ Then they asked: ‘Lord, we see something when we look in water and again when we look in a mirror. Which is it?’ Prajapati replied: “The Self is seen in all these’.

Section-8 [Five Mantras]: 

Mantra-1: Prajapati said: ‘Look at yourself in a bowl of water, come again if you do not understand the Self. They looked into the bowl of water. Prajapati said: ‘What did you see there?’ They said: ‘ We saw ourselves, our doubles; even with our hair and nails’.

Mantra-2: Prajapati said: ‘ Shave, put on fine clothes, fine jewels, look into water again.’ They did accordingly. Prajapati said: ‘ what did you see?’

Mantra-3: They said: ‘Lord! We saw ourselves shaven, dressed, adorned. ‘Prajapati said: ‘ That is Self. That is unalarmed, immortal Self.’ They both went away satisfied.

Mantra-4: Seeing them leave, Prajapati said to himself: ‘ They are going  without finding the Self, without knowing the Self. Who follows their philosophy, whether godly or godless perishes. Virochana, the king of the demons, went back to the demons happy in mind and explained to them the Upanishad.

Mantra-5: This is why in this world even today people say, ‘Oh, he is demon,’ if that person is devoid of the feeling of charity, is called godless; for that is the philosophy of godless. When a person dies, they decorate the body with all kinds of offerings, new clothes, and jewellery, for they think that by this, the person will conquer the other world.

In this section the teachings emphasize on the fact that there are some people who pays least importance in self-discipline. Such people are primarily interested in pleasures perceived by senses only. They do not believe in the higher knowledge. They do not care for humanity, charity. No faith in GOD. Busy in doing misdeeds to meet requirements of self only. The body is everything to them. Therefore, they believe in decorating a dead man with the hope that they will be treated same in the next world. This was the practice adopted in ancient Egypt. According to Vedanta philosophy, the Self is not the body. Body decays and perishes, but the Self never. Body must be given due importance such that Prana makes the body animating and body can perform all works that are needed to sustain life.

Section-9 [Three Mantras]: 

Mantra-1: Before reaching to the gods with the Teachings received from Prajapati, Indra thought himself that the reflection is well decorated when the body is decorated. When the body is in fine clothes, the reflection is also in fine clothes. When the body is neat and clean, the Self is also neat and clean. Again, suppose a person is blind, then the Self  is blind. If the body is lame, so will be the Self. If the body is crippled, Self would be crippled. If the body is dead, Self would be dead. But Self is never dead. Therefore, Indra felt inadequacy in the teaching.

Virochana was happy with the teachings. He went back without any doubt and explained everything he understood to the demons. Virochana taught that the Body was the Self, since he understood the teachings according to his own level, his own nature. But Indra was a god with higher intellect and spiritual qualities. Indra remembered what Prajapati said about the Self in the beginning. Prajapati said:The Self is free from sin, free from old age, free from death, free from sorrow, and free from hunger and thirst. It is the cause of desire for Truth and for commitment to Truth”. Therefore, Indra returned back to Prajapati to learn about True Self.

Mantra-2: Indra went back to Prajapati with folded hands. Prajapati said: Indra! you went away with Virochana, perfectly satisfied. What brings you back? Indra replied: when the body is adorned, so is its reflection. When the body is in fine clothes, the reflection is also in fine clothes. When the body is neat and clean, the Self is also neat and clean. Again, suppose a person is blind, then the Self  is blind. If the body is lame, so will be the Self. If the body is crippled, Self would be crippled. If the body is dead, Self would be dead. Therefore, I do not see good in this.

Mantra-3: Prajapati said: Indra! This bodily Self is like that. Stay for another thirty-two years, I will explain more. Indra stayed for another thirty-two years.

In the next section, Indra is introduced into an experience which is not conditioned by the characters of the physical body.

Section-10 [Four Mantras]: The Self in Dreaming state.

Mantra-1: Prajapati said: ” That which you see in the dreaming state, is the Self. That is Brahman, about which I am going to explain you. That Being which rejoices and is happy in the state of dream is the Self, which is fearless and Immortal. Indra then left satisfied. But even before returning to gods, a doubt arose in his mind. He thought: ” A person may be blind, but when he is dreaming, he is not blind. He may be lame, but when he is dreaming, he is not lame. There may be some defects in his body, but his dream body is not affected by them.

Mantra-2: Self is not killed when the body is killed. He is not crippled when the body is crippled, yet he is killed and chased in dreams. It may seem as if there is something unpleasant. He may even seem to be weeping. I see nothing good in this.

Mantra-3: Indra went back to Prajapati with folded hands. Prajapati said: Indra! you went away with Virochana, perfectly satisfied. What brings you back? Indra replied: “Lord, a person may be blind, but when he is dreaming, he is not blind. He may be lame, but when he is dreaming, he is not lame. There may be some defects in his body, but his dream body is not affected by them.

Mantra-4: Self is not killed when the body is killed. He is not crippled when the body is crippled, yet he is killed and chased in dreams. It may seem as if there is something unpleasant. He may even seem to be weeping. I see nothing good in this. Prajapati said: Indra! This bodily Self is like that. Stay for another thirty-two years, I will explain more. Indra stayed for another thirty-two years.

Section-11 [Three Mantras]:

The Self in Deep sleep:

Mantra-1: Prajapati said: ” When the man is sleeping, at peace with himself, happy, without dream, then that is Self. It is immortal and fearless”.  Indra went away satisfied, but before reaching to the gods, he found inadequacy in teaching. He thought within himself: Man in his sleep does not even recognise that he is Self; neither does he know any other creatures around it. It is like complete annihilation, as it were. How could this be Self? That which does not know its own Self , can not be Self.

Mantra-2: Indra again went back to Prajapati with folded hands.                    Prajapati asked: ‘Indra you went satisfied, what brings you back? Indra replied, “Revered Sir, indeed in deep sleep, this one does not know Himself as “I am He”, neither does he know any creatures. He is lost. I see no good in this.

Mantra-3: Prajapati said; ‘ Indra! you are right; yet where else you can find the Self? Stay for five years more; i will explain more. Indra stayed accordingly. That makes one hundred and one years and so with regard to that people say thus, ” Verily, foe one hundred and one years Indra lived with Prajapati, the disciplined life of a celibate student of sacred knowledge.” Then Prajapati said to him: —

                                                                           …to continue

Next part will be final part : section-12 to section-15 will be published soon.

Conclusion:

One hundred and one years of austerity was performed by Indra in the abode of Prajapati to acquire Supreme knowledge. Even now people say that lord Indra, such a powerful person with such a brilliant intellect, had to live a life of tremendous austerity for 101 years for the sake of this “Brahma Vidya”, knowledge of Atman.

So, one hundred and one years of tapas did Indra perform in the abode of Prajapati for the sake of this Supreme Knowledge. Even now people say: “Indra, such a powerful person with such a brilliant intellect, had to live a life of tremendous austerity for one hundred and one years for the sake of this Atman knowledge!”

Readers are requested to know more on “deep sleep” from my blog post on maNDukya Upanishad. Mantra-2 is most important which is given below:

Mantra 2:  (Mandukya Upanishad): All this is verily Brahman. (ब्रह्मायमात्मा ब्रह्म) ” Ayam atma Brahma” There is nothing that is not Brahman. The Personal Self is the impersonal Brahman. (सोऽयमात्मा चतुष्पात् ) It has four aspects (states), also known as four quarters.

Ayam atma Brahma” is one of the four mahaVakyas from four Vedas. It signifies the realization that who I am really is that same Brahman. The word “chatuShpad” (चतुष्पात् )refers to the four aspects of Consciousness. Three states of Consciousness: 1) Waking[GROSS], 2) Dreaming [SUBTLE] and 3) Deep Sleep [CAUSAL]. Fourth is the Reality which is the Background of all states. Details to be known from the following verses.

The link for reading text in Sanskrit is here:-   Chandgoya Upanishad 

Recommended readings:

  1. Back to the Truth: 5000 years of ADVAITA by Dennis Waite. **
  2. THE TEN PRINCIPAL UPANISHADS: Translated by Shree Purohit** Swami and W.B.Yeats
  3. Brahma Sutra Bhasya of Sankaracharya: Translated by Swami Gambhirananda.**
  4. Commentary of ChAndogya Upanishad: By Swami Krishnananda.
  5. ChAndogya Upanishad: By Swami GuruBhaktananda.
  6. ChAndogya Upanishad: Translated by Swami Gambhirananda.
  7. EIGHT UPANISADS -VOL-1 with commentary of Sankaracharya, Translated by SWAMI GAMBHIRANANDA.
  8. THE TAITTIRIYA UPANISHAD: SHIKSHAVALLI-ANANDAVALLI-BHRIGUVALLI with Sri Shankara’s Commentary By Sri Swami Satchidanandera Saraswati.
  9. A-U-M Awakening to Reality: By Dennis Waite***
  10. Panchadasi: Swami Vidyaranya:
  11. Information available on internet.

It is my sincere request to the esteemed readers to share their opinion or queries if any. Suggestions to make the site attractive will be incredibly helpful for me. Readers are requested to read all the posts to have continuation of the topic from the beginning. My mail ID is: arun7663@gmail.com

 

Happy Women’s Day: 2022!

Happy Women’s day to all women of this world. My best regards to you! 🙏🙏🙏

Ancient Hindu Scriptures expound a reverence for the feminine. The 10th Chapter of Rigveda, known as Devi Sukta [ Hymn on Goddess] says:


I am the Queen, the gatherer-up of treasures, most thoughtful, first of those who merit worship.

Thus, gods have established me in many places with many homes to enter and abide in.
Through me alone all eat the food that feeds them, -each man who sees, breathes, hears the word outspoken.

They know it not, yet I reside in the essence of the Universe. Hear, one and all, the truth as I declare it.
I, verily, myself announce and utter the word that gods and men alike shall welcome.

I make the man I love exceeding mighty, make him nourished, a sage, and one who knows Brahman.

I bend the bow for Rudra [ Shiva], that his arrow may strike, and slay the hater of devotion.
I rouse and order battle for the people, I created Earth and Heaven and reside as their Inner Controller.
On the world’s summit I bring for the sky the Father: my home is in the waters, in the Ocean as Mother.

Thence I pervade all existing creatures, as their Inner Supreme Self, and manifest them with my Body.

I created all worlds at my will, without any higher Being, and permeate and dwell within them.
The eternal and Infinite Consciousness is I; it is my greatness dwelling in everything.
                                      ——- Devi Sukta: Rig Veda: 10.125.3 – 10.125.8.

Ancient women scholars were known as ” Brahmavaadini”. Some of them are known by name: Ahalya, Maitreyi, Lopamudra, Sulabha, Swaha, Haimavati Uma, Gautami, Sita, Sabitri, and many others.

Conclusion: YOU ARE MOTHER!!!


 

Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-8B

 Course after Death

Introduction: Eighth Chapter:

The ChAndogya Upanishad is part of ChAndogya Brahmana of the Sama Veda which is one of the largest important Upanishads with Eight Chapters (Prapathakas) with many Mantras(verses )including some stories as themes to gain Upanishadic knowledge. This Upanishad is placed in the 9th position in the list of Ten Principal Upanishads. The name of the Upanishad is derived from the word   “Chanda” (Rhythm~ poetic meter).

**This Upanishad directly deals with the true nature of Brahman, the Supreme Self, without a Second.

ChAndogya Upanishad consists of Eight chapters. The first five chapters forms the part of Karma Kanda[ rituals] and Upasana Kanda [worship and meditation]. Chapter- 6, 7 and 8 form the part of Jnana Kanda[profound Self-knowledge].

The essence of the Teaching is: – “Brahma Vidya”

Brahma Vidya: It is the knowledge of the ultimate Truth which results in Self realisation. The knower of this Truth remains untouched by any situation in life.

This chapter is especially intended for those who are unable to grasp the vastness of “Absolute”, the subject like Bhooma Vidya (Infinity), taught in the previous chapter. Though this chapter confines itself to the Heart of an individual, but that does not limit itself to the body of an individual. The heart here mentioned is used as symbol as the center of the pure subjectivity in us and therefore heart refers to consciousness, which is apparently located within the walls of the body, but never limited to physical body.

Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-8A: Section-1 to Section-3 has been published. Here is the link.

A request to my readers: Please read my previous posts on ChAndogya Upanishad, especially 6th & 7th chapter. Links are given below:

  1. Chapter Six: Section-1 to Section-4(Khanda-1 to Khanda-4). The link is here:  Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-6A of 6
  2. Chapter Six: Section-5 to Section-8(Khanda-5 to Khanda-8). The link is here: Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-6B of 6
  3. Chapter Six: Section-9 to Section-16(Khanda-9 to Khanda-16). The link is here: Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-6C of 6[END OF 6TH CHAPTER]
  4. Chapter-7 : Section-1 to Section-6 has been discussed. The link is here:- Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-7A
  5. Chapter-7 : Section-7 to Section-12 has been discussed. The link is here:- Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-7B
  6. Chapter-7 : Section-13 to Section-22: The link is here:- Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-7C
  7. Chapter-7 : Section-23 to Section-27: The link is here:- Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-7D[FINAL PART]

This post is part-2[8B] from 8th Chapter of Chandagyo Upanishad. Section-4 to Section-6 will be discussed here. 

Section-4 [Three Mantras]: Life Beyond

Mantra-1: This Self is the Bridge[“setu”~wall] which keeps the creatures from breaking in. Day and night do not go near Him, nor age, nor death, nor grief, nor good, nor evil. Sin turns away from Him because Brahman knows no sin.

The bridge is to be considered as Atman that connects one world with another world. It is like an embankment over which days and night can not pass. Time can not touch this Realm. It is beyond Time. This mantra emphasize on the truth that in Atman there is no contact with anything that is phenomenal. Old age, death, sorrows, good, evil nothing can touch Atman. This is the Realm of pure Being. This is world of Brahman which is untouched by every kind of evil. Evil is nothing but the consciousness of Body and Objects. Therefore, Atman is free from every kind of contamination as it is beyond Time and Space.

Mantra-2: This Self is the Bridge. When man crosses that bridge, if blind, he shall see, if sick, he shall be well; if unhappy, he shall be happy. When he crosses that bridge, though it may be night, it shall be day, for “Brahmaloka” is shining always.

This is Brahmaloka: Brahmaloka does not mean some world or Realm comparable with the one in which we are living. Brahman, the Absolute Itself, is called world of Brahman. It is just symbolic way of representing its own Being as the totality of experience. The field of experience is representing “loka”, the Realm. “Sarvam khalu idam Brahma” (सर्वं खल्विदं ब्रह्म तज्जलानिति शान्त उपासीत)- All this is Brahman, everything goes back to Brahman, and everything is sustained by Brahman.

Mantra-3: Brahmaloka is for those that are masters of themselves. They can move anywhere in this world at their pleasure.

In this Mantra, Upanishad is teaching us that through ” Brahmacharya” means continence(self-control), attains the level of Brahman. We have seen in Katha Upanishad about two paths: “Sreyas” and “Preyas”. One who practices Brahmacharya takes the path of “Sreyas”. Thereby one reaches to the state of no limit in respect of powers, capacities, knowledge, and existence.

Section-5 [Four Mantras]: Importance of Brahmacharya:

Mantra-1: That which is known as Sacrifice[yajna] is Brahmacharya. This is because one who knows the Self, attains Brahmaloka through Brahmacharya. Again, that which is known as worship[ista] is Brahmacharya.

The conduct of Brahman is Brahmacharya. To live as Brahman would be Brahmacharya. It is very difficult to conceive this. This is total abstraction of the senses in a sublimation of Consciousness which recognises itself alone, to the exclusion of everything else.

Mantra-2: That which is known as “Sattarayana” [a sacrifice lasting for a long time] is Brahmacharya. Through Brahmacharya, the individual self gets liberated. Then that which is called “mauna”[silence] is Brahmacharya., for through Brahmacharya one realizes the self, and having realized the Self one remains absorbed in the thought of It.

“Sattarayana” is a kind of ritual which is equivalent to practice of continence. It is a particular sacrifice which involves the services of many priests. Upanishad explains by splitting the word “Sattarayana” = sat + trayana: means sat is Being and trayana is the way of freedom or protection from every corners. Similarly, mauna, a vow of silence is also Brahmacharya. Taking a vow of silence, a person contemplates on his identity with Brahman.

Mantra-3: That which is known as “anasakayana” [ the path of fasting] is Brahmacharya, for through Brahmacharya one attains the Self which is immortal. Then that which is called “aranyayana” [life in the forest] is Brahmacharya. Ara means an ocean and nya means an ocean; and these two oceans abide in the region of Brahman. In that third world there, one finds a lake called airammadiya, a delightful tank full of gruel, an aswattha tree from which exudes nectar, and a palace of gold built by Brahma and named Aparajita. 

Aranyayana is dwelling in forest which is vanaprastha life. leading this life in austerities with great vows is a path of Brahmacharya for the attainment of Brahman. Whatever be the austerities, self-control is the highest austerity, and nothing is comparable to it. it is said in this Mantra that there are two oceans in the realm of Brahman filled with nectar where this world and that world both come together in a fraternal embrace as if two oceans “Ara” and “Nya” merge into one. They exists in the third world, beyond this world.[Not a physical world though but it is the Spiritual world] It is immortal bliss that one would experience after reaching there. Mantra says that there is an “aswattha” tree (peepul tree), very vast in its expanse from every pore of which nectar exudes. It is the Kalpavriksha, as mentioned in puranas. Kalpavriksha is such kind of tree present there where sitting under the tree whatever you wish is  fulfilled immediately. Immortality flows from that tree. It is also mentioned that there is the city of Brahman, where there is a palace named as “prabhuvmitam” built by Brahma himself, which shines like gold. Upanishads describe these mystical experiences of Consciousness are symbolical, which are achieved by constant practice of Brahmacharya.

Mantra-4: When they attain through Brahmacharya, the two oceans “Ara” and “Nya” in Brahmaloka, that Brahmaloka is theirs, and they can then move freely in all the worlds.

Brahmaloka is not a physical region like this Earth. It is a state of being. All these would be in our reach provided we are able to withdraw our senses and mind under control to fix centre of our consciousness in nothing but Brahman. Then we are free, and this freedom is called moksha~ liberation.

Section-6 [Six Mantras]Course after Death:

Mantra-1: Orange, blue, yellow, red, are not less in man’s arteries than in the Sun.

The heart is the place where one meditates on Brahman. The heart is said to be shaped like a lotus bud, and it also has some similarities to the Sun. The sun emits its rays, which spread out in all directions. These veins are filled with a very thin substance. The substance changes its color, and along with it veins also change color. Sun also changes color likewise.

Mantra-2: As a long highway passes between two villages, one at either end, so the Sun’s rays pass between this world and the world beyond. they flow from the Sun, enter into the arteries, flow back from the arteries, enter into the Sun.

We must follow what Upanishad is saying in this Mantra. there is a real live connection between Sun and us here in this Earth. The rays are connection between Sun and this world full of living beings, starting from microbes, algae, trees etc. This connection is not an imagination. It is real and integral connection of Sun with Earth to sustain life on Earth. It is an integral system that involves Sun and its family [all being on earth]

Mantra-3: When man is asleep, enjoying his sleep, he creates no dream; his soul sleeps in the arteries. No evil can touch him, for he is filled with light.

When a person is in deep sleep, he is free from all worries. In deep sleep,  mind lies inactive, desires nothing, dreams nothing, and knows nothing. This is his intellectual condition. Because of his union with the Self and his unbroken knowledge of it, he is filled with joy. he knows his joy and his mind is illuminated.

Mantra-4: When a person is dying, those around him ask if he knows them. As long as there is life left in the body, he recognizes them.

At the time of death, mind is compelled by the pranas to withdraw itself into its source, no sensation, no thought, no recognition remains whatsoever. Then what happens to that person?

Mantra-5: But when the life leaves the body, ascending with the Sus’s rays, he meditates on OM and with the speed of thought, goes to the Sun. Sun is the gate of the Heaven, where the wise can pass.

The essence of this mantra is about the journey to Brahmaloka after death of a person. Those who knows the meaning of OM and think on OM, while leaving this body on Earth, enters into Brahmaloka. When the dying person leaves the body, he quickly goes to the Sun, ascending through Sun rays. The time taken to reach the Sun[Brahmaloka] is compared with the time taken by the mind to change from one thought to another thought. It is as fast as that. Please read Section-15 of Chandagyo Upanishad  about ” A Sick Man on his death bed”

Mantra-6: In this connection there is a sloka which says: There are a hundred and one arteries leading to the heart; one of them pierces the crown of the head. He who goes upward through it, attains immortality; he who does not, is born again.

Katha Upanishad, Mantra-2.3.16 : One among these hundred and one moves vertically, as it were towards the crown of the head. this is usually called the sushumna-nadi. If our prana and mind can travel through this central nerve current called the sushumna and up through the crown of the head, we attain immortality.

Conclusion:

The Upanishad in this section describes that there are psychic nerve centres(chakra) along the region of the spine and also “Nadis”[channels] which start from heart-space and spread all over the body in thousands, like the rays of the Sun. In Deep sleep these rays enter the heart-space, and we experience great serenity in the absence of dream and waking experiences which are the cause of sufferings. Kundalini Yoga describes tis in details.

The link for reading text in Sanskrit is here:-   Chandgoya Upanishad 

Recommended readings:

  1. Back to the Truth: 5000 years of ADVAITA by Dennis Waite. **
  2. THE TEN PRINCIPAL UPANISHADS: Translated by Shree Purohit** Swami and W.B.Yeats
  3. Brahma Sutra Bhasya of Sankaracharya: Translated by Swami Gambhirananda.**
  4. Commentary of ChAndogya Upanishad: By Swami Krishnananda.
  5. ChAndogya Upanishad: By Swami GuruBhaktananda.
  6. EIGHT UPANISADS -VOL-1 with commentary of Sankaracharya, Translated by SWAMI GAMBHIRANANDA.
  7. THE TAITTIRIYA UPANISHAD: SHIKSHAVALLI-ANANDAVALLI-BHRIGUVALLI with Sri Shankara’s Commentary By Sri Swami Satchidanandera Saraswati.
  8. A-U-M Awakening to Reality: By Dennis Waite***
  9. Panchadasi: Swami Vidyaranya:
  10. Information available on internet.

It is my sincere request to the esteemed readers to share their opinion or queries if any. Suggestions to make the site attractive will be incredibly helpful for me. Readers are requested to read all the posts to have continuation of the topic from the beginning. My mail ID is: arun7663@gmail.com

Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-8A

Introduction: Eighth Chapter:

The ChAndogya Upanishad is part of ChAndogya Brahmana of the Sama Veda which is one of the largest important Upanishads with Eight Chapters (Prapathakas) with many Mantras(verses )including some stories as themes to gain Upanishadic knowledge. This Upanishad is placed in the 9th position in the list of Ten Principal Upanishads. The name of the Upanishad is derived from the word   “Chanda” (Rhythm~ poetic meter).

**This Upanishad directly deals with the true nature of Brahman, the Supreme Self, without a second.

ChAndogya Upanishad consists of Eight chapters. The first five chapters forms the part of Karma Kanda[ rituals] and Upasana Kanda [worship and meditation]. Chapter- 6, 7 and 8 form the part of Jnana Kanda[profound Self-knowledge].

The essence of the Teaching is: – “Brahma Vidya”

Brahma Vidya: It is the knowledge of the ultimate Truth which results in Self realisation. The knower of this Truth remains untouched by any situation in life.

This chapter is especially intended for those who are unable to grasp the vastness of “Absolute”, the subject like Bhooma Vidya (Infinity), taught in the previous chapter. Though this chapter confines itself to the Heart of an individual, but that does not limit itself to the body of an individual. The heart here mentioned is used as symbol as the center of the pure subjectivity in us and therefore heart refers to consciousness, which is apparently located within the walls of the body, but never limited to physical body.

A request to my readers: Please read my previous posts on ChAndogya Upanishad, especially 6th & 7th chapter. Links are given below:

  1. Chapter Six: Section-1 to Section-4(Khanda-1 to Khanda-4). The link is here:  Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-6A of 6
  2. Chapter Six: Section-5 to Section-8(Khanda-5 to Khanda-8). The link is here: Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-6B of 6
  3. Chapter Six: Section-9 to Section-16(Khanda-9 to Khanda-16). The link is here: Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-6C of 6[END OF 6TH CHAPTER]
  4. Chapter-7 : Section-1 to Section-6 has been discussed. The link is here:- Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-7A
  5. Chapter-7 : Section-7 to Section-12 has been discussed. The link is here:- Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-7B
  6. Chapter-7 : Section-13 to Section-22: The link is here:- Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-7C
  7. Chapter-7 : Section-23 to Section-27: The link is here:- Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-7D[FINAL PART]

This post is part-1[8A] of Eighth Chapter of Chandagyo Upanishad. Section-1 to Section-3 discussed here. 

Section-1: [Six Mantras]: The Universal Self within the Heart:

In this section we will learn that there is the City of Brahman ( Brahmapuram), the Absolute, in our own Self.

Mantra-1-2: The Chidaakaash Within:

“Within the City of Brahman, which is the Body, there is the Heart, and within the Heart there is a little house. The house has the shape of a Lotus, and within it dwells that which shines by its own light which is to be sought after, inquired about, and realized. What is there in that space? One should know what is there? Why it is so important? We will try to know that from the following Mantras.

** The Body is the abode of Brahman, the Self. In that Body, the core-centre is at Heart. Within heart is a “dahara”, the space, which is not akasha , one of the five basic elements, as we have seen earlier. This akasha is “Chidaakaash”, the space of Consciousness. 

Mantra-3: Heart is emblem of the Cosmic Secret:

Teacher said: “You ask me what is inside this little space. I tell you that everything is inside there.” There is as much in that little space within the heart, as there is in the whole Universe outside. Heaven, Earth, Fire, Wind, Sun, Moon, Lightning, Stars, whatever is and whatever is not, everything is there.

[*** HOLOGRAPHIC UNIVERSE] It is an emblem of the cosmic secret. Whatever is the extent of this vast space that is outside, that is the extent of this little space in our heart also. The whole of the celestial sphere can be found inside this little space. The principles of the five elements, – earth, water, fire, air, and ether- and everything you see or do not see, all are present here in this little space.

Mantra-4-5: Teacher continues:-

What lies in that space, does not decay when the body decays, nor does it fall when the body falls. That space is the home of Brahman. Every desire is there. Self is there, beyond decay and death; sin and sorrow; hunger and thirst; His aim Truth, His will Truth. Man can live in the body as long as he obeys the law, as man may live in a certain farm, in a certain town, in a certain province, or wherever he wishes, if he obeys the law.

** Though old age comes to the body, the lotus of the heart does not grow old. When body dies, it does not die. Brahman exists there. He is untouched by any deed. Does not suffer ageing, free from hunger, grief, and thirst. His desires are right desires, and his desires are fulfilled.

Mantra-6: Swarajyam

As just in this world, the Region won by action perishes, so does perish in the other world, the Region won by righteous deeds. Earthly pleasers exhaust themselves; heavenly pleasures exhaust themselves. Wherever men go without attaining Self or knowing the Truth, they can not move at their pleasure; but after attaining Self and knowing Truth, wherever they go, they move at their pleasure.

** We know all the wealth accumulated by one exhausts or perishes with time. Likewise, heavenly enjoyments which are acquired by the good deeds( through sacrifices etc) also exhausts after certain time. Therefore, who dies without realising the Self, the Truth, can not find eternal happiness wherever he goes. But for those who know the Self can attain eternal happiness wherever he goes , means in whichever Loka he goes.

Section-2 [Ten Mantras]: Different higher worlds

Mantra-1. If a person wants to see someone, say a forefather in the other world, he can see him at once. There is no such thing as other world for a person who has Realised the “Atman”

Mantra-2. If a man wants the company of his fathers, all he need to do is to Will it. They will appear and make him happy.

Mantra-3. If  he wants the company of his mothers, all he need to do is to Will it. They will appear and make him happy.

Mantra-4. If he wants the company of his brothers, all he need to do is to Will it. They will appear and make him happy.

Mantra-5. If he wants the company of his sisters, all he need to do is to Will it. They will appear and make him happy.

Mantra-6. If he wants the company of his friends, all he need to do is to Will it. They will appear and make him happy.

Mantra-7. If he wants women, all he need to do is to Will it. They will appear and make him happy.

Mantra-8. If he wants perfume or flowers, all he need to do is to Will it. It will appear and make him happy.

Mantra-9. If he wants food and drinks, all he need to do is to Will it. It will appear and make him happy.

Mantra-10. If he wants a thing or a place, all he need to do is to Will it. It will appear and make him happy.

The above 10 mantras in this section emphasize on the subject that everything we can think of, – relatives, friends, fathers, mothers, husbands, wives, good things, great things, pleasant things, objects of desire present in this world or in the other world -whatever they be, they do not take time to manifest themselves if the will is exercised in the proper manner. That means the will has to be in tune with the law of Atman. All such desires in our hearts are really distorted forms of the manifestation of Consciousness in some way or the other. There is some defect in the movement of Consciousness when it gets lodged in the body of an individual and imagines that it is somehow or other limited to the extent of that body alone. This type of imagination is falsehood which gets mixed-up with truth and then it becomes difficult for us to know the Reality, The Truth, the Infinite.

Section-3 [Five Mantras]: The Space within the Heart:

Desires are true but covered by falsehood:

त इमे सत्याः कामा अनृतापिधानास्तेषाꣳ सत्यानाꣳ
सतामनृतमपिधानं यो यो ह्यस्येतः प्रैति न तमिह
दर्शनाय लभते ॥ ८.३.१॥

Mantra-1. Those justified desires which are such, remain covered by falsehood. Falsehood is the cover for those existing true desires because whosoever of one’s relatives departs from here, is not available to be seen here again.

Unfailing desires are covered by falsehood. That means desires are indeed true, but they are covered by falsehood. Truth means vision for the things as they are in reality and falsehood means which opposes that reality. In reality things are not disconnected from one another. But for our wrong notions, we see the things different from one another in this Universe. Therefore, what we perceive as different worlds, is not different. It is for the varying consciousness of the limited self; we experience different worlds. What we consider as different “lokas”[realms of being] are actually one and present in our heart. When “jivatma” is imprisoned in a particular body, then due to finite and limited consciousness, it appears that jivatma is different from external world. But truly it is not!

अथ ये चास्येह जीवा ये च प्रेता यच्चान्यदिच्छन्न
लभते सर्वं तदत्र गत्वा विन्दतेऽत्र ह्यस्यैते सत्याः
कामा अनृतापिधानास्तद्यथापि हिरण्यनिधिं निहितमक्षेत्रज्ञा
उपर्युपरि सञ्चरन्तो न विन्देयुरेवमेवेमाः सर्वाः प्रजा
अहरहर्गच्छन्त्य एतं ब्रह्मलोकं न विन्दन्त्यनृतेन हि
प्रत्यूढाः ॥ ८.३.२॥

Wise man sees everything in Self:

Mantra-2. Again, those of his relatives who are still alive and those who are dead, and also those things a person cannot get even if he wishes for them-all these he gets by going within his heart. All true desires of a person are in his heart, though they are hidden. It is like when there is gold hidden some place underground and people who are ignorant of it walk over that spot again and again, knowing nothing about it. Similarly, all these beings go to Brahmaloka every day, and yet they know nothing about it because they are covered by ignorance.

Inside the heart is the whole Universe. When we have susupti, dreamless sleep, we are then one with Brahman and one with the whole world. We are not conscious of it, because of our ignorance.

In this section the Upanishad is teaching us to understand the truth that those people who have passed on from this world, those who are born and those who are not yet born, those who have come and those who have gone to other worlds are in our own hearts. They are not outside somewhere. We carry them in our own hearts, in the space of our Consciousness. It has been said earlier that whatever is outside is also inside.

Self stays in the heart:

Mantra-3. Self stays in the heart; heart, a word that seems to say here it is. Who knows this, daily enjoys the kingdom of Heaven.

Where the Self resides? It is within. Normally people think GOD is above in sky or in temple or somewhere beyond[ In English word, GOD is known as Supreme to the people who believes in GOD]. But the truth is this that in reality, GOD is in our own heart. The heart is the seat of Self-realization. One who knows that, goes daily to the heavenly world in the deep sleep (dreamless sleep). In deep sleep he is with Brahman. that means we go into our own Self. We become one with the Self. This we have seen in Mandukya Upanishad.

Mantra-4. A wise man, leaving his body, joins the flame; is one with His own nature. That nature is Self, fearless immortal Brahman.

Knowledge is associated with light. ” Tamasah ma jyotih gamaya- lead us from darkness to light. Means lead us from darkness of ignorance to the light of knowledge. Mandukya Upanishad has explained in details that during Awaking condition we are more attached to our body and try to enjoy through our sense organs. That becomes the cause of unhappiness. When we overcome our desires [which are active during awaking condition], we find our true nature. Our true nature is free from fear and full of Bliss.

Mantra-5. Whatever binds mortal and immortal, they call truth. Who knows this, daily enjoys the Kingdom of Heaven.

This Mantra says that Sa, ti, and yam – these are the three syllables which represent Brahman. Sa = Immortal, ti = mortal, yam = controls mortal and immortal. He who knows this enjoys divine bliss everyday in dreamless sleep.

Conclusion:

This chapter states that in this Body is “City of Brahman” and in that city there is a palace shaped like a lotus. In that palace there is a little space within the Heart. It is special because the entire Universe is contained within it. If everything is in man’s body, every being, every desire, what remains when old age comes, when decay begins, when the body falls? What lies in that space, does not decay when the body decays, nor does it fall when the body falls. That space is the home of Brahman, the Supreme. Every desire is there. Self is there, beyond decay and death; sin and sorrow; hunger and thirst. Self stays in heart. Heart, a word that seems to say, “here it is”. Who knows this, daily enjoys the kingdom of Heaven [DEEP SLEEP~ “susupti”].

The link for reading text in Sanskrit is here:-   Chandgoya Upanishad 

Recommended readings:

  1. Back to the Truth: 5000 years of ADVAITA by Dennis Waite. **
  2. THE TEN PRINCIPAL UPANISHADS: Translated by Shree Purohit** Swami and W.B.Yeats
  3. Brahma Sutra Bhasya of Sankaracharya: Translated by Swami Gambhirananda.**
  4. Commentary of ChAndogya Upanishad: By Swami Krishnananda.
  5. ChAndogya Upanishad: By Swami GuruBhaktananda.
  6. EIGHT UPANISADS -VOL-1 with commentary of Sankaracharya, Translated by SWAMI GAMBHIRANANDA.
  7. THE TAITTIRIYA UPANISHAD: SHIKSHAVALLI-ANANDAVALLI-BHRIGUVALLI with Sri Shankara’s Commentary By Sri Swami Satchidanandera Saraswati.
  8. A-U-M Awakening to Reality: By Dennis Waite***
  9. Panchadasi: Swami Vidyaranya:
  10. Information available on internet.

It is my sincere request to the esteemed readers to share their opinion or queries if any. Suggestions to make the site attractive will be incredibly helpful for me. Readers are requested to read all the posts to have continuation of the topic from the beginning. My mail ID is: arun7663@gmail.com

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Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-7D[FINAL PART]

Introduction: Seventh Chapter:

The ChAndogya Upanishad is part of ChAndogya Brahmana of the Sama Veda which is one of the largest important Upanishads with Eight Chapters (Prapathakas) with many verses including some stories as themes to gain Upanishadic knowledge. This Upanishad is placed in the 9th position in the list of Ten Principal Upanishads. The name of the Upanishad is derived from the word   “Chanda” (Rhythm~ poetic meter).

**This Upanishad directly deals with the true nature of Brahman, the Supreme Self, without a second.

ChAndogya Upanishad consists of Eight chapters. The first five chapters forms the part of Karma Kanda and Upasana Kanda. Chapter- 6, 7 and 8 form the part of Jnana Kanda.

The essence of the Teaching is: – The Infinite Bliss ~ “Bhumaiva Sukham”

This post is final part [7-D] of Chapter-7 of Chandagyo Upanishad. Section-23 to Section-27. 

*First part of Chapter-7 has been published in my blog, where Section-1 to Section-6 has been discussed. The link is here:- Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-7A

** Second part of Chapter-7 : From Section-7 to Section-12 has been discussed. The link is here:- Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-7B

*** Third part of Chapter-7 contains discussion on  Mantras from Section-13 to Section-22: The link is here:- Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-7C

A request to my readers: Please read my previous posts on ChAndogya Upanishad, especially 6th chapter. Links are given below:

  1. Chapter Six: Section-1 to Section-4(Khanda-1 to Khanda-4). The link is here:  Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-6A of 6
  2. Chapter Six: Section-5 to Section-8(Khanda-5 to Khanda-8). The link is here: Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-6B of 6
  3. Chapter Six: Section-9 to Section-16(Khanda-9 to Khanda-16). The link is here: Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-6C of 6[END OF 6TH CHAPTER]

॥ छान्दोग्योपनिषत्  –  सप्तमोऽध्यायः ॥

Structure of 7th Chapter!

Part-6: Section: 23-27 (Total 6 Mantras):        ” BHOOMA~ The Infinite

We are in the final part of 7th Chapter of Chandagyo Upanishad. In this section we will learn about the characteristics of The Infinite [ Bhooma]. First two mantras give us definition, next two mantras describe the qualities, and the final two mantras give the scriptural support on the Truth.

Section-23: “Bhoomaa”– The Infinite (1 mantra):

यो वै भूमा तत्सुखं नाल्पे सुखमस्ति भूमैव सुखं
भूमा त्वेव विजिज्ञासितव्य इति भूमानं भगवो
विजिज्ञास इति ॥ ७.२३.१॥

Mantra-23.1: The Infinite alone is happiness: [त्रयोविंशः खण्डः ]

Only that which is Infinite, is true Happiness, There is no happiness in anything finite. ” The Infinite alone is Happiness. But the “Infinite” one must desire to understand.

Narada: ” Revered Sir, the Infinite I do desire to understand.

भूमैव सुखं : “Bhumaiva Sukham”: 1) That which is Infinite is true Happiness. 2) There is no Happiness in anything finite. 3) The Infinite alone is Happiness. 

Section-24: “Moksha”– Liberation (2 mantras):

Mantra-24.1: The State of Liberation:

24.1.1: The Infinite and the finite Defined:

That in which one sees nothing else, hears nothing else, and understands nothing else- That is Infinite. But that in which one sees something else, hears something else, and understands something else- that is the Finite. That which is Infinite, is alone immortal; but that which is finite, is mortal.

24.1.2: The basis of Infinite:

Narada: ” Revered Sir, In what that Infinite is established”?

Sanatkumara:” In its greatness or even not in its greatness.”

Mantra-24.2: Mutual Dependence:

The cows and horses are called “greatness” here in this world, as also elephants and gold, servants and wives, fields, and buildings. I do not call this greatness, in fact, I call what has been described above as ” mutual dependence.”

[ The common, worldly type of greatness rests in one’s possessions. For worldly people, what one possesses determines their greatness. Greatness is a relative term. A thing can only be great in comparison to something else which is not great. Like a king is great relative to his countrymen. That is what is meant by Mutual Independence.]

Section-25: “Swaraat”– Independence (2 mantras):

Mantra-25.1: The Infinite, the ” I ” & the Self:

Mantra-25.1.1: The Infinite alone Exists:

That alone is below. That alone is above; That is behind, That is in front; That is to the south, and to the north; That Infinite alone is all this.

Mantra-25.1.2: The “I-Notion” alone Exists:

Next is the teaching with respect to the “I-Notion”. “I” alone am below, I am above; I am behind, I am in front; I am to the south, I am to the north; I alone am all this.

Mantra-25.1.3: The “Self” alone Exists:

Next is the teaching with respect to the “Self”. The Self alone is below and above, the Self is behind and in front; the Self is to the south and north; the Self alone is all this.

[ ** Infinite = "I" = Atman. 1. The Infinite Itself is all That there is. 2. The "I"- notion in the individual is Itself all That there is. 3. The Atman or Sef Itself all That there is.]

Mantra-25.2: The ” Sovereign and the Slave”:

Mantra-25.2.1: The Sovereign is free:

Verily, he who sees thus, who reflects and understands; thus, He revels and sports in the Self, he unites in and enjoy the Self. He becomes the Sovereign of all the worlds. He is free to act as he wishes.

Mantra-25.2.2: The Slave is ruled by others:

But who know other than this, they are ruled by others (the slaves), and live in perishable worlds. In all the worlds, they are not free to act as they wish.

[** Analysis:  Here sage Sanatkumara is pointing to the final state. Aatma- Ratih, Aatma- Kreedah, Aatma- Mithuna, Aatma-Anandah- this is the state he himself must be revelling in all the time. Now what is required to reach this state? It is very simple. Follow the meaning of the words: Evam Pashyan, Evam Manvaan, Evam Vijnaanan. All these means: – ” See nothing else”, “Reflect on nothing else”, and ” Understand nothing else”. Nothing other than Infinite. The state of freedom of one is then established in Infinity. All previous levels from Name to Hope, were limited to the worlds of finite. Upon reaching this state the Aspirants become ” Swaraat” – the all-powerful status of being a Self-Sovereign, independent ruler of himself.]

Section-26: The Vision of the “Ativadi”– (1 mantra):

Mantra-26.1: Greatness of the Realised Sage:

Mantra-26.1.1: The requisites for Sovereignty:

Verily, for him alone who sees thus, reflects thus, and understands thus. 

Mantra-26.1.2: The state of Sovereignty: “Atma-Svarajya”

  1. Prana Springs from the Self.
  2. Aspiration Springs from the Self.
  3. Memory Springs from the Self.
  4. Space Springs from the Self.
  5. Fire Springs from the Self.
  6. Water Springs from the Self.
  7. Appearance and disappearance Spring from the Self.
  8. Food Springs from the Self.
  9. Strength Springs from the Self.
  10. Understand Springs from the Self.
  11. Contemplation Springs from the Self.
  12. Intelligence Springs from the Self.
  13. Will Springs from the Self.
  14. Mind Springs from the Self.
  15. Speech Springs from the Self.
  16. Name Springs from the Self.
  17. Hymns (Upasana Kanda) Springs from the Self.
  18. Rites (Karma Kanda) Springs from the Self: All these Spring from the Self alone!!

Section-27: Supporting scriptural verses: “Slokas” (1 mantra):

तदेष श्लोको: On this there are scriptural verses as follows: –

तदेष श्लोको न पश्यो मृत्युं पश्यति न रोगं नोत दुःखताꣳ
सर्वꣳ ह पश्यः पश्यति सर्वमाप्नोति सर्वश इति
स एकधा भवति त्रिधा भवति पञ्चधा
सप्तधा नवधा चैव पुनश्चैकादशः स्मृतः
शतं च दश चैकश्च सहस्राणि च
विꣳशतिराहारशुद्धौ सत्त्वशुद्धौ ध्रुवा स्मृतिः
स्मृतिलम्भे सर्वग्रन्थीनां विप्रमोक्षस्तस्मै
मृदितकषायाय तमसस्पारं दर्शयति
भगवान्सनत्कुमारस्तꣳ स्कन्द इत्याचक्षते
तꣳ स्कन्द इत्याचक्षते ॥ ७.२६.२॥

Mantra-27.1: Three supporting Slokas:

Mantra-27.1.1: The Seer of the Infinite:

He who sees does not see death, nor illness, nor sorrow. he who sees this sees all things and obtains all things in all ways.

Mantra-27.1.2: One Becomes Many:

He who is One, becomes three-fold, five-fold, seven-fold and also nine-fold. Then again, he is called eleven-fold, and hundred-fold, then hundred-and-eleven-fold, twenty-thousand-fold.

** Analysis of One into Many:

One: Brahman

Three-fold: Causal, subtle, and Gross; Waking, dreaming, and Sleeping, Past, Present, and Future.

Five-fold: Five Elements, Five Koshas, Five Pranas.

Seven-fold: Sapta Dhatus, Sapta rishis, Sapta Divas, sapta Swara, sapta Lokas, Seven colors.

Nine-fold: Nava Durga, Nine doors in the Body.

Ten-fold: Disha, Avatara, Vidyas.

Eleven-fold: Rudras

And so on……

Mantra-27.1.3: Three major steps:

  • Pure food creates pure intellect.
  • Pure intellect creates strong memory.
  • Strong memory cuts all the knots of the Heart.

** Note: Cuts all the knots of the Heart means detaching Ego from Consciousness. This teaching has been seen in Katha Upanishad also [Mantra-2.3.15: Katha Upanishad: – “When the knot of the heart is cut, the mortal becomes Immortal. This alone is the Teaching”.]

THREE MAJOR STEPS

Mantra-27.1.4: The Final Stage: 

भगवान्सनत्कुमारस्तꣳ स्कन्द इत्याचक्षते
तꣳ स्कन्द इत्याचक्षते ॥ ७.२६.२॥

Sage Sanatkumara leads beyond the darkness those that have washed their impurities away. Hence men call him the Great commander, men call him the great Commander.

Conclusion:

Finally, the Great sage sanatkumara defined “Bhooma” the ABSOLUTE. This is Infinite. Here one sees nothing except one’s own Self, hears nothing except one’s own Self, understands nothing except one’s own Self, Bhooma alone is Immortal. This Eternal is Present Everywhere. It can not be that It is located in something else, and It is dependent on something else. Nor It has something else as It’s support. Neither It is not dependent on something else. This is all- being, support of all things. He who Realizes this enjoys ” Atma-Svarajya” [state of Sovereignty] means Universal Lordship. Every realm of being becomes a free passage to this great one who has acquired this knowledge. The person becomes possessed of Cosmic freedom.

End of Chapter-7 ” The Infinite Bliss”

The link for reading text in Sanskrit is here:-   Chandgoya Upanishad 

Recommended readings:

  1. Back to the Truth: 5000 years of ADVAITA by Dennis Waite. **
  2. THE TEN PRINCIPAL UPANISHADS: Translated by Shree Purohit** Swami and W.B.Yeats
  3. Brahma Sutra Bhasya of Sankaracharya: Translated by Swami Gambhirananda.**
  4. Commentary of ChAndogya Upanishad: By Swami Krishnananda.
  5. ChAndogya Upanishad: By Swami GuruBhaktananda.
  6. EIGHT UPANISADS -VOL-1 with commentary of Sankaracharya, Translated by SWAMI GAMBHIRANANDA.
  7. THE TAITTIRIYA UPANISHAD: SHIKSHAVALLI-ANANDAVALLI-BHRIGUVALLI with Sri Shankara’s Commentary By Sri Swami Satchidanandera Saraswati.
  8. A-U-M Awakening to Reality: By Dennis Waite***
  9. Panchadasi: Swami Vidyaranya:
  10. Information available on internet.

It is my sincere request to the esteemed readers to share their opinion or queries if any. Suggestions to make the site attractive will be incredibly helpful for me. Readers are requested to read all the posts to have continuation of the topic from the beginning. My mail ID is: arun7663@gmail.com

Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-7C

Introduction: Seventh Chapter:

The ChAndogya Upanishad is part of ChAndogya Brahmana of the Sama Veda which is one of the largest important Upanishads with Eight Chapters (Prapathakas) with many verses including some stories as themes to gain Upanishadic knowledge. This Upanishad is placed in the 9th position in the list of Ten Principal Upanishads. The name of the Upanishad is derived from the word   “Chanda” (Rhythm~ poetic meter).

**This Upanishad directly deals with the true nature of Brahman, the Supreme Self, without a second.

ChAndogya Upanishad consists of Eight chapters. The first five chapters forms the part of Karma Kanda and Upasana Kanda. Chapter- 6, 7 and 8 form the part of Jnana Kanda.

 There are 24 sections in Chapter Seven. Here we will discuss on Chapter-7, Section-13 to Section-22 to learn profound knowledge through a dialog between: Narada (the disciple) and Sage Sanatkumar.

The essence of the Teaching is: – The Infinite Bliss ~ “Bhumaiva Sukham”

* First part of Chapter-7 has been published in my blog, where Section-1 to Section-6 has been discussed. The link is here:- Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-7A

** Second part of Chapter-7 has been published. From Section-7 to Section-12 has been discussed. The link is here:- Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-7B

A request to my readers: Please read my previous posts on ChAndogya Upanishad, especially 6th chapter. Links are given below:

  1. Chapter Six: Section-1 to Section-4(Khanda-1 to Khanda-4). The link is here:  Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-6A of 6
  2. Chapter Six: Section-5 to Section-8(Khanda-5 to Khanda-8). The link is here: Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-6B of 6
  3. Chapter Six: Section-9 to Section-16(Khanda-9 to Khanda-16). The link is here: Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-6C of 6[END OF 6TH CHAPTER]

॥ छान्दोग्योपनिषत्  –  सप्तमोऽध्यायः ॥

Structure of 7th Chapter!

In this post we will start from Mantra-12.2.2: Is there anything above “Aakaashah”[Space]

Narada: ” Sir, Is there anything above Space”?

Sanatkumara:” Yes, there is something above”

Narada: ” Sir, then please elaborate.”

After completing section-12, we have reached to the higher level of knowledge which is beyond Space. Now let us think beyond Time. The cause and effect. If creation of Universe is an effect, then there must be some Cause. What is that? Let us try to find it out prom following sections.

Part-4: Section: 13-15 (Total 8 Mantras):        ” ISHWARA~ The Causal Being

Our existence is essential for the existence of Space. Therefore, Consciousness of Self-existence is fundamental for determining factor of the Consciousness of this vast expanse that we call Space. Hence, the word “smara” has to be understood differently. It does not merely mean a kind of memory only. Here, the essence of the section is to teach the aspirant for attaining higher levels. It is to be understood that a person should meditate on the supreme self-Consciousness, which is above Space.

Section-13: ” Smarah”- Memory[2 Verses]

Our Self-Consciousness, the self-Consciousness of every being is above Space, which determines the character of Space.

Mantra-13.1.1:  Memory is above Space.

Mantra-13.1.2 The greatness of Memory:

Take away memory from men, they no longer hear, think, or understand. Give back their memory, they hear, they think and understand. Through memory we recognise our children and cattle.

Mantra-13.1.3: Therefore, worship Memory.

Mantra-13.2: Beyond Memory:

Mantra-13.2.1: The Fruit gained by Worshiping Memory.

He, who worships Memory as brahman, attains the receptacles of light, free from sorrow, free from bondage, moves within the limits of Memory, as it may please him, provided he worships Memory as nothing but Brahman.

Mantra-13.2.2: Is there anything above “Smarah”[Memory]

Narada: ” Sir, Is there anything above Memory”?

Sanatkumara:” Yes, there is something above Memory”

Narada: ” Sir, then please elaborate.”

Section-14: ” Aashaa”- Aspiration [2 Verses]

Mantra-14.1.1:  Aspiration is above Memory.

Mantra-14.1.2 The greatness of Aspiration:

Indeed, kindled by aspiration, men recites the sacred words, does this or that, performs rites, desires children and property, longs for life here and thereafter.

Mantra-14.1.3: Therefore, worship Aspiration.

Mantra-14.2: Beyond Aspiration:

Mantra-14.2.1: The Fruit gained by Worshiping Aspiration.

He, who worships aspiration  as Brahman, gets all he wants, never goes a blessing in vain, moves within the limits of aspiration, as it may please him, provided he worships aspiration as nothing but Brahman.

Mantra-14.2.2: Is there anything above “Aashaa”[Aspiration]

Narada: ” Sir, Is there anything above Aspiration”?

Sanatkumara:” Yes, there is something above Aspiration”

Narada: ” Sir, then please elaborate.”

Section-15: ” Praanah”- Life Force[4 Verses]

Mantra-15.1.1: Life Force is above Aspiration

Mantra-15.1.2: Life Force-As spokes fastened to wheel.

Prana (Breath) is verily the life of beings and hence it is called the Universal life. It is matter of common knowledge that life becomes possible only so long as the vital energy keeps the different organs of the organism alive.
Though this vital life force makes the body animated and actions are performed but this is not the “Real Self”. 

Mantra-15.1.3: Praanah~ as Mover, Life, and Giver

Everything is fixed in praanah. Praanah lives by praanah. Praanah gives for praanah. Praanah gives power.

Praanah” is vital energy and invisible to us. It is like Electric Power ,which gives life to the machines and machines run, animates.  Same way this vital energy “Praanah” animates us, the live bodies.  It runs the 1st layer the Physical body. This praanah is external to further subtler energy which is Mind. The mind is so subtle and transparent, that  mind can reflect consciousness. 

Mantra-15.1.4: Praanah~ as Kith and kin

  • Praanah is the father.

  • Praanah is the mother.

  • Praanah is the bother.

  • Praanah is the sister.

  • Praanah is the Guru.

  • Praanah is the Acharya.

Mantra-15.2: Praanah~ Being cruel on living:

If a man speak cruel words to a father, mother, sister, brother, Guru, people say: “Shame upon you for such cruelty. You are indeed a slayer of your father; You are indeed a slayer of your brother; You are indeed a slayer of your sister; You are indeed a slayer of your Guru or Acharya!”

Mantra-15.3: Praanah~ Performing last Rites:

If, life once gone, somebody shoves them ( who are dead among kith and kin) back on to the funeral pyre with a poker, where is the cruelty? Surely no one would blame him: ” You are slayer of your father”; nor ” You are slayer of your brother”; nor ” You are slayer of your sister”; nor ” You are slayer of your Guru or Acharya”.

Mantra-15.4.1: “Ativaadi” the Realized Sage

Praanah, indeed, alone becomes all these. He indeed who sees thus (Sravana), reflects thus (Manana), and realizes thus (Nididhyasana) becomes an ” Ativaadi” the Realized Sage.

Mantra-15.4.2: “Ativaadi” The title becomes a complement:

If someone were to say to you: ” You are an Ativaadi, ” You should say, “yes, I am an Ativaadi” You should not deny it, It is a complement.

Part-5: Section: 16-23 (Total 8 Mantras):        ” Sadhana~ Spiritual Practice

Who is Ativaadi?

There are certainly some steps which are to be followed to become “Ativaadi”. The steps are to be considered as essential requirement (sadhana) to attend permanent happiness. The steps are listed below:

We will learn about the steps from the following sections:

Section-16: ” Satyam”- Truth[1 Verse]

Mantra-16.1: Who is an ativaadin?

Sanatkumara:” But he really is an ativaadin who speaks with Truth about the Truth “

Narada: ” Revered Sir, if that is so, I would speak with Truth about the Truth”

Sanatkumara:”But first, one must desire to understand the Truth”.

Narada: ” Revered Sir, I do desire to understand the Truth”.

**This earnest desire to know the Truth is called “Jijnaasa” [enquiry]

Section-17:”Vijnaanah”- Realisation [1 Verse]

Mantra-17.1: Who is a Realised One?

Sanatkumara:” Only when one is Realised, then one can declare the Truth”. Without realising, no one can declare Truth. But one must desire to understand what Realisation is!

Narada: ” Revered Sir, I do desire to understand Realisation”.

Section-18:”Matih”- Reflection [1 Verse]

Mantra-18.1: Who is qualified to Reflect?

Sanatkumara:” Only when one Reflects, then does one Realise”. No, without reflecting, one can not Realise. Only he who reflects, Realises. But one must desire to understand what Reflection is!

Narada: ” Revered Sir, I do desire to understand Reflection”.

Section-19:”Shraddha”- Faith [1 Verse]

Mantra-19.1: Who is full of Faith?

Sanatkumara:” Only when one becomes full of Faith, then can one reflect. Without Faith, no one can reflect. He who has Faith only reflects. But one must desire to understand what Faith is!

Narada: ” Revered Sir, I do desire to understand Faith”.

Section-20:”Nishthaa”- Steadfastness: Devotion [1 Verse]

Mantra-20.1: Who is full of Steadfastness?

Sanatkumara:” Only when one becomes full of steadfastness (devotion), then can one be full of faith. Without Steadfastness, no one can have faith. He who has steadfastness can  only have faith. But one must desire to understand what Steadfastness is!

Narada: ” Revered Sir, I do desire to understand Steadfastness”.

Section-21:”Kritih”- Activity:[1 Verse]

Mantra-21.1: Who is truly Active?

Sanatkumara:” Only when one is given to Action, then can one be full of Steadfastness. No, without action, one can not have steadfastness. He who acts can be steadfast. But one must desire to understand what Activity is!

Narada: ” Revered Sir, I do desire to understand Activity”.

Section-22:”Sukham”- Happiness:[1 Verse]

Mantra-22.1: Who is truly Happy?

Sanatkumara:” Only when one expects to obtain Happiness, then does one Act. Without expecting Happiness, one does not Act. Only to obtain Happiness does one Act. But one must desire to understand what Happiness is!

Narada: ” Revered Sir, I do desire to understand Happiness”.

Section-16 to Section-22 primarily teaches about three stages which are very essential for progressing in the path of acquiring Happiness. Three stages are as below:

1.Sravana Knowing the Truth: Listening to the teachings of the sages on Vedanta. Now instead of Sravana, we can use the word Study of Vedanta, because Sravana was the practice during early Vedic period as no method of writing existed.

2.Manana :Reflection is necessary: This stage is the reflection on the teachings. This means thinking about what has been heard and subjecting that into a reason based on experience gained.

3.Nididhyasana : “Faith and Steadfastness”: Stage of meditation on the Truth. It is the culmination of the practice of Sravana and Manana. We may see what BRRihadAraNyaka Upanishad says  on Nididhyasana. ” The Self , my dear Maitreyi, should be realized-should be heard of , reflected on and meditated upon; by the realization of the self, my dear”.

Sravana, Manana, Nididhyasana leads us to intuition (aparoksha Anubhuti). In this way, Brahma Kara Vritti is generated from “Sattvic anta Karana”. This “Brahma Kara Vritti” destroys the Mula-Avidya or primitive ignorance which is the root cause of all bondage, births, and deaths. When this ignorance or veil is removed, Brahman which is Self effulgent reveals itself in its pristine glory and splendour.

Conclusion:

The thirst for happiness is universal. It is the driving force behind all aspirations of human being.

Now, the question is: Where lies the happiness?

By mere empirical analysis it is difficult to find out where happiness lies, because no scientific analysis of mind can pinpoint the object of happiness. Whether it is outside or it is inside. It is neither in mind nor in any object of sense.

The answer to this question is given by the great Master Sanatkumara. Happiness neither lies in mind nor in any object, because if it is considered to be a property of mind, then it becomes finite. Same thing applies if we consider happiness as a part of object, since objects are also finite. Happiness cannot be regarded as finite because we are not satisfied with limited happiness. We are not happy with finite pleasure of this world.

In the next section: Section -23, we will learn what the Sage sanatkumara is teaching about happiness. Sanatkumara says to Narada: “Happiness is not anywhere and yet, it is everywhere. It is in a completeness of Being that you can find happiness”.

Final part of 7th Chapter The Infinite Bliss” will be published very soon !!!

Recommended readings:

  1. Back to the Truth: 5000 years of ADVAITA by Dennis Waite. **
  2. THE TEN PRINCIPAL UPANISHADS: Translated by Shree Purohit** Swami and W.B.Yeats
  3. Brahma Sutra Bhasya of Sankaracharya: Translated by Swami Gambhirananda.**
  4. Commentary of ChAndogya Upanishad: By Swami Krishnananda.
  5. ChAndogya Upanishad: By Swami GuruBhaktananda.
  6. EIGHT UPANISADS -VOL-1 with commentary of Sankaracharya, Translated by SWAMI GAMBHIRANANDA.
  7. THE TAITTIRIYA UPANISHAD: SHIKSHAVALLI-ANANDAVALLI-BHRIGUVALLI with Sri Shankara’s Commentary By Sri Swami Satchidanandera Saraswati.
  8. A-U-M Awakening to Reality: By Dennis Waite***
  9. Panchadasi: Swami Vidyaranya:
  10. Information available on internet.

It is my sincere request to the esteemed readers to share their opinion or queries if any. Suggestions to make the site attractive will be incredibly helpful for me. Readers are requested to read all the posts to have continuation of the topic from the beginning. My mail ID is: arun7663@gmail.com

The Four Great Vedic Statements [ Mahavakyas]

THE FOUR GREAT VEDIC STATEMENTS

Introduction: Four “MahaVakyas”

There are four great statements (Maha Vakyas– Great sayings), one each taken from each of four Vedas by ancient scholars. These are most famous mantras and gives the core knowledge of Veda. Traditionally these well known MahaVakyas are pointers for the aspirants seeking liberation from the cycle of births. Four MahaVakyas will be discussed in this post.

Before knowing the 4 “MahaVakyas”, let us look into one sloka from Taittiriya Upanishad.

Satyam Jnanam Anantam Brahma”:- 

Above sentence literarily means ‘the knower of “Brahman” attains the Supreme.” Taittiriya 2.1.1 which is the opening sentence of Taittiriya Upanishad. We will try to understand the essence of this sentence.

“Satyam jnanam Anantam Brahman” which means “The knower of “BRAHMAN” attains the Supreme”.  BRAHMAN is Truth, knowledge, and Infinity, which is our own very Self, the Atman.  Brahman is not an object of knowledge.  It is always witnessing subject. (দ্রষ্টা~The Seer).

First of all, we need to know the true meaning of “Brahman”.

Brahman: IT is That which is Absolute, fills all space, is complete in Itself, to which there is no second and which is continuously present in everything, in every being and everywhere. It is homogeneous in nature.

Brahman: It is the key word here!

The word “Brahman” will be used repeatedly. Meaning of Brahman is VAST. This is to be noted here that the word “Brahman” does not refer to any Cast , Creed or Sect. According to Vedanta the word ” Brahman” has been derived from the root word “brh” which means growing or expanding and suffix “man” added to it signifies absence of limitations. In Vedanta, the word Brahman is a neuter gender and hence it is referred as pronoun ” That”. It is very difficult to describe Brahman, which is ultimately indefinable, indescribable, and utterly beyond all human comprehension. Brahman can not be described through senses alone. Vedanta has however taught us how to realize Brahman which is “Supreme Consciousness”. In this article I will try to explain what I understood after reading different Scriptures. Hope readers will find it interesting and worth reading.

From Upanishads we can learn about “Brahman”.  Founder of Advaita Vedanta, 8th century scholar, Shri Adi Shankaracharya said: ” there Exists one Absolute Brahman, who is “Sat-Chit-Ananda” and homogeneous in nature .” Vedanta philosophy is part of the four Vedas are believed to be composed and orally transferred, goes back to 5000 years. The oneness of Soul(Jiva~Atman) and GOD(Param Atman), the ultimate Truth is the principal essence of Vedanta philosophy. 

The Four MahaVakyas are as follows:-

Above photo has been taken from “ANANDA DHAM”, the Ashram of my father’s Guruji. I used to visit ashram since my teen age. That time I did not understand above statements(written in Bengali script). Since then, it was in my mind to know the famous statements:

1) ” prajnAnaM brahma “:Consciousness is Infinite.

This means consciousness is Brahman. This has been taken from Rig Veda ( Aitareya Upanishad): The essence is that Brahman is Supreme knowledge. The absolute reality is the essence of what you really are.

2) ” tat-tvam-asi”: That-Thou-Art.

It means “You are that” which is from Sama Veda (ChAndogya Upanishad).

3) ” ayamAtma brahma”: This Self is the Truth.

Which means This Self is Brahman. It has been selected from Atharva Veda ( maNDukya Upanishad). Atman and Brahman are the same like the waves and the ocean are one.

4) ” aham brahmAsmi”:- I am the Infinite Reality.

Here it means “I am Brahman”. This has been taken from Yajur Veda (bRRihadAraNyaka Upanishad ).   “I AM” is that absolute reality.

Importance of the MahaVakyas:- MahaVakyas contain the essence of ageless Wisdom and Absolute Truth regarding ” Brahman” which is “SAT-CHIT-ANANDA”

To understand above four MahaVakyas, one has to study Vedanta . Vedanta consists of three basic Texts. Together they are referred as ” PRASTHANA TRAYA” , triple canon of Vedanta.

  1. Upanishads ( Shruti Prasthana):

  2. Bhagavad Gita( Smriti Prasthana : Quintessence of the teaching of entire Veda: “samasta-vedanta-sarasangraha-bhutam”).

  3. Brahma Sutra (Nyaya-Prasthana also known as uttarmimamsa sutra).

Those who wish to study the philosophy of Vedanta, may read ” The Ten Principal Upanishads” and the “Brahma Sutra” after reading the “Bhagavad Gita”. In the following paragraphs, I will write brief introduction about Brahma sutra. Rather I will emphasize on Brahma sutra because it is essential to understand the concept of Advaita Vedanta. While explaining Brahma sutra, some references of Upanishads obviously will follow.

There are four chapters in Brahma sutra. First chapter unifies Brahman. Second chapter shows no conflicts between Vedanta and other sastras (sacred texts). The third deals with practice to attain Brahman and the fourth one is result of attaining Brahman which is nothing but fruits of Self realization. The first topic of first chapter of Brahma sutra is “Jijnasadhikaranam” [ Topic-1/first chapter] which means ” The enquiry into Brahman and it’s prerequisites”. The first sentence of this chapter is ” Athato Brahmajijnasa” (Hence thereafter a deliberation on Brahman.1.1.1)

Now, this Text is for whom? A little explanation is essential here.

The Vedanta is for the person who is competent to understand and study sastras(Scriptures) ,has tranquil mind, full of faith, consistently engaged in good thoughts and associates with the knower of Truth. After attainment of certain preliminary qualifications which are known as ” SADHANA CHATUSHTAYA”~ four salvations ,one can progress towards the direction of knowing Brahman. Four salvations are:

  1. “Nitya-Anitya-vastuveveka” which means discrimination between the eternal and non eternal.
  2. ” IhamutrarthaphalabhogaViraga” : Indifference to the joys in this life or in in Heaven, and of the fruits of one’s action.
  3. ” Shatsampat : Six-fold virtues that are : i) Sama (Control of mind), ii) Dama ( Control of senses),iii) Uparati (Cessation from worldly enjoyments), iv) Titiksha ( Endurance of pleasure and pain, heat and cold), v) Sraddha (Faith), vi) Samadhana (Deep concentration).
  4. “Mumukshautva” (Desire for liberation).

Even without possessing the knowledge of “Karma Kanda” (Rituals, religious ceremonies), a desire for attaining the knowledge of Brahman( Brahma Gyan) will arise direct from the study of “Srutis”. Therefore, I will recall here the sentence ” A man full of revelation, but without desire has equal joy.” which is written in Sanskrit as ” श्रोत्रियस्यचअकामहतस्य “ means well versed in “Srutis”. Hence it implies that the enquiry of Brahman does not depend on the performance of any act but through study of Vedas. That is the essence of the section ” Ananda Valli” of Taittiriya Upanishad.

Why should one enquire Brahman? Why?

Most of the religions believe that life in earth or life in heaven are attained on the basis of one’s virtuous deeds(“KARMA”) which is transient. But once you know Brahman, you will enjoy everlasting bliss and immortality. Knowledge of Brahman destroys ignorance which is the root cause of all sufferings.

We will continue our study of Vedanta a little more in the following paragraphs. I admit that this will be lengthy for the readers, but it is essential part of Vedas which needs to be presented.

“Janmadyadhikaranam“: Definition of Brahman[Topic-2/First chapter of Brahma sutra]. First sentence here is ” Janmadyasya yatah” 1.1.2(2) means Brahman is that from which the origin, sustenance and dissolution of this Universe proceed. Brahman is eternally pure, wise, and free. He is Omnipotent and Omniscient. One can attain knowledge of brahman through reflection on it’s attributes. Would like to refer here Taittiriya upanishad-iii-1: Conversation between Varuna and his son Bhrigu Varuni on enquiry into Brahman. Bhrigu is asking his father- ” Sir, teach me Brahman”. Varuna said, ” that from whence these beings are born, that by which, when born they live, that into which they enter at their death, try to know that“. That is Brahman.

Here the point to be noted is that the origin, sustenance, and dissolution of the Universe are characteristic of the Universe because of changing (cyclic) in nature. They do not pertain to the eternal unchanging Brahman, yet they indicate Brahman which is the cause of this universe. Sruti has another definition of Brahman. ” Satyam Jnanam Anantam Brahman” means Truth, knowledge, Infinity is Brahman.

” Sastrayonitvadhikaranam” : Brahman is realizable only through the scriptures [Topic-3/First chapter of Brahma sutra]. “Sastrayonitvat”: 1.1.3(3) means the scripter is the source of right knowledge. The scriptures illumine all things like a search light. Through scripture only we get a comprehensive understanding of the nature of Brahman. Brahman is formless, colorless, attribute less. Hence it can not be grasped by the senses alone. Brahman is ONE, infinite and without second.

The Self is infinite.

There is in fact no multiplicity or plurality in that ONE, Homogeneous Being, the Supreme Being and the Ultimate. Because of superimposition and our ignorance, we have forgotten our true nature.  It alone
exists as the illuminator. This “Atman” the Real “Self” in its glorious existence, reveals its own “Sat-Chit” nature which is Anandamaya. The eternal nature of Self is Bliss only.

Vedanta says that the study of scriptures helps in realization of truth, when one is equipped with necessary fourfold discipline:-
1. Discrimination between real (Nitya নিত্য~ eternal) and unreal (Anitya অনিত্য~transitory).
2. Renunciation of the unreal (Viraga~বৈরাগ্য)
3. Six-fold qualities.
4. Longing for liberation (Moksha ~মোক্ষ প্রাপ্তি : to escape from the cycle of births and deaths)

The word “Self” is generally meant to “Atman” (soul). But the Sanskrit word is “Atman”, which cannot be translated.  This Atman is deathless, birthless, eternal and real for every individual.  It is the unchanging reality (sat ~সৎ) behind the changing body, sense organs, mind, and ego. It is Spirit, which is pure Consciousness (চিত্) and is unaffected by time-space causality. It is infinite and it is ONE without the second.
As the unchanging reality in the individual is known as Atman, same way the unchanging reality in the Universe is known as “BRAHMAN”. Vedanta says This BRAHMAN and ATMAN are one and the same.

Three key words are repeatedly used in Vedanta. Those are to be understood which are conceptual.1.Brahman: Discussed above. Next two are 2.Maya and 3.Atman; discussed below.

What is Maya? (~ Sanskrit word) :– Manifested Universe is all due to “Maya”

The appearance of this world is due to Maya-the illusory power of Brahman. Maya is neither “Sat” (existent) nor “Asat” (not existent). This world is unreal. According to Vedanta, our real nature is divine, pure, perfect, eternal, and free.  We do not have to become Brahman, because we are That. But Maya is the veil which covers our real nature. Maya is beginning less. Time arises only with Maya. It is unthinkable, indescribable (Anirvachaniya). The word illusion is often used as meaning of Maya, but scholars says it is improper. There is no equivalent word in English to mean it. What is known to us, according to ancient sacred texts, that Maya disappears when we realize our true nature.

Atman : –

Atman includes everything and everyone. It is the Total of all created beings, and so it is called Brahman. The ultimate in us is Atman. The ultimate in the cosmos is Brahman. Atman is Brahman. There can not be anything other than this Universal Reality.

According to Vedanta, The ultimate in us is ATMAN. The ultimate in Cosmos is BRAHMAN. This is the Universal Reality. Total Substance is Brahman. The same substance, when conceived as the essence of particular being is Atman. The Universe has been manifested out of this Total Substance can be said as Brahman. This is Atman, the Self of the universe. This Brahman is without a prior or a posterior, without interior or exterior. This Atman is Brahman, the perceiver of everything.

Conclusion:-

It is believed that Four MahaVakyas were chosen by Acharya Adi Sankara, and he attached 4 Mantras to 4 “Matha”s (Pitha)” in the four corners of India. Each four MahaVakyas are taken from each Veda. 

” prajnAnaM brahma “:Consciousness is Infinite [RIG VEDA]; It is connected to Govardhana Pitha

” tat-tvam-asi”: That-Thou-Art [ SAMA VEDA]; Connected to Dwarka Pitha

” ayamAtma brahma”: This Self is the Truth [ATHARVA VEDA]; Connected to Jyotirmath Pitha.                            

” aham brahmAsmi”:- I am the Infinite Reality [YAJUR VEDA]; It is connected with Sringeri Sharada Pitha

My request to the readers: Please go through some of my blogs which are relevant and specific to know more on the subject: Links are as below. 

  1. Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-6C of 6[END OF 6TH CHAPTER]
  2. Essence of Aitareya Upanishad: Part-B: 
  3. MaNDukya Upanishad- The Nature of OM: – Part-1
  4. The Divine Art !!!

Recommended readings:

  1. Back to the Truth: 5000 years of ADVAITA by Dennis Waite. **
  2. THE TEN PRINCIPAL UPANISHADS: Translated by Shree Purohit** Swami and W.B.Yeats
  3. Brahma Sutra Bhasya of Sankaracharya: Translated by Swami Gambhirananda.**
  4. Commentary of ChAndogya Upanishad: By Swami Krishnananda.
  5. Mandukya Upanishad: By Swami GuruBhaktananda.
  6. BRRihadAraNyaka Upanishad: By Swami GuruBhaktananda.
  7. Aitareya Upanishad: By Swami GuruBhaktananda.
  8. ChAndogya Upanishad: By Swami GuruBhaktananda.
  9. EIGHT UPANISADS -VOL-1 with commentary of Sankaracharya, Translated by SWAMI GAMBHIRANANDA.
  10. THE TAITTIRIYA UPANISHAD: SHIKSHAVALLI-ANANDAVALLI-BHRIGUVALLI with Sri Shankara’s Commentary By Sri Swami Satchidanandera Saraswati.
  11. A-U-M Awakening to Reality: By Dennis Waite***
  12. Panchadasi: Swami Vidyaranya:
  13. Information available on internet.

It is my sincere request to the esteemed readers to share their opinion or queries if any. Suggestions to make the site attractive will be incredibly helpful for me. Readers are requested to read all the posts to have continuation of the topic from the beginning. My mail ID is: arun7663@gmail.com

Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-7B

THE EXPANDING UNIVERSE

Introduction: Seventh Chapter:

The ChAndogya Upanishad is part of ChAndogya Brahmana of the Sama Veda which is one of the largest important Upanishads with Eight Chapters (Prapathakas) with many verses including some stories as themes to gain Upanishadic knowledge. 

**This Upanishad directly deals with the true nature of Brahman, the Supreme Self, without a second.

ChAndogya Upanishad consists of Eight chapters. The first five chapters forms the part of Karma Kanda and Upasana Kanda. Chapter- 6, 7 and 8 form the part of Jnana Kanda.

 There are 24 sections in Chapter Seven. Here we will discuss on Chapter-7, Section-7 to Section-12 to learn profound knowledge through a dialog between: Narada (the disciple) and Sage Sanatkumar, where knowledge has been imparted in steps. Each step itself is a kind of meditation. Crossing each step, one can go higher and higher and finally to the Infinity, beyond which there is nothing. That is unlimited and immortal. 

First part of Chapter-7 has been published in my blog, where Section 1 to Section 6 has been discussed. The link is here:- Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-7A

The essence of the Teaching is: – The Infinite Bliss ~ “Bhumaiva Sukham”

Journey:-    Gross → Subtle → Causal → Absolute

A request to my readers: Please read my previous posts on ChAndogya Upanishad, especially 6th chapter. Links are given below:

  1. Chapter Six: Section-1 to Section-4(Khanda-1 to Khanda-4). The link is here:  Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-6A of 6
  2. Chapter Six: Section-5 to Section-8(Khanda-5 to Khanda-8). The link is here: Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-6B of 6
  3. Chapter Six: Section-9 to Section-16(Khanda-9 to Khanda-16). The link is here: Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-6C of 6[END OF 6TH CHAPTER]

॥ छान्दोग्योपनिषत्  –  सप्तमोऽध्यायः ॥

Structure of 7th Chapter!

Mathematically, consider "Name" as an elementary set and it is subset of Speech. In this way each step are to be considered as subset of the next. Finally, all the subsets become elements of Universal set. Each stage has its significance and important to live life. Please try to understand the concept.

Part-2: Section: 6-8 (Total 6 Mantras): “DHARMA-the Universal Law”

Mantra-6.2.2: What is above Contemplation?

Narada: ” Sir, Is there anything above Contemplation”?

Sanatkumara:” Yes, than contemplation, there is something greater.”

Narada: ” Sir, then please elaborate.”

Section-7: “Vijnaanam”- Wisdom [2 Mantras]

Mantra-7.1: What is above Contemplation?

Mantra-7.1.1 Wisdom [understanding] is above Contemplation.

**Note:   Understanding of scriptures is necessary for contemplation. Through understanding, one achieves Wisdom.

Mantra-7.1.2: All sciences are understood by Wisdom.

Wisdom is above Contemplation. By wisdom alone can the Rig- Veda be understood. This is true for the Yajur Veda, Saama Veda, Atharva Veda as the fourth. the History and Puranas as the fifth, the Veda of Vedas-grammar, the rules for the worship of ancestors, mathematics, the science of portents, the science of treasures, logic, the science of ethics, the science of gods, the ancillary knowledge of the Vedas, physical science, the science of War, the science of the stars, the science related to serpents, the fine arts(celestials)

Mantra-7.1.3: All elements and Creatures are understood.

By Wisdom also understood the following subjects: All Elements: Air and Space, Water and Fire, gods and men, all creatures such as animals and birds, grasses and trees, beasts down to worms, flying insects and ants.

Mantra-7.1.4: All values, Food and Worlds are understood.

By wisdom we understand merit and demerit (all values) true and false, good, and bad, pleasant, and unpleasant, food and drink, this World and the next.

Mantra-7.1.5: Therefore, worship Wisdom.

Mantra- 7.2: Beyond Wisdom:

Mantra-7.2.1: Fruit gained by Wisdom.

Who worships Wisdom as Brahman, attains all knowledge and experience, moves within the limits of its subject, as it may please him, provided he worships Wisdom as nothing but Brahman.

Mantra-7.2.2: What is above Wisdom?

Narada: ” Sir, Is there anything above Wisdom”?

Sanatkumara:” Yes, Power is above Wisdom”

Narada: ” Sir, then please elaborate.”

Section-8: ” Balaam”- Strength (Power) [2 Verses]

Mantra-8.1.1:  Power (Strength) is above Wisdom.

Mantra-8.1.2: Greatness of a Powerful man:

One powerful man terrifies a hundred wise men.

Mantra-8.1.3:  Power helps on Spiritual Journey from beginning to End:

When man becomes powerful (gains great strength), he rises (gains spiritual power); as he rises, he serves (Karma Yoga). as he serves, he associates with wise (Discipleship), he sees, hears (Sravana), thinks (Manana), knows (Nididhyasana), acts (intense Tapas), and he realizes (Attains Self).

** Note: Power or Strength whatever the word be, “Balaam” is the Sanskrit word. Here strength does not mean just physical strength. Intellectual strength also is to be considered here. 

Mantra-8.1.4:  Power holds everything firm:

Through power we are masters of Earth, sky, heaven, mountain, men, gods, cattle, herbs, trees, beasts, worms, midges, and ants.

Mantra-8.1.5: Therefore, Worship Power.

Mantra-8.2: Beyond Power

Mantra-8.2.1: The Fruit gained from Power.

Who worships power as Brahman, moves within the limits of the powerful, as it may please him, provided he worships power as nothing but Brahman.

** Note: The word Power (or Strength) used here is not just the strength of the Body. It is to be understood as deep inner spiritual Power or strength. The primary means to obtain this power is ” Brahmacharya” [ Brahmacharya- celibacy:-  Right use of energy: sutra 2.38 says ” Brahmacharya pratisthayam viryalabhah”.  It is about controlled and disciplined sex. Brahmacharya does not mean cut off from sex. According to explanations of the above sutras by the scholars it is said that “Virya” , the seminal fluid is our life. If stored properly, it can generate lot of energy. When absorbed into the system it gets transformed into prana. Conserved sexual energy in woman also gets transformed. Seminal fluid gives stamina and strength to the brain and nerves. ## To know more:–Readers are requested to read my post on Ashtanga Yoga: Part-3]

Mantra-8.2.2: Is there anything above Power (Strength)?

Narada: ” Sir, Is there anything above Power”?

Sanatkumara:” Yes, than Power there is something above”

Narada: ” Sir, then please elaborate.”

Part-3: Section: 9-12 (Total 8 Mantras):                          ” JAGAT-the Universe”

**Note: In part-1, we have seen discussion on levels from Name up to Intelligence. In this part we have seen development of Individual’s potential. In part-2 we have seen development of Principle of righteousness. In the following part, part-3 we will see how the fundamental Elements: Food, Fire and Earth contribute our development in the level of Universe. Here we will learn how to establish connection with the entire manifested Universe. This knowledge will strengthen further for smooth Spiritual journey to reach the Goal.

Section-9: ” Annam”- Food [2 Verses]

Mantra-9.1.1:  Food is above Strength (Power).

Mantra-9.1.2:  Effect of not Eating:

If a man abstains from food for even 10 days, though he may live, he cannot see, hear, think, discriminate, act, or learn.

Importance of Food: This we have seen in many parts of different Upanishads. In Chandagyo Upanishad; Chapter-6; Khanda-7 sage Uddalaka has given lesson to Svetaketu. Please read this section: Link is here: Mantra-7.1: Svetaketu was instructed to Fast:

Mantra-9.1.3:  Effect of Eating:

When he eats, he will see, hear, think, discriminate, act, and know.

Mantra-9.1.4: Therefore, Worship Food.

Mantra-9.2: Beyond Food:

Mantra-9.2.1: The Fruit gained by Worshiping Food.

Who worships Food as Brahman, he obtains Food and drink as much as he likes, moves within the limit of all that eat, as it may please him, provided he worships food as nothing but Brahman.

Mantra-9.2.2: Is there anything above Power (Strength)?

Narada: ” Sir, Is there anything above Food”?

Sanatkumara:” Yes, than Food, there is something above”

Narada: ” Sir, then please elaborate.”

Section-10: ” Aapah”- Water [2 Verses]

** Point to be noted here: The Elements mentioned in the following sections are all equally important. Hence the sequence of superiority may be treated as secondary matter. In the process of creation, all the five basic Elements, from subtle to gross are equally important for the sustenance and maintenance of Life and the Creation.

Mantra-10.1.1:  Water is above Food.

Mantra-10.1.2:  The greatness of Rain.

In absence of Rain, creatures fall sick for lack of food. But when plentiful rain is there, living creatures become joyous, thinking, ” There will be plenty of Food.”

Mantra-10.1.3:  The greatness of Water.

All are images made of Water, Earth, Sky, Heaven, Mountain, Men, gods, cattle, herbs, trees, beasts, down to worms, midges, ants, Worship water.

Mantra-10.1.4:  Therefore, Worship Water.

Mantra-10.2: Beyond Water:

Mantra-10.2.1: The Fruit gained by Worshiping Water.

He who worships water as Brahman, he obtains all desires, becomes satisfied, and attains the sphere reached by wate. He is free to act as he wishes. Such is he worships water as nothing but Brahman.

Mantra-10.2.2: Is there anything above Water

Narada: ” Sir, Is there anything above Water”?

Sanatkumara:” Yes, than Water, there is something above”

Narada: ” Sir, then please elaborate.”

Section-11: ” Tejah”- Energy(Fire) [2 Verses]

Photo by Bradley Hook on Pexels.com

Mantra-11.1.1:  Fire is above Water

Mantra-11.1.2:  Fire (Tejah) produces Rain.

It is this Fire that, having seized the Air, warms up the space. People then say, ” It is hot, it is burning hot, there will be rain surely. Therefore, first we see Fire and then Rain follows.

Mantra-11.1.3:  Lightning flashes before Rain.

Fire creates heat. Heat makes thunder roll, makes lightning strike, whether above or below. People say: ” There is Thunder, it will rain.” It is Fire first, then water!

** Note: ” Tejah” : Commonly we use the word Fire. Sometime the word Light is also used to glorify the Sanskrit word ” Tejah”. This fire is the symbol of knowledge as well as symbol of purity. Fire burns all impurities. 

Mantra-11.1.4:  Therefore, Worship Fire.

Mantra-11.2: Beyond Fire:

Mantra-11.2.1: The Fruit gained by Worshiping Fire

Who meditates on Fire as Brahman, becomes bright, attains the receptacles of Light, full of brilliance without darkness; moves within the limits of all that is bright as it may please him, provided he worships Fire as nothing but Brahman.

** Pointes to be noted here: The word Fire may not be alone sufficient to describe “Tejah”. Light also can be used instead. However, this Tejah is meant for SUN. Different Upanishads described the significance of Tejah and SUN. Air, Space, Water, cloud, Rain, lightning etc. all are related in the Solar System. As such SuryaLoka which is none other than BrahmaLoka is the highest world of 14 Worlds (Loka) described in Vedas. Liberation is assured for sadhakas who reaches BrahmaLoka. Of course, this Liberation is “Karma Mukti”, not the “Jivan Mukti”

Mantra-11.2.2: Is there anything above “Tejah”[ Fire]

Narada: ” Sir, Is there anything above Fire”?

Sanatkumara:” Yes, than Fire, there is something above”

Narada: ” Sir, then please elaborate.”

Section-12:” Aakaashah”- Space” [2 Verses]

Mantra-12.1.1:  Space is above Fire.

Mantra-12.1.2:  Space makes room for everything.

In space, indeed, exist the SUN, the Moon, lightning, Stars and Fire.

Mantra-12.1.3: The Greatness of Space.

Through Space sound travels, through Space one hears, through Space the reply comes. In Space one rejoices, in space another does not rejoice. In Space a thing is born and grows after birth.

Mantra-12.1.4:  Therefore, Worship Space.

Mantra-12.2: Beyond Space:

Mantra-12.2.1: The Fruit gained by Worshiping Space.

He, who worships Space as brahman, attains the receptacles of light, free from sorrow, free from bondage, moves within the limits of Space, as it may please him, provided he worships space as nothing but Brahman.

Mantra-12.2.2: Is there anything above “Aakaashah”[Space]

Narada: ” Sir, Is there anything above Space”?

Sanatkumara:” Yes, there is something above”

Narada: ” Sir, then please elaborate.”

Conclusion:-

The entire chapter is conceptual. Aim is to gain higher knowledge.

Knowledge is gained in stages. The order of knowledge given by Sanatkumara is from Gross to Subtle to Subtlest[finer to finest] and then to Causal. And finally, Causal to Absolute. It must be understood that as the knowledge goes higher, the mastery over the previous knowledge is included in the next stage. See below: How you gain height of knowledge from “Name and Fame” to Ultimate Reality:- 

Next two parts of 7th Chapter will be published soon !!!

Recommended readings:

  1. Back to the Truth: 5000 years of ADVAITA by Dennis Waite. **
  2. THE TEN PRINCIPAL UPANISHADS: Translated by Shree Purohit** Swami and W.B.Yeats
  3. Brahma Sutra Bhasya of Sankaracharya: Translated by Swami Gambhirananda.**
  4. Commentary of ChAndogya Upanishad: By Swami Krishnananda.
  5. ChAndogya Upanishad: By Swami GuruBhaktananda.
  6. EIGHT UPANISADS -VOL-1 with commentary of Sankaracharya, Translated by SWAMI GAMBHIRANANDA.
  7. THE TAITTIRIYA UPANISHAD: SHIKSHAVALLI-ANANDAVALLI-BHRIGUVALLI with Sri Shankara’s Commentary By Sri Swami Satchidanandera Saraswati.
  8. A-U-M Awakening to Reality: By Dennis Waite***
  9. Panchadasi: Swami Vidyaranya:
  10. Information available on internet.

It is my sincere request to the esteemed readers to share their opinion or queries if any. Suggestions to make the site attractive will be incredibly helpful for me. Readers are requested to read all the posts to have continuation of the topic from the beginning. My mail ID is: arun7663@gmail.com

Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-7A

Introduction: Seventh Chapter:

The ChAndogya Upanishad is part of ChAndogya Brahmana of the Sama Veda which is one of the largest important Upanishads with Eight Chapters (Prapathakas) with many verses including some stories as themes to gain Upanishadic knowledge. This Upanishad is placed in the 9th position in the list of Ten Principal Upanishads. The name of the Upanishad is derived from the word   “Chanda” (Rhythm~ poetic meter).

**This Upanishad directly deals with the true nature of Brahman, the Supreme Self, without a second.

ChAndogya Upanishad consists of Eight chapters. The first five chapters forms the part of Karma Kanda and Upasana Kanda. Chapter- 6, 7 and 8 form the part of Jnana Kanda.

 There are 24 sections in Chapter Seven. Here we will discuss on Chapter-7, Section-1 to Section-6 to learn profound knowledge, the Highest knowledge, through a dialog between: Narada (the disciple) and Sage Sanatkumar.

This chapter will be published in 4 Parts:

The essence of the Teaching is: – The Infinite Happiness ~ “Bhumaiva Sukham”

A request to my readers: Please read my previous posts on ChAndogya Upanishad, especially 6th chapter. Links are given below:

  1. Chapter Six: Section-1 to Section-4(Khanda-1 to Khanda-4). The link is here:  Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-6A of 6
  2. Chapter Six: Section-5 to Section-8(Khanda-5 to Khanda-8). The link is here: Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-6B of 6
  3. Chapter Six: Section-9 to Section-16(Khanda-9 to Khanda-16). The link is here: Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-6C of 6[END OF 6TH CHAPTER]

॥ छान्दोग्योपनिषत्  –  सप्तमोऽध्यायः ॥

Structure of 7th Chapter!

Entire 7th Chapter is focused on ” Bhumavidya” means the knowledge of Infinity: “Brahma Gyan”. The knowledge has been imparted by the sage Sanatkumar to the sage Narada, step wise. Each step itself is a kind of meditation. Crossing each step one can go higher and higher and finally to the Infinity, beyond which nothing is there. That is unlimited and immortal.

Part-1: Section: 1-5 (Total 15 Mantras):                          ” The Individual SOUL

Mantra1.1: Narada’s request to Sanatkumara:

OM; “Revered Sir, teach me”, thus did Narada approach Sanatkumara. Sanatkumara replied: ” Declaring what you already know, come to me. I shall tell you what is beyond.

Mantra1.2: Narada’s Qualification:

Narada then said: ” Revered Sir, I know the Rig Veda, the Yajur Veda, and the Sama Vedas, the Atharva as the fourth. The Itihasas and Puranas as the fifth; Vedic grammar; forms of ancestor worship; mathematics; the science of portents; the science of treasures; logic; the science of ethics; etymology; the preliminary Vedas; physical science; the science of serpents; and of celestials-all this I know, Revered Sir.

Mantra1.3: Narada’s Quest:

1.3.1: Narada Seeks Knowledge

“Revered Sir, I am only knower of verbal Texts, not a knower of the Self. Indeed, I have heard from persons like your revered Self thar a knower of the Self goes beyond grief.”

1.3.2: Narada wants escape from the ocean of grief.

“I am in such a state of grief. May your Revered Self take me across this ocean of grief.”

1.3.3: Guru’s Assessment:

Sage Sanatkumara replied to Narada: ” Whatever you have studied so far is really, nothing but a Name only. [ mere certificates]

[Knower of the Brahman is Brahman:]

Mantra1.4: The greatness of Name:

1.4.1: The Value of Education

Name: Indeed is: The Rig Veda, The Yajur Veda, and the Sama Vedas, the Atharva as the fourth. The Itihasas and Puranas as the fifth; Vedic grammar; forms of ancestor worship; mathematics; the science of portents; the science of treasures; logic; the science of ethics; etymology; the preliminary Vedas; physical science; the science of the war; the science of the stars; the science related to serpents; the science of the celestials i.e. fine arts.

1.4.2: Therefore, worship the Name:

Name alone is Brahman, so worship the Name.

Mantra1.5: Beyond the Name:

1.5.1: The fruit gained by the mastery of Name:

He who in Name, worships the Infinite, attains the sphere within reach of Name. He is free to act as he wishes. Such is he who in Name worships the Infinite!

स यो नाम ब्रह्मेत्युपास्ते यावन्नाम्नो गतं तत्रास्य यथाकामचारो भवति यो नाम ब्रह्मेत्युपास्तेऽस्ति भगवो नाम्नो भूय इति नाम्नो वाव भूयोऽस्तीति तन्मे भगवान्ब्रवीत्विति ॥ ७.१.५॥

1.5.2: What is greater than Name?

Narada: ” Sir, Is there anything greater than Name”?

Sanatkumara:” Yes, than Name, there is something greater.

Narada: ” Sir, please elaborate”

Section-2: Vaak- speech (2 mantras):

Mantra-2.1: What is greater than Name?

2.1.1: Speech surely is greater than name.

2.1.2: The Greatness of Speech:

Speech makes us understand the Rig Veda; the Yajur Veda and the Sama Vedas, the Atharva as the fourth. The Itihasas and Puranas as the fifth; Vedic grammar; forms of ancestor worship; mathematics; the science of portents; the science of treasures; logic; the science of ethics; etymology; the ancillary knowledge of Vedas; physical science; the science of the war; the science of the stars; the science related to serpents; the science of the celestials i.e. fine arts. Also, Heaven and Earth [ All elements], Air, Space, and Water, Fire, [All creatures], animals, birds, grasses and trees, beasts down to warms, flying insects and ants, merit, and demerit; [ All Values]; the true and false; the good and bad; the pleasant and unpleasant. Verily, if speech did not exist, all values: neither merit, nor demerit would we understand; neither true nor false; neither good nor bad; neither pleasant nor unpleasant.

2.1.3: Therefore, worship Speech:

All this Speech alone makes us understand. Hence, worship Speech.

Mantra-2.2: Beyond Speech:

2.2.1: The fruit gained by the mastery of Speech:

He who in Speech, worships the Infinite, attains the sphere within reach of Speech. He is free to act as he wishes. Such is he who in Speech worships the Infinite!

2.2.1: What is greater than Speech?

Narada: ” Sir, Is there anything greater than Speech”?

Sanatkumara:” Yes, than Speech, there is something greater.”

Narada: ” Sir, please elaborate.”

Section-3: “Manah”-Mind (2 mantras):

Mantra-3.1: What is greater than Speech?

3.1.1:  Mind surely is greater than Speech.

3.1.2:  Mind encompasses its Predecessors:

Just as two amalakas, or two kolas or two akshas are encompassed by closed fist; so also, both Speech and Name are encompassed by the Mind.

[ In this Mantra, the significance of example is that the Mind is the Palm, and the two fruits are the Speech and Name. Name and Speech are the tools used by the Mind to express itself]

3.1.3:  Mind makes the intention:

When by the mind one intends, ” Let me learn the Mantras”, then he learns; ” Let me do sacrificial acts”, then he does; ” Let me desire offspring and cattle”, then he desires; ” Let me desire this world and the next”, then he desires.

3.1.4:  Worship the Mind:

Mind indeed is the Self; Mind indeed is the world. Mind indeed is the Infinite Truth. Hence, worship with the Mind.

Mantra-3.2: Beyond Mind:

3.2.1: The fruit gained by the mastery of Mind:

He who in Mind, worships the Infinite, attains the sphere within reach of Mind. He is free to act as he wishes. Such is he who in Mind worships the Infinite!

3.2.1: What is greater than Mind?

Narada: ” Sir, Is there anything greater than Mind”?

Sanatkumara:” Yes, than Mind, there is something greater.”

Narada: ” Sir, then please elaborate.”

Section-4: “Sankalpa”-Will (3 mantras):

Mantra-4.1: What is greater than Mind?

4.1.1:  Will surely is greater than Mind.

** Note: Though mind is very important, but it needs to be guided by the Will (Sankalpa). Mind is always wavering. It cannot decide. Will determines what actions are required to achieve the goal.

4.1.2: From Will arise all Predecessors.

Verily, when one wills, then he intends in his Mind. He sends forth his Speech. Of course, he sends forth in a Name. In the Name the Mantras are formed, and in the Mantras the Sacrifices are formed.

Mantra-4.2: The Greatness of Will:

Mantra-4.2.1: Will is the Origin of its Predecessors:

All these, indeed, merge in the Will, are made up of the Will, and abide in the Will.

Mantra-4.2.2: Will at the Causal Level:

Heaven and Earth willed; Air and Space Willed; Water and Fire willed.

***NOTE: This we have seen in multiple occasions throughout Upanishads. Will is the root of the earth, heaven, of all Worlds, Of space, Air, Fire, water, Food, life, and all that works. The will is the origin and end of the phenomenal world. Because of will, each force of nature plays its role.

Mantra-4.2.3: The Chain of Will at the Subtle & Gross Level.

By the Will of these, Rain wills. By the Will of Rain, Food wills. By the Will of Food, Pranas will. By the Will of the Pranas, Mantras will. By the Will of Mantras, Sacrificial acts will, by the Will of Sacrificial acts, the World Wills, by the Will of the world, all things Will.

Mantra-4.2.4: Therefore, Worship Will.

This is the great power of the Will. Hence, worship in the Will.

John Wheeler suggested that reality is created by observers and that ” no phenomenon is a real phenomenon until it is an observed phenomenon. John Wheeler indeed firmly believed that we live in a very interactive Universe, implying that Humans and probably other intelligent species function as observers. They thereby influence the Universe at the most fundamental level and actively participate in the fabric of reality and evolution of the Universe. He also proposed that Universe is a self-synthesized information system.

Mantra-4.3: Beyond Will

Mantra-4.3.1: Mastery Over Will:

He who in Will, worships the Infinite.

Mantra-4.3.2: As is the Goal, so the attainment.

Indeed, the worlds willed by Him, being permanent, the permanent worlds; being well-founded, the well-founded worlds, being Un distressed, the Un distressed worlds; these he attains.

Mantra-4.3.3: Fruit gained by Mastery of Will.

He who in Will, worships the Infinite, attains the sphere within reach of Will. He is free to act as he wishes. Such is he who in Will worships the Infinite!

Mantra-4.3.4: What is greater than Will?

Narada: ” Sir, Is there anything greater than Will”?

Sanatkumara:” Yes, than Will, there is something greater.”

Narada: ” Sir, then please elaborate.”

Section-5: “Chittam”-Intelligence (3 mantras):

Mantra-5.1: What is greater than Will?

Mantra-5.1.1: Intelligence is greater than Will?

Mantra-5.1.2: From Intelligence arise all Predecessors:

Verily, when one understands, then he wills, then he intends in Mind, then he sends forth Speech, and he sends it forth in a Name. In the name the Mantras become one, and in Mantras the Sacrifices become one.

Mantra-5.2: Greatness of Intelligence:

** Note: Will (Sankalpa) is good but suppose you cannot discriminate, and you will (determine) for an Evil deed, then that kind of will certainly not good for the mankind. Hence Intelligence must guide the will. Intelligence is the power to judge what is good and bad, what is right and wrong, and then a person makes an appropriate decision. That is the greatness of intelligence over will.

Mantra-5.2.1: Intelligence is above all its predecessors.

All these, indeed, merge in Intelligence, are made up of it, and abide in it.

Mantra-5.2.2: The apparently and truly Intelligent:

Therefore, even a man who knows a lot, but if he is without Intelligence, as ” He does not exist,” – this is how people speak of him. If he does really know, if he were really learned, he would not be without intelligence. On the other hand, though knowing little, if he is endowed with intelligence, him, we note, that people are keen to hear.

Mantra-5.2.3: Therefore, worship Intelligence:

Intelligence, indeed, of the others so far is the one abode of mergence for them all. Intelligence is their Soul and their support. Hence, worship with Intelligence.

Mantra-5.3: Beyond Intelligence:

Mantra-5.3.1: Mastery over Intelligence:

He worships the Infinite with Intelligence.

Mantra-5.3.2: As is the Goal, so the Attainment.

Indeed, the worlds of intelligence, being permanent, the permanent worlds; being well-founded, the well-founded worlds, being Un distressed, the Un distressed worlds; these he attains.

Mantra-5.3.3: Fruit gained by Mastery of Intelligence.

He reaches the sphere of Intelligence. He is free to act as he wishes. Such is he who with Intelligence worships the Infinite.

Mantra-5.3.4: What is greater than Intelligence?

Narada: ” Sir, Is there anything greater than Intelligence”?

Sanatkumara:” Yes, than Intelligence, there is something greater.”

Narada: ” Sir, then please elaborate.”

Part-2: Section: 6-8 (Total 6 Mantras):                          ” DHARMA-the Universal Law”

Section-6: “Dhyaanam- Contemplation [2 Verses]

Mantra-6.1: What is greater than Intelligence?

Mantra-6.1.1: Contemplation is greater than Intelligence?

Mantra-6.1.2: Greatness of Contemplation:

The Earth contemplates as it were. The sky contemplates as it were. Heaven contemplates as it were. Water contemplates as it were. The Mountains contemplate as it were. Divine beings and men contemplate as it were.

Mantra-6.1.3: The Great compared to the mean-minded.

Therefore, verily, among men here, of those who attain greatness, a share of the result of contemplation they seem to have obtained. How small-minded are the, the abusive and the slanderous, in comparison to the genuinely great ones! Truly, a share of the result of contemplation they seem to have obtained.

Mantra-6.1.4: Therefore, worship Contemplation.

Mantra-6.2: Beyond Contemplation:

Mantra-6.2.1: Fruit gained by Mastery of Contemplation.

Who worships the Infinite with Contemplation, goes to the Sphere reached by Contemplation. He is free to act as he wishes. Such is he who worships the Infinite with Contemplation.

Mantra-6.2.2: What is greater than Contemplation?

Narada: ” Sir, Is there anything greater than Contemplation”?

Sanatkumara:” Yes, than contemplation, there is something greater.”

Narada: ” Sir, then please elaborate.”

Section-7: “Vijnaanam”- Wisdom [2 Mantras]: to be continued….[Next Part:-  coming soon!!]

Conclusion:

In this section we have seen that sage Narada was proficient in Vedas, Epics, Puranas, rule of grammar, Ethics, Politics, Physical science, music, art, astrology, astronomy, six auxiliary limbs of Vedas, and all science related to this world and beyond. Sage Narada realised that these Qualifications are mere Name only. Yet, he was not satisfied with his knowledge, because he wanted to have knowledge which will give him permanent Happiness. Therefore, Narada approached Sanatkumara to learn “Bhooma Vidya”. Narada surrendered before Sanatkumar, saying : ” I have heard from other people that a person who knows the Self, crosses over sorrow. What is this Self? I am in sorrow. I am in a state of grief in spite of all this learning that I have. I have come to you, great master, with a request to take me beyond the ocean of sorrow”.

Recommended readings:
  1. Back to the Truth: 5000 years of ADVAITA by Dennis Waite. **
  2. THE TEN PRINCIPAL UPANISHADS: Translated by Shree Purohit** Swami and W.B.Yeats
  3. Brahma Sutra Bhasya of Sankaracharya: Translated by Swami Gambhirananda.**
  4. Commentary of ChAndogya Upanishad: By Swami Krishnananda.
  5. ChAndogya Upanishad: By Swami GuruBhaktananda.
  6. EIGHT UPANISADS -VOL-1 with commentary of Sankaracharya, Translated by SWAMI GAMBHIRANANDA.
  7. THE TAITTIRIYA UPANISHAD: SHIKSHAVALLI-ANANDAVALLI-BHRIGUVALLI with Sri Shankara’s Commentary By Sri Swami Satchidanandera Saraswati.
  8. A-U-M Awakening to Reality: By Dennis Waite***
  9. Panchadasi: Swami Vidyaranya:
  10. Information available on internet.

It is my sincere request to the esteemed readers to share their opinion or queries if any. Suggestions to make the site attractive will be incredibly helpful for me. Readers are requested to read all the posts to have continuation of the topic from the beginning. My mail ID is: arun7663@gmail.com

Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-6C of 6[END OF 6TH CHAPTER]

Introduction: Sixth Chapter:

The ChAndogya Upanishad is part of ChAndogya Brahmana of the Sama Veda which is one of the largest important Upanishads with Eight Chapters (Prapathakas) with many verses including some stories as themes to gain Upanishadic knowledge. This Upanishad is placed in the 9th position in the list of Ten Principal Upanishads. The name of the Upanishad is derived from the word “Chanda” (Rhythm~ poetic meter). This Upanishad directly deals with the true nature of Brahman, the Supreme Self, without a second.

ChAndogya Upanishad consists of Eight chapters. The first five chapters forms the part of Karma Kanda and Upasana Kanda. Chapter Six, Seven and Eight form the part of Jnana Kanda.
Sage Uddalaka’s son Svetaketu , having gone when 12 years old returned from Gurukul when he was 24 yrs. old, having studied all the Vedas.
Chapter Six contains Sixteen sections. On chapter Six, I have already covered Section-1 to Section-10 (Khanda-1 to Khanda-10). Please read my previous posts on Chapter Six: the links of which are given below:

  1. Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-6A of 6
  2. Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-6B of 6

Here we will see Section-11 to Section-16 to learn profound knowledge through dialog between Sage Uddalaka and his son Svetaketu.

Section-11: (Four Mantras).

The Sap of Life:

Mantra-11.1: Simile: Sap is all pervading!

Of this large Tree, dear boy, if anyone were to strike at its root, it would exude sap, a sign that is alive; if anyone were to strike in the middle, it would exude sap, a sign that it is alive; if anyone were to strike at the top, it would exude sap, a sign that it is alive. This tree by the living, sap is pervaded. Drinking constantly, it stands firm, rejoicing.

[** Every part of the Tree: “the root, the middle and the top”- is bursting with the juice of life. The tree feels this life-force and rejoices, not just now and then but constantly. It is “drinking”, i.e. always celebrating life. Why cannot we follow the example of the Tree? The existence of the Tree, the working of the Tree, the living of the Tree is due to this vitality which is referable back to Pure Being, “The Sat” which is present not only in Tree but in everything else.]

Mantra-11.2: Simile: Sap gives life!

If from one branch of this tree the life leaves, then the branch dies up. If from a second branch it leaves, then the branch, too, dries up. If from the third branch it leaves, then the branch, too, dries up. If from the whole tree life leaves, then the whole tree dries up.

[**What we call death is the departing of life from a particular body. So, death is not the death of life principle itself. ]

Mantra-11.3: Application: The Self is life-Giving Sap!

Even so, my dear boy, know thus, said the Father, ” Left by the living Self, this body surely dies, but the living Self does not die.”

Mantra-11.4a: The Conclusion- ” Tat-Tvam-Asi”

That Existence is this same subtle essence. Superimposed on IT is this entire world. (The entire world has That as itself, its Essence.) That is the Truth; That is the Self. ” That Thou Art”, O Svetaketu.

Mantra-11.4b: Svetaketu wants more Clarity:

Svetaketu asks:” Revered Sir, won’t you please explain it further to me?” The father replies: ” Be it so, dear boy.”

Section-12: (Four Mantras).

The Seed and the Banyan Tree:

Mantra-12.1: Simile: the Banyan Tree!

Father: ” Bring a fruit from Banyan Tree. Boy: ” Here it is, Revered Sir!
Father: ” Break it Boy: ” It is broken, Revered Sir!
Father: “What do you see in this? Boy: “These small particles of seeds, Sir!”
Father: ” Break one of these, my child. Boy: ” It is broken, Revered Sir!”
Father: “What do you see in it? Boy: “Nothing, Revered Sir!”

Mantra-12.2: Simile: Power locked in a Seed!

To his son the Father said: ” This subtle essence, dear boy, you do not perceive. Growing from this subtle essence, dear boy, is this huge Banyan Tree which now stands before us. Have Faith dear boy.”

** Elaboration: This little so-called subtle essence is pervading the entire Tree. What makes it possible that an atomic little speck pervades the large expanse of the Tree? The so-called large Tree is nothing but whatever is contained inside one seed, a jelly like substance. That is The Being, essence of the vast Tree of this Universe. This Being is the essence of the whole Universe. As such, we can say that ‘Being’ is one’s own Self” Tat-Tvam-Asi”. Every branch of the Tree, every leaf of the Tree, flowers of the Tree and each part of the Tree is that Essence. The same Being. This is true all of us, all individuals (Atman)

Mantra-12.3a: The Conclusion- ” Tat-Tvam-Asi”

That Existence is this same subtle essence. Superimposed on IT is this entire world. (The entire world has That as its Self, its Essence.) That is the Truth; That is the Self. ” That Thou Art”, O Svetaketu.

Mantra-12.3b: Svetaketu wants more Clarity:

Svetaketu asks:” Revered Sir, won’t you please explain it further to me?” The father replies: ” Be it so, dear boy.”

Section-13: (Three Mantras):

The Dissolved Salt: Salt solution analogy:

Mantra-13.1: Simile: Salt dissolved into water!

The father said to the boy:” Put this salt into water and then come to me in the morning. The boy did as he was advised.
The father said in the next morning:” Last night the salt which you put into the water, please bring it, my child.” Having searched for it, he did not find it, as it had completely dissolved.

Mantra-13.2: Application: The Salt is the Self!

i) All- pervasiveness of the Salt:

Father said:” My child, from the top of this water take a sip. How is it? Boy: ” It is saline.”
Father said:” Take a sip from the middle. How is it? Boy: ” It is saline.”
Father said:” Take a sip from the bottom. How is it? Boy: ” It is saline.”

ii) Invisibility of the Salt

Father: Throw this water away and come to me. He did as he was told. Boy: The salt is there throughout.

iii) Conclusion Drawn:

To him the Father said: Indeed, it is there! Existence, dear boy, also you do not see; but It is there all the same!

Mantra-13.3a: The Conclusion- ” Tat-Tvam-Asi”

That Existence is this same subtle essence. Superimposed on IT is this entire world. (The entire world has That as its Self, its Essence.) That is the Truth; That is the Self. ” That Thou Art”, O Svetaketu.

Mantra-13.3b: Svetaketu wants more Clarity:

Svetaketu asks:” Revered Sir, won’t you please explain it further to me?” The father replies: ” Be it so, dear boy.”

Section-14: (Three Mantras):

The Blindfolded Captive.

Mantra-14.1a: A man is blindfolded and abandoned:

For example, dear boy, if a man from the Gandhara province were taken to and abandoned in a forest blindfolded. There whether he is facing the north, or the east, or the south, or the west- he would shout for help: ” I have been brought here blindfolded and abandoned.”

Mantra-14.1b: The man gets direction and reaches destination:

Now imagine that thereupon some good man might take off the eye-bandage and instruct him; ” The Gandhara region is in this direction, kindly proceed along this direction, village to village, by enquiry, instructions and judgement”. Ultimately the Man returns the Gandhara region.

Mantra-14.2: Necessity of a Guide:

Even so, in this world, one who has a guide such a man gets to know the right direction. For him, the only delay now is that of taking the steps to get liberated and then merging in the Truth.

Mantra-14.3a: The Conclusion- ” Tat-Tvam-Asi”

That Existence is this same subtle essence. Superimposed on IT is this entire world. (The entire world has That as its Self, its Essence.) That is the Truth; That is the Self. ” That Thou Art”, O Svetaketu.

Mantra-14.3b: Svetaketu wants more Clarity:

Svetaketu asks:” Revered Sir, won’t you please explain it further to me?” The father replies: ” Be it so, dear boy.”

Section-15: (Three Mantras):

A Sick Man on his Death Bed:

Mantra-15.1: Simile: A dying man!

Dear boy, take an example of a sick man, where all his relatives assemble and ask him:” Do you remember me?” As long as his speech is not merged in the Mind, the mind in Prana, prana in Fire and fire in the Supreme Deity (Existence~ SAT), so long he knows them.

Mantra-15.2: Application: Merging into The Absolute: Supreme Deity (Existence~ SAT)!

When his Speech is merged in the Mind, mind in Prana, Prana in fire, and Fire in the Supreme Deity (Existence), therefore, he really knows them not!

Points to be noted: For a sage, the process of dying described in the example above, signifies the cessation of ignorance. The outcome is Enlightenment. The whole meaning is philosophical which represents Self-Realisation. Speech represents all the organs of senses. When Speech is merged, mind still functions. but when mind is merged in Prana, it is the stage of samadhi. all thoughts are diminished, except the finest of them.

Mantra-15.3a: The Conclusion- ” Tat-Tvam-Asi”
That Existence is this same subtle essence. Superimposed on IT is this entire world. (The entire world has That as its Self, its Essence.) That is the Truth; That is the Self. ” That Thou Art”, O Svetaketu.

Mantra-15.3b: Svetaketu wants more Clarity:

Svetaketu asks:” Revered Sir, won’t you please explain it further to me?” The father replies: ” Be it so, dear boy.”

Section-16: (Three Mantras):

The Heated AXE:

Mantra-16.1: How guilt is proven?

i) A suspect is arrested:

Dear boy, another man with hands bound, is charged with: ” He is a thief. ” He is accused of committing a theft: ” Heat the axe for him.”

ii) A Self-Test to prove Guilt:

If he is the doer of the crime, then his falsity is proven by this self-test. If he is connected to falsehood, by that falsehood itself he enshrouds himself. As he grasps the heated axe, he is burnt, and thus he is punished.

Mantra-16.2: How innocence is proven?

If he has not committed the theft, he is true to himself and with truth for his protector, grasps the heated axe, he is not burnt, and thus he is acquitted. The man that was not burnt, lived in Truth. Remember that the Truth (Sat) and Self are One.

Mantra-16.3a: The Conclusion- ” Tat-Tvam-Asi”

That Existence is this same subtle essence. Superimposed on IT is this entire world. (The entire world has That as its Self, its Essence.) That is the Truth; That is the Self. ” That Thou Art”, O Svetaketu.

Mantra-16.3b: Svetaketu now convinced:

Svetaketu understood what he said, yes, he understood what his father Uddalaka said.

[ Finally, Svetaketu is convinced of the procedure he has to follow to reach the Source of Being, The Self. ]

Finally, what is the meaning of “Tat-Tvam-Asi”?

Tat-Tvam-Asi = Sat-Chit-Ananda.

Tat-Tvam-Asi=YOU ARE THAT: This statement relates the Individual Self to the Universal Self. The direct Knowledge of that total Identity is the immediate means to Liberation (Moksha).

Link for: – Sanskrit version of ChAndagyo Upanishad.

॥ इति षोडशः खण्डः ॥ ॥ इति षष्ठोऽध्यायः ॥

**THE END OF CHAPTER- 6**

Conclusion:-

Chhandagyo Upanishad investigates philosophically the most meaningful and most conceptualized thoughts in Indology such as Cosmology, Metaphysics, Theology, Transcendentalism, Phenomenology, and Epistemology. However, the concept of Brahman has undoubtedly been the fundamental element or minor root of the Chhandagyo Upanishad. In this connection, I would request my esteemed readers to read one special post ” The Divine Art” which is highly conceptual and intellectual. Link is here: ” The Divine Art”

Recommended readings:

  1. Back to the Truth: 5000 years of ADVAITA by Dennis Waite. **
  2. THE TEN PRINCIPAL UPANISHADS: Translated by Shree Purohit** Swami and W.B.Yeats
  3. Brahma Sutra Bhasya of Sankaracharya: Translated by Swami Gambhirananda.**
  4. Commentary of ChAndogya Upanishad: By Swami Krishnananda.
  5. ChAndogya Upanishad: By Swami GuruBhaktananda.
  6. EIGHT UPANISADS -VOL-1 with commentary of Sankaracharya, Translated by SWAMI GAMBHIRANANDA.
  7. THE TAITTIRIYA UPANISHAD: SHIKSHAVALLI-ANANDAVALLI-BHRIGUVALLI with Sri Shankara’s Commentary By Sri Swami Satchidanandera Saraswati.
  8. A-U-M Awakening to Reality: By Dennis Waite***
  9. Panchadasi: Swami Vidyaranya:
  10. Information available on internet.

It is my sincere request to the esteemed readers to share their opinion or queries if any. Suggestions to make the site attractive will be incredibly helpful for me. Readers are requested to read all the posts to have continuation of the topic from the beginning. My mail ID is: arun7663@gmail.com

Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-6B of 6

Introduction: Sixth Chapter:

The ChAndogya Upanishad is part of ChAndogya Brahmana of the Sama Veda which is one of the most largest important Upanishads with Eight Chapters (Prapathakas) with many verses including some stories as themes to gain Upanishadic knowledge. This Upanishad is placed in the 9th position in the list of Ten Principal Upanishads. The name of the Upanishad is derived from the word   “Chanda” (Rhythm~ poetic meter). This Upanishad directly deals with the true nature of Brahman, the Supreme Self, without a second.

ChAndogya Upanishad consists of Eight chapters. The first five chapters forms  the part of Karma Kanda and Upasana Kanda. Chapter Six, Seven and Eight form the part of Jnana Kanda.

Sage Uddalaka’s  son Svetaketu , having gone when 12 years old returned from Gurukul when he was 24 yrs old , having studied all the Vedas.

Chapter Six contains Sixteen sections. My previous post was on Chapter Six, Section-1 to Section-4(Khanda-1 to Khanda-4). The link is here:  Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-6A of 6

Here we will see Section-5 to Section-8 to learn profound knowledge through dialog between Sage Uddalaka and his son Svetaketu.

Here in section-8, we will see one of the four MahaVakyas: “Tat-Tvam-Asi” .

The Essence of Self Knowledge:

Section:-5: (Five Mantras).

Mantra-5.1: The Triplication of Food

Food, when eaten, becomes divided into three parts: i} That which is its grossest ingredient becomes the faecal matter. ii) Its middling part becomes flesh and iii) its subtlest part becomes the MIND.

Mantra-5.2: The Triplication of Water.

Water, when drunk, becomes divided into three parts: i) What is its grossest ingredient becomes the Urine; ii) Its middling part becomes blood; iii) Its subtlest part becomes the PRANA.

Mantra-5.3: The Triplication of Fire.

Fire, when consumed, becomes divided into three parts: i) What is grossest ingredient becomes the bones; ii) Its middling part becomes marrow; iii) Its subtlest part becomes Speech.

Mantra-5.4: Summary: The subtlest effects:

Hence, dear boy, MIND is made up of Food; PRANA is made up of Water and SPEECH is made up of Fire.

Mantra-5.5.: Svetaketu wants further elaboration:

Svetaketu asks: ” Revered Sir, wont you again explain it to me”. The father replies “Be it so my boy”.

Section-6: (Six Mantras).

Mantra-6.1: Simile of Curd transforms into Butter

Dear boy, of the CURD, that is being churned, that which is the subtlest part rises upwards, and becomes clarified BUTTER.

From curd to Butter: The Butter is always present in the Curd, but it could not be seen until the process of churning took place. The churning separated the Butter.

Mantra-6.2: Food transforms into Mind

In the same way, dear boy, of the Food that is being eaten, that which is subtlest part rises upwards, and becomes the Mind.

Mantra-6.3: Water transforms into Prana

Dear boy, of the water that is being drunk, that which is the subtlest part rises upwards, and becomes the Prana.

Mantra-6.4: Fire transforms into Speech

Dear boy, of the Fire, that is being burnt, that which is the subtlest part rises upwards, and becomes Speech.

Mantra-6.5: The Subtlest Effects:

Hence, dear boy, Mind is made up of Food; Prana is made up of Water and Speech is made up of Fire.

Mantra-6.6: Svetaketu wants more clarity:

Svetaketu again asks: ” Revered Sir, further explain it to me”. The father replies “Be it so dear boy”.

Section-7: (Six Mantras).

An Experiment on Life:

Mantra-7.1: Svetaketu was instructed to Fast:

Dear boy, man consists of sixteen parts. For fifteen days do not eat. Drink as much as water as you like, for Prana is made up of water. If one does not drink, his Prana is cut off.

Mantra-7.2: The Effect of Fasting:

For fifteen days, Svetaketu did not eat. Then he approached his father, saying: ” Revered Sir, what shall I say?”. “My dear boy, now chant the Rig, Yajur and Sama Vedas.” said the father. The boy said: ” They do not at all arise in me, Revered Sir.”

Mantra-7.3a: Simile for loss of Speech:

The father said:” Dear boy, just as, from a large burning Fire, a single ember, the size of a fire fly that is left over, by an amount that is certainly not as great as before, it will now burn.

Mantra-7.3b: Application of the Simile :

Even so, dear boy, of your sixteen parts, only one part is left over now; and by means of that alone, you can not perceive the Vedas. Eat, then you will understand me.”

Mantra-7.4 : Svetaketu eats and recovers his mind:

Svetaketu then ate well, and approached his father again. This time, whatever the father asked him, he answered them all well.

Mantra-7.5a: Simile for recovery of Speech:

The father said:” Dear boy, just as from a large burning Fire, a single ember, the size of a fire fly that is left over, by adding straw to it, it is made to blaze up again; by an amount that is evergreen than before, will it now burn.

Mantra-7.5b: Application of the Simile :

Even so, dear boy, of your sixteen parts, only one part had remained; and that part, being nourished by food, has been made to blaze up once more; and by means of that alone you are now able to know the Vedas!

Mantra-7.6: Conclusion– The Subtlest Effects:

Hence, dear boy, Mind is made up of food; the Prana is made up of Water and Speech is made up of Fire. From his words Svetaketu understood it- Yes he understood it!

Section-8: (Seven Mantras).

Retracing from Effect to Cause:

Adhyaropa or Superimposition: This process takes us downwards from the Cause to its numerous effects. There is another term in Vedanta, known as Apavada or De-superimposition which is reverse to that of Adhyaropa. In this section we will learn the reverse process. We trace our steps upwards from the effects that we know, to the Cause that we do not know

Mantra-8.1: Example-1:Experience of Deep Sleep:

“Sata Saumya tada sampanno bhavati” : One gets absorbed into the true being that one is .

Once the Sage Uddalaka Aruni said to his son Svetaketu: ” Dear boy, know from me the true nature of Sleep. When a man is sleeping, he is said then to be with with ‘Existence’ dear boy. He has become united with It and is resting in his own nature. ” Hence, ” He is sleeping” – thus do people speak of him, for , indeed, he rests in his own nature.

In sleep, you get into yourself, you enter yourself, you become yourself, and know nothing but yourself. This is sleep. You have withdrawn yourself from all outside connections and relationships.

Mantra-8.2: Example-2:Birds Returning to Roost:

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Just as a Bird, tied to a string, after flying in various directions; finding no resting place elsewhere, where it is tied, is where it takes refuge; Even so dear boy, it is with the Mind; after flying in various directions, finding no resting place elsewhere, in Prana alone does it take refuge, for tied to the Prana, dear boy, is the Mind.

Mantra-8.3: Example-3:A message from Hunger:

The nature of hunger and Thirst- know this from me, dear boy. When a man is Hungry, it is said that then Water has led a way what he has eaten. Just as people speak of the leader of cows, the leader of horses, and of men; even so, they speak of Water as the leader of food. A ‘shoot’ is pushed forth from below. One can not know this directly, dear boy; surely there must be some ‘root’ present.

Mantra-8.4: Example-4: The Root and the Shoot: