Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-6C of 6[END OF 6TH CHAPTER]

Introduction: Sixth Chapter:

The ChAndogya Upanishad is part of ChAndogya Brahmana of the Sama Veda which is one of the largest important Upanishads with Eight Chapters (Prapathakas) with many verses including some stories as themes to gain Upanishadic knowledge. This Upanishad is placed in the 9th position in the list of Ten Principal Upanishads. The name of the Upanishad is derived from the word “Chanda” (Rhythm~ poetic meter). This Upanishad directly deals with the true nature of Brahman, the Supreme Self, without a second.

ChAndogya Upanishad consists of Eight chapters. The first five chapters forms the part of Karma Kanda and Upasana Kanda. Chapter Six, Seven and Eight form the part of Jnana Kanda.
Sage Uddalaka’s son Svetaketu , having gone when 12 years old returned from Gurukul when he was 24 yrs. old, having studied all the Vedas.
Chapter Six contains Sixteen sections. On chapter Six, I have already covered Section-1 to Section-10 (Khanda-1 to Khanda-10). Please read my previous posts on Chapter Six: the links of which are given below:

  1. Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-6A of 6
  2. Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-6B of 6

Here we will see Section-11 to Section-16 to learn profound knowledge through dialog between Sage Uddalaka and his son Svetaketu.

Section-11: (Four Mantras).

The Sap of Life:

Mantra-11.1: Simile: Sap is all pervading!

Of this large Tree, dear boy, if anyone were to strike at its root, it would exude sap, a sign that is alive; if anyone were to strike in the middle, it would exude sap, a sign that it is alive; if anyone were to strike at the top, it would exude sap, a sign that it is alive. This tree by the living, sap is pervaded. Drinking constantly, it stands firm, rejoicing.

[** Every part of the Tree: “the root, the middle and the top”- is bursting with the juice of life. The tree feels this life-force and rejoices, not just now and then but constantly. It is “drinking”, i.e. always celebrating life. Why cannot we follow the example of the Tree? The existence of the Tree, the working of the Tree, the living of the Tree is due to this vitality which is referable back to Pure Being, “The Sat” which is present not only in Tree but in everything else.]

Mantra-11.2: Simile: Sap gives life!

If from one branch of this tree the life leaves, then the branch dies up. If from a second branch it leaves, then the branch, too, dries up. If from the third branch it leaves, then the branch, too, dries up. If from the whole tree life leaves, then the whole tree dries up.

[**What we call death is the departing of life from a particular body. So, death is not the death of life principle itself. ]

Mantra-11.3: Application: The Self is life-Giving Sap!

Even so, my dear boy, know thus, said the Father, ” Left by the living Self, this body surely dies, but the living Self does not die.”

Mantra-11.4a: The Conclusion- ” Tat-Tvam-Asi”

That Existence is this same subtle essence. Superimposed on IT is this entire world. (The entire world has That as itself, its Essence.) That is the Truth; That is the Self. ” That Thou Art”, O Svetaketu.

Mantra-11.4b: Svetaketu wants more Clarity:

Svetaketu asks:” Revered Sir, won’t you please explain it further to me?” The father replies: ” Be it so, dear boy.”

Section-12: (Four Mantras).

The Seed and the Banyan Tree:

Mantra-12.1: Simile: the Banyan Tree!

Father: ” Bring a fruit from Banyan Tree. Boy: ” Here it is, Revered Sir!
Father: ” Break it Boy: ” It is broken, Revered Sir!
Father: “What do you see in this? Boy: “These small particles of seeds, Sir!”
Father: ” Break one of these, my child. Boy: ” It is broken, Revered Sir!”
Father: “What do you see in it? Boy: “Nothing, Revered Sir!”

Mantra-12.2: Simile: Power locked in a Seed!

To his son the Father said: ” This subtle essence, dear boy, you do not perceive. Growing from this subtle essence, dear boy, is this huge Banyan Tree which now stands before us. Have Faith dear boy.”

** Elaboration: This little so-called subtle essence is pervading the entire Tree. What makes it possible that an atomic little speck pervades the large expanse of the Tree? The so-called large Tree is nothing but whatever is contained inside one seed, a jelly like substance. That is The Being, essence of the vast Tree of this Universe. This Being is the essence of the whole Universe. As such, we can say that ‘Being’ is one’s own Self” Tat-Tvam-Asi”. Every branch of the Tree, every leaf of the Tree, flowers of the Tree and each part of the Tree is that Essence. The same Being. This is true all of us, all individuals (Atman)

Mantra-12.3a: The Conclusion- ” Tat-Tvam-Asi”

That Existence is this same subtle essence. Superimposed on IT is this entire world. (The entire world has That as its Self, its Essence.) That is the Truth; That is the Self. ” That Thou Art”, O Svetaketu.

Mantra-12.3b: Svetaketu wants more Clarity:

Svetaketu asks:” Revered Sir, won’t you please explain it further to me?” The father replies: ” Be it so, dear boy.”

Section-13: (Three Mantras):

The Dissolved Salt: Salt solution analogy:

Mantra-13.1: Simile: Salt dissolved into water!

The father said to the boy:” Put this salt into water and then come to me in the morning. The boy did as he was advised.
The father said in the next morning:” Last night the salt which you put into the water, please bring it, my child.” Having searched for it, he did not find it, as it had completely dissolved.

Mantra-13.2: Application: The Salt is the Self!

i) All- pervasiveness of the Salt:

Father said:” My child, from the top of this water take a sip. How is it? Boy: ” It is saline.”
Father said:” Take a sip from the middle. How is it? Boy: ” It is saline.”
Father said:” Take a sip from the bottom. How is it? Boy: ” It is saline.”

ii) Invisibility of the Salt

Father: Throw this water away and come to me. He did as he was told. Boy: The salt is there throughout.

iii) Conclusion Drawn:

To him the Father said: Indeed, it is there! Existence, dear boy, also you do not see; but It is there all the same!

Mantra-13.3a: The Conclusion- ” Tat-Tvam-Asi”

That Existence is this same subtle essence. Superimposed on IT is this entire world. (The entire world has That as its Self, its Essence.) That is the Truth; That is the Self. ” That Thou Art”, O Svetaketu.

Mantra-13.3b: Svetaketu wants more Clarity:

Svetaketu asks:” Revered Sir, won’t you please explain it further to me?” The father replies: ” Be it so, dear boy.”

Section-14: (Three Mantras):

The Blindfolded Captive.

Mantra-14.1a: A man is blindfolded and abandoned:

For example, dear boy, if a man from the Gandhara province were taken to and abandoned in a forest blindfolded. There whether he is facing the north, or the east, or the south, or the west- he would shout for help: ” I have been brought here blindfolded and abandoned.”

Mantra-14.1b: The man gets direction and reaches destination:

Now imagine that thereupon some good man might take off the eye-bandage and instruct him; ” The Gandhara region is in this direction, kindly proceed along this direction, village to village, by enquiry, instructions and judgement”. Ultimately the Man returns the Gandhara region.

Mantra-14.2: Necessity of a Guide:

Even so, in this world, one who has a guide such a man gets to know the right direction. For him, the only delay now is that of taking the steps to get liberated and then merging in the Truth.

Mantra-14.3a: The Conclusion- ” Tat-Tvam-Asi”

That Existence is this same subtle essence. Superimposed on IT is this entire world. (The entire world has That as its Self, its Essence.) That is the Truth; That is the Self. ” That Thou Art”, O Svetaketu.

Mantra-14.3b: Svetaketu wants more Clarity:

Svetaketu asks:” Revered Sir, won’t you please explain it further to me?” The father replies: ” Be it so, dear boy.”

Section-15: (Three Mantras):

A Sick Man on his Death Bed:

Mantra-15.1: Simile: A dying man!

Dear boy, take an example of a sick man, where all his relatives assemble and ask him:” Do you remember me?” As long as his speech is not merged in the Mind, the mind in Prana, prana in Fire and fire in the Supreme Deity (Existence~ SAT), so long he knows them.

Mantra-15.2: Application: Merging into The Absolute: Supreme Deity (Existence~ SAT)!

When his Speech is merged in the Mind, mind in Prana, Prana in fire, and Fire in the Supreme Deity (Existence), therefore, he really knows them not!

Points to be noted: For a sage, the process of dying described in the example above, signifies the cessation of ignorance. The outcome is Enlightenment. The whole meaning is philosophical which represents Self-Realisation. Speech represents all the organs of senses. When Speech is merged, mind still functions. but when mind is merged in Prana, it is the stage of samadhi. all thoughts are diminished, except the finest of them.

Mantra-15.3a: The Conclusion- ” Tat-Tvam-Asi”
That Existence is this same subtle essence. Superimposed on IT is this entire world. (The entire world has That as its Self, its Essence.) That is the Truth; That is the Self. ” That Thou Art”, O Svetaketu.

Mantra-15.3b: Svetaketu wants more Clarity:

Svetaketu asks:” Revered Sir, won’t you please explain it further to me?” The father replies: ” Be it so, dear boy.”

Section-16: (Three Mantras):

The Heated AXE:

Mantra-16.1: How guilt is proven?

i) A suspect is arrested:

Dear boy, another man with hands bound, is charged with: ” He is a thief. ” He is accused of committing a theft: ” Heat the axe for him.”

ii) A Self-Test to prove Guilt:

If he is the doer of the crime, then his falsity is proven by this self-test. If he is connected to falsehood, by that falsehood itself he enshrouds himself. As he grasps the heated axe, he is burnt, and thus he is punished.

Mantra-16.2: How innocence is proven?

If he has not committed the theft, he is true to himself and with truth for his protector, grasps the heated axe, he is not burnt, and thus he is acquitted. The man that was not burnt, lived in Truth. Remember that the Truth (Sat) and Self are One.

Mantra-16.3a: The Conclusion- ” Tat-Tvam-Asi”

That Existence is this same subtle essence. Superimposed on IT is this entire world. (The entire world has That as its Self, its Essence.) That is the Truth; That is the Self. ” That Thou Art”, O Svetaketu.

Mantra-16.3b: Svetaketu now convinced:

Svetaketu understood what he said, yes, he understood what his father Uddalaka said.

[ Finally, Svetaketu is convinced of the procedure he has to follow to reach the Source of Being, The Self. ]

Finally, what is the meaning of “Tat-Tvam-Asi”?

Tat-Tvam-Asi = Sat-Chit-Ananda.

Tat-Tvam-Asi=YOU ARE THAT: This statement relates the Individual Self to the Universal Self. The direct Knowledge of that total Identity is the immediate means to Liberation (Moksha).

Link for: – Sanskrit version of ChAndagyo Upanishad.

॥ इति षोडशः खण्डः ॥ ॥ इति षष्ठोऽध्यायः ॥

**THE END OF CHAPTER- 6**

Conclusion:-

Chhandagyo Upanishad investigates philosophically the most meaningful and most conceptualized thoughts in Indology such as Cosmology, Metaphysics, Theology, Transcendentalism, Phenomenology, and Epistemology. However, the concept of Brahman has undoubtedly been the fundamental element or minor root of the Chhandagyo Upanishad. In this connection, I would request my esteemed readers to read one special post ” The Divine Art” which is highly conceptual and intellectual. Link is here: ” The Divine Art”

Recommended readings:

  1. Back to the Truth: 5000 years of ADVAITA by Dennis Waite. **
  2. THE TEN PRINCIPAL UPANISHADS: Translated by Shree Purohit** Swami and W.B.Yeats
  3. Brahma Sutra Bhasya of Sankaracharya: Translated by Swami Gambhirananda.**
  4. Commentary of ChAndogya Upanishad: By Swami Krishnananda.
  5. ChAndogya Upanishad: By Swami GuruBhaktananda.
  6. EIGHT UPANISADS -VOL-1 with commentary of Sankaracharya, Translated by SWAMI GAMBHIRANANDA.
  7. THE TAITTIRIYA UPANISHAD: SHIKSHAVALLI-ANANDAVALLI-BHRIGUVALLI with Sri Shankara’s Commentary By Sri Swami Satchidanandera Saraswati.
  8. A-U-M Awakening to Reality: By Dennis Waite***
  9. Panchadasi: Swami Vidyaranya:
  10. Information available on internet.

It is my sincere request to the esteemed readers to share their opinion or queries if any. Suggestions to make the site attractive will be incredibly helpful for me. Readers are requested to read all the posts to have continuation of the topic from the beginning. My mail ID is: arun7663@gmail.com

Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-6B of 6

Introduction: Sixth Chapter:

The ChAndogya Upanishad is part of ChAndogya Brahmana of the Sama Veda which is one of the most largest important Upanishads with Eight Chapters (Prapathakas) with many verses including some stories as themes to gain Upanishadic knowledge. This Upanishad is placed in the 9th position in the list of Ten Principal Upanishads. The name of the Upanishad is derived from the word   “Chanda” (Rhythm~ poetic meter). This Upanishad directly deals with the true nature of Brahman, the Supreme Self, without a second.

ChAndogya Upanishad consists of Eight chapters. The first five chapters forms  the part of Karma Kanda and Upasana Kanda. Chapter Six, Seven and Eight form the part of Jnana Kanda.

Sage Uddalaka’s  son Svetaketu , having gone when 12 years old returned from Gurukul when he was 24 yrs old , having studied all the Vedas.

Chapter Six contains Sixteen sections. My previous post was on Chapter Six, Section-1 to Section-4(Khanda-1 to Khanda-4). The link is here:  Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-6A of 6

Here we will see Section-5 to Section-8 to learn profound knowledge through dialog between Sage Uddalaka and his son Svetaketu.

Here in section-8, we will see one of the four MahaVakyas: “Tat-Tvam-Asi” .

The Essence of Self Knowledge:

Section:-5: (Five Mantras).

Mantra-5.1: The Triplication of Food

Food, when eaten, becomes divided into three parts: i} That which is its grossest ingredient becomes the faecal matter. ii) Its middling part becomes flesh and iii) its subtlest part becomes the MIND.

Mantra-5.2: The Triplication of Water.

Water, when drunk, becomes divided into three parts: i) What is its grossest ingredient becomes the Urine; ii) Its middling part becomes blood; iii) Its subtlest part becomes the PRANA.

Mantra-5.3: The Triplication of Fire.

Fire, when consumed, becomes divided into three parts: i) What is grossest ingredient becomes the bones; ii) Its middling part becomes marrow; iii) Its subtlest part becomes Speech.

Mantra-5.4: Summary: The subtlest effects:

Hence, dear boy, MIND is made up of Food; PRANA is made up of Water and SPEECH is made up of Fire.

Mantra-5.5.: Svetaketu wants further elaboration:

Svetaketu asks: ” Revered Sir, wont you again explain it to me”. The father replies “Be it so my boy”.

Section-6: (Six Mantras).

Mantra-6.1: Simile of Curd transforms into Butter

Dear boy, of the CURD, that is being churned, that which is the subtlest part rises upwards, and becomes clarified BUTTER.

From curd to Butter: The Butter is always present in the Curd, but it could not be seen until the process of churning took place. The churning separated the Butter.

Mantra-6.2: Food transforms into Mind

In the same way, dear boy, of the Food that is being eaten, that which is subtlest part rises upwards, and becomes the Mind.

Mantra-6.3: Water transforms into Prana

Dear boy, of the water that is being drunk, that which is the subtlest part rises upwards, and becomes the Prana.

Mantra-6.4: Fire transforms into Speech

Dear boy, of the Fire, that is being burnt, that which is the subtlest part rises upwards, and becomes Speech.

Mantra-6.5: The Subtlest Effects:

Hence, dear boy, Mind is made up of Food; Prana is made up of Water and Speech is made up of Fire.

Mantra-6.6: Svetaketu wants more clarity:

Svetaketu again asks: ” Revered Sir, further explain it to me”. The father replies “Be it so dear boy”.

Section-7: (Six Mantras).

An Experiment on Life:

Mantra-7.1: Svetaketu was instructed to Fast:

Dear boy, man consists of sixteen parts. For fifteen days do not eat. Drink as much as water as you like, for Prana is made up of water. If one does not drink, his Prana is cut off.

Mantra-7.2: The Effect of Fasting:

For fifteen days, Svetaketu did not eat. Then he approached his father, saying: ” Revered Sir, what shall I say?”. “My dear boy, now chant the Rig, Yajur and Sama Vedas.” said the father. The boy said: ” They do not at all arise in me, Revered Sir.”

Mantra-7.3a: Simile for loss of Speech:

The father said:” Dear boy, just as, from a large burning Fire, a single ember, the size of a fire fly that is left over, by an amount that is certainly not as great as before, it will now burn.

Mantra-7.3b: Application of the Simile :

Even so, dear boy, of your sixteen parts, only one part is left over now; and by means of that alone, you can not perceive the Vedas. Eat, then you will understand me.”

Mantra-7.4 : Svetaketu eats and recovers his mind:

Svetaketu then ate well, and approached his father again. This time, whatever the father asked him, he answered them all well.

Mantra-7.5a: Simile for recovery of Speech:

The father said:” Dear boy, just as from a large burning Fire, a single ember, the size of a fire fly that is left over, by adding straw to it, it is made to blaze up again; by an amount that is evergreen than before, will it now burn.

Mantra-7.5b: Application of the Simile :

Even so, dear boy, of your sixteen parts, only one part had remained; and that part, being nourished by food, has been made to blaze up once more; and by means of that alone you are now able to know the Vedas!

Mantra-7.6: Conclusion– The Subtlest Effects:

Hence, dear boy, Mind is made up of food; the Prana is made up of Water and Speech is made up of Fire. From his words Svetaketu understood it- Yes he understood it!

Section-8: (Seven Mantras).

Retracing from Effect to Cause:

Adhyaropa or Superimposition: This process takes us downwards from the Cause to its numerous effects. There is another term in Vedanta, known as Apavada or De-superimposition which is reverse to that of Adhyaropa. In this section we will learn the reverse process. We trace our steps upwards from the effects that we know, to the Cause that we do not know

Mantra-8.1: Example-1:Experience of Deep Sleep:

“Sata Saumya tada sampanno bhavati” : One gets absorbed into the true being that one is .

Once the Sage Uddalaka Aruni said to his son Svetaketu: ” Dear boy, know from me the true nature of Sleep. When a man is sleeping, he is said then to be with with ‘Existence’ dear boy. He has become united with It and is resting in his own nature. ” Hence, ” He is sleeping” – thus do people speak of him, for , indeed, he rests in his own nature.

In sleep, you get into yourself, you enter yourself, you become yourself, and know nothing but yourself. This is sleep. You have withdrawn yourself from all outside connections and relationships.

Mantra-8.2: Example-2:Birds Returning to Roost:

Photo by luizclas on Pexels.com

Just as a Bird, tied to a string, after flying in various directions; finding no resting place elsewhere, where it is tied, is where it takes refuge; Even so dear boy, it is with the Mind; after flying in various directions, finding no resting place elsewhere, in Prana alone does it take refuge, for tied to the Prana, dear boy, is the Mind.

Mantra-8.3: Example-3:A message from Hunger:

The nature of hunger and Thirst- know this from me, dear boy. When a man is Hungry, it is said that then Water has led a way what he has eaten. Just as people speak of the leader of cows, the leader of horses, and of men; even so, they speak of Water as the leader of food. A ‘shoot’ is pushed forth from below. One can not know this directly, dear boy; surely there must be some ‘root’ present.

Mantra-8.4: Example-4: The Root and the Shoot:

Where could the root of the Body be apart from food? Even so, dear boy, with Food as the shoot, look for water as the root; with water as the shoot, dear boy, look for fire as the root; and with Fire as the shoot, dear boy, look for Existence as the root. All these creatures, dear boy, have Existence as their root, as their abode, and as their support.

Mantra-8.5: Example-5: A message from Thirst:

Again, when a man is Thirsty, it is said that then Fire has led away what has been drunk. Just as people speak of the leader of cows, the leader of horses, and leader of men; even so they speak of that Fire as the leader of water. A ‘shoot’ is pushed forth from below. One cannot know this directly, dear boy; surely there must be some ‘root’ present.

Mantra-8.6a: Adhyaropa- Tracing the Root:

Where could the root of Food be apart from water? With water as the shoot, dear boy, look for fire as the root; and with Fire as the shoot, dear boy, look for Existence as the root. All these creatures, dear boy, have Existence as their root, have Existence as their abode, and have Existence as their support.

Mantra-8.6b:  The Creation and Dissolution of Man:

How, indeed, dear boy, these three Elements, on reaching man, each one becomes threefold triplicated, that has already been explained to you. Dear boy, at the time of a man’s departure, his speech merges in mind! Mind merges in Prana, Prana in fire, and Fire in the Supreme Deity, Existence.

§: The effect is consumed by the cause and is absorbed into its own Self

By the way of the analysis of the constituents of the individual, it has thus been pointed out by Uddalaka, the sage, that everything in this personality is made up of the essence of the three elements, -Fire, Water and Earth.  And what we call hunger is nothing but the dissolution of the physical food by the element of water and the absorption into the system. What you call Thirst is similarly the absorption of the Water element in the system by the Fire principle within us. The effect is consumed by the cause and is absorbed into its own Self. This process continues until all effects are absorbed into the final Cause of all things, where they abide absolutely and completely.

Mantra-8.7a: Conclusion — “Tat Tvam Asi” ~ Maha Vakya:

That Existence is this same subtle essence. Superimposed on It, is this whole World: Tat Tvam Asi, Svetaketu. That is the Self. That Thou Art, O Svetaketu.

Mantra-8.7b: Svetaketu wants more Clarity:

Svetaketu asks:” Revered Sir, won’t you please explain it further to me?” The father replies: ” Be it so, dear boy.”

Section-9: (Four Mantras).

Photo by Swapnil Sharma on Pexels.com
Photo by David Hablu00fctzel on Pexels.com

Honey from different Trees:

“Tat Tvam Asi” ~ Maha Vakya: This we have first seen in Section Eight. Now from section Nine onwards up to section sixteen we will see same Maha Vakya :”Tat Tvam Asi” eight more times.

Mantra-9.1: Simile: Many Trees, One Honey.

Dear boy, consider this example: Bees procure(dislodge) Honey from different trees, by collecting their juices and reducing then into one essence. Then, these juices have no differentiation, such as ” I am the juice of this tree, I am the juice of that tree.”

Mantra-9.2: Application: Many Creatures, One Existence.

Even so, dear boy, all these creatures, having merged into Existence, do not know, ” We have merger into Existence.

Mantra-9.3: Endless Rebirth for the ignorant.

These creatures that are here(in ignorance), the tiger or lion, the wolf or boar, the worm or flying insect, the gnat or mosquito- whatever they are that they become again.

Mantra-9.4a: Conclusion — “Tat Tvam Asi”

That Existence is this same subtle essence. Superimposed on It, is this whole world.(The whole world has That as its Self, its Essence.) That is the Truth; That is the Self. ” That Thou Art”, O Svetaketu.

Mantra-9.4b: Svetaketu wants more Clarity:

Svetaketu asks:” Revered Sir, won’t you please explain it further to me?” The father replies: ” Be it so, dear boy.”

Section-10: (Four Mantras).

Rivers merge into Ocean:

Mantra-10.1: Simile: Many Rivers, One Ocean.

These rivers, dear boy, flowing to the east are called ‘ Eastern’ rivers and flowing west, ‘western’ rivers. They rise from the Ocean and merge in the ocean, becoming the Ocean once again. There these rivers, as themselves, they do not know “I am this river, I am that river.”

Mantra-10.2: Application: Many forms, One Existence.

Even so, dear boy, all these creatures, having merged into Existence, do not know, ” We have merger into Existence.

Mantra-10.3: Endless Rebirth for the ignorant.

These creatures that are here(in ignorance), the tiger or lion, the wolf or boar, the worm or flying insect, the gnat or mosquito- whatever they are that they become again.

Mantra-10.4a: Conclusion — “Tat Tvam Asi”

That Existence is this same subtle essence. Superimposed on It, is this whole world.(The whole world has That as its Self, its Essence.) That is the Truth; That is the Self. ” That Thou Art”, O Svetaketu.

Mantra-10.4b: Svetaketu wants more Clarity:

Svetaketu asks:” Revered Sir, won’t you please explain it further to me?” The father replies: ” Be it so, dear boy.”

§§: Ultimate cause dissolves in the Absolute:

What is the ultimate cause? The cause ultimate can only be that which is not absorbed into a higher cause. The absorption process ceases when the ultimate cause is reached. The grosser forms get absorbed into the subtler ones, and the subtler ones reach the causal state, the so called ultimate cause from the empirical point of view. This ultimate cause dissolves in the Absolute. There, everything comes to a cessation. The individuality gets dissolved, as it were. It gets tuned up to the ultimate Reality. So, there is an absorption of the grosser element of the earth into the water element, the water element  into the fire element and the fire element into the ultimate Reality which is called Sat, pure Being.

End of section-10 of 6th Chapter of Chhandagyo Upanishad:

“The most familiar form of Energy is the Photon, a massless, irreducible particles of light”.

[pg-339: Death by Black Hole]

Conclusion:-

Chhandagyo Upanishad investigates philosophically the most meaningful and most conceptualised thoughts in Indology such as Cosmology, Metaphysics, Theology, Transcendentalism, Phenomenology, and Epistemology. However the concept of Brahman has undoubtedly been the fundamental element or minor root of the Chhandagyo Upanishad. In this connection, I would request my esteemed readers to read one special post    ” The Divine Art” which is highly conceptual and intellectual. Link is here: ” The Divine Art”

Recommended readings:

  1. Back to the Truth: 5000 years of ADVAITA by Dennis Waite.**
  2. THE TEN PRINCIPAL UPANISHADS: Translated by Shree Purohit** Swami and W.B.Yeats
  3. Brahma Sutra Bhasya of Sankaracharya: Translated by Swami Gambhirananda.**
  4. Commentary of ChAndogya Upanishad: By Swami Krishnananda.
  5. ChAndogya Upanishad: By Swami GuruBhaktananda.
  6. EIGHT UPANISADS -VOL-1 with commentary of Sankaracharya, Translated by SWAMI GAMBHIRANANDA.
  7. THE TAITTIRIYA UPANISHAD: SHIKSHAVALLI-ANANDAVALLI-BHRIGUVALLI with Sri Shankara’s Commentary By Sri Swami Satchidanandera Saraswati.
  8. A-U-M Awakening to Reality : By Dennis Waite***
  9. Panchadasi: Swami Vidyaranya: 
  10. Information available on internet.

It is my sincere request to the esteemed readers to share their opinion or queries if any. Suggestions to make the site attractive will be highly helpful for me. Readers are requested to read all the posts to have continuation of the topic from the beginning. My mail ID is : arun7663@gmail.com

Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-6A of 6

“Tat-Tvam-Asi”~ YOU ARE THAT!!

Introduction: 

The ChAndogya Upanishad is part of ChAndogya Brahmana of the Sama Veda which is one of the most largest important Upanishads with Eight Chapters (Prapathakas) with many verses including some stories as themes to gain Upanishadic knowledge. This Upanishad is placed in the 9th position in the list of Ten Principal Upanishads. The name of the Upanishad is derived from the word   “Chanda” (Rhythm~ poetic meter). This Upanishad directly deals with the true nature of Brahman, the Supreme Self, without a second.

ChAndogya Upanishad consists of Eight chapters. The first five chapters forms  the part of Karma Kanda and Upasana Kanda. Chapter Six, Seven and Eight form the part of Jnana Kanda. Here we will discuss on Chapter Six which contains Sixteen sections. Therefore I will make my blog into three parts. From this chapter Six we learn profound knowledge through dialog between Sage Uddalaka and his son Svetaketu.

The Essence of Self Knowledge:

Svetakutu’s Thirst for Knowledge:

Sage Uddalaka’s  son Svetaketu , having gone when 12 years old returned from Gurukul when he was 24 yrs old , having studied all the Vedas.

Section-1

Invocation of Peace Mantra from Sama Veda:

OM! May these grow vigorous in me; my limbs, speech and vital energies; my eyes and ears; and the strength in all my sense-organs. All is Brahman of the Upanishads; may I never deny Brahman; may Brahman never spurn me; may there be no denial of Brahman; may there be no spurning by Brahman!      Delighting in the Atman (Self), all the virtues sung by the Upanishads - may they repose in me, May they repose in me! OM! Peace, peace, peace.

Mantra1.1-2

OM! Once upon a time there was one Svetaketu, son of Uddalaka, the grand son of Aruna. Uddalaka said: ‘My son! find a teacher, learn; none of our family has remained a Brahmin in name only.’

At twelve he found his teacher, at twenty-four, having completed the study of Vedas, he returned home, stiff-necked, arrogant, self-willed.

Mantra-1.3-4

“That through which the unheard becomes heard, the unthought-of becomes thought of, know what is not known?”

Uddalaka said:’ My Son! You think such a lot yourself, but did you ask your teacher about that initiation, which makes a man hear what is not heard, think what is not thought, know what is not known.?’ What is that initiation, Lord? said Svetaketu.

The Teachings begin with Examples of Clay, Gold and Metal:

Mantra-1.5-7:

Product (Effect) is non-different from its material (cause):

 

 

 

 

 

Uddalaka said:’ Dear Son! By knowing a lump of clay, you know all things all things are made of clay, they differ from one another as it were in language and in name, having no reality but their clay.

 

 

 

 

 

 

By knowing one nugget of Gold, you know all things made of that Gold. They differ from one another as it were in language and in name, having no reality but their Gold.

All products, being due to words, a mere name:

By knowing one piece of base metal, you know all things made of that metal. They differ from one another as it were in language and in name, having no reality but their metal.

For the like reason, after that initiation, you know everything.

Svetaketu admits Ignorance:

Svetaketu replies:’ Surely my revered teachers did not know that teaching, for if they had known it, why should they have not imparted me that knowledge. However, revered father, please teach it to me.” I will tech it my dear boy,” said the father.

Section-2: Birth of Three Elements:-

Mantra-2.1-4:

My Son! In the beginning, there was “Existence alone”, mere Being, one without a second. Some say there was mere nothing, nothing whatsoever; that everything has come out of nothing.

How could Existence arise from Non-Existence?

But how can that be  true, my son,’ said Uddalaka, ‘how could that which is, come from that which is not?’ I put it otherwise, in the beginning there was mere Being, one without a second.

One Becomes Many!

He created light!!!

That Being thought” ” Would that I were many! I will create” He created light. Light thought: ” Would that I were many! I will create!” Light created the waters. When anybody weeps or sweats, the tears and the sweat are created by light.

Those waters thought” Would that we were many! We will create!” They created food. Whenever and whatever it rains, food is abundant. Food is from water!

Discussion:

In another Vedic Text, it has been declared that ‘ From Self was produced Akasa.’ (Taittiriya Upanishad: 2.1.1). From Akasa, Air, and then from Air, Fire’, which is the third product here.

We may consider this way: That Fire as well as Akasa, both are created from same source. The order of sequence in the creation is not what is meant to be asserted here; all that is meant to be asserted is that ” all this is the product of Being (Entity) and hence, all is Being alone, one, without a second’.

Section-3: The Origin of Life:

Mantra-3.1-4:

There are Three classes of creatures: the egg-born, the womb-born, the soil-born.

That Divine Being thought: ” I will go into the three gods-light, water, food. I will give them not only life, but names and shapes.”

The process of Triplication:

‘ He said: ” I will make each of them threefold.” He and life went into three gods, and He gave them names and shapes.

‘You shall hear, my son, how He divides each of the three gods into three, and each of these three into three again.’

These Elements as mentioned here, — Fire, water and Earth, are what we usually known as subtle Elements. They are the pure principles of creation. Later on they get mixed in certain proportions for the manifestation of grosser elements, namely, The Fire, The Water and the Earth that we see with our eyes. So, what the Upanishad speaks of here as Fire, Water and Earth are not the physical Fire, Water and Earth that we see. They are the super physical elements called Tanmatras. These Tanmatras are mixed or blended in certain proportions. This is called Trivritkarana in Sanskrit(This means Triplication- the mixing of three attributes, three substances, in certain proportions.)

Section-4: Essential Truth of the Three Elements:-

Mantra-4.1:

In Fire, the Red colour is the form of Fire; that which is white belongs to WATER; that which is black belongs to FOOD. Thus vanishes the quality of Fire from Fire, for, based upon words, all modifications are but name and the Three forms. This alone is the Truth.

Truth about The SUN:

Mantra-4.2:

In The SUN, the Red colour is the form of Fire; that which is white belongs to WATER; that which is black belongs to FOOD. Thus vanishes the quality of SUN from SUN, for, based upon words, all modifications are but name and the Three forms. This alone is the Truth.

Mantra-4.3:

In The MOON, the Red colour is the form of Fire; that which is white belongs to WATER; that which is black belongs to FOOD. Thus vanishes the quality of MOON from MOON, for, based upon words, all modifications are but name and the Three forms. This alone is the Truth.

Mantra-4.4:

In  Lightning, the Red colour is the form of Fire; that which is white belongs to WATER; that which is black belongs to FOOD. Thus vanishes the quality of Lightning from it, for, based upon words, all modifications are but name and the Three forms. This alone is the Truth.

Mantra-4.5:

It was indeed on knowing this process that the ancients spoke the following:-  The ancients being the great house holders and the great Vedic scholars. To us at present there is nothing unheard, unthought or unknown, that anyone can point out. For from these they understood everything.

Mantra-4.6:

Whatever else appeared Red thus, as the colour of Subtle Fire thus did they understand it to be. 
Whatever else appeared White thus, as the colour of Subtle Water thus did they understand it to be. 
Whatever else appeared Black thus, as the colour of Subtle Food thus did they understand it to be. 

Every object in creation has been reduced to its constituents, and it has been discovered that there is nothing in an object except its constituents. This is a law that can apply to every object, whatever its character be. The difference in the contour or the shape of the object is not very important. What is important is the nature of the substance out of which it is formed.

Conclusion:

In this manner, Sage Uddalaka directs the attention of Svetaketu on the essence underlying each object in creation. By taking our minds away from the physical or external qualities of name and form, we are guided to focus on the Absolute Existence (SAT) behind all three elements. In this manner we will understand the real meaning of  “Tat Tvam Asi” which is ultimate Reality. In this manner the theme of one of the MahaVakyas : “Tat Tvam Asi” in next section.

“Eva Satyam” : Truth alone exists. Finally even the three Elements have to be Transcended and we have to see the Pure Existence alone in everything.

Recommended readings:

  1. Back to the Truth: 5000 years of ADVAITA by Dennis Waite.**
  2. THE TEN PRINCIPAL UPANISHADS: Translated by Shree Purohit** Swami and W.B.Yeats
  3. Brahma Sutra Bhasya of Sankaracharya: Translated by Swami Gambhirananda.**
  4. Commentary of ChAndogya Upanishad: By Swami Krishnananda.
  5. ChAndogya Upanishad: By Swami GuruBhaktananda.
  6. EIGHT UPANISADS -VOL-1 with commentary of Sankaracharya, Translated by SWAMI GAMBHIRANANDA.
  7. THE TAITTIRIYA UPANISHAD: SHIKSHAVALLI-ANANDAVALLI-BHRIGUVALLI with Sri Shankara’s Commentary By Sri Swami Satchidanandera Saraswati.
  8. A-U-M Awakening to Reality : By Dennis Waite***
  9. Panchadasi: Swami Vidyaranya: 
  10. Information available on internet.

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