Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-8B

 Course after Death

Introduction: Eighth Chapter:

The ChAndogya Upanishad is part of ChAndogya Brahmana of the Sama Veda which is one of the largest important Upanishads with Eight Chapters (Prapathakas) with many Mantras(verses )including some stories as themes to gain Upanishadic knowledge. This Upanishad is placed in the 9th position in the list of Ten Principal Upanishads. The name of the Upanishad is derived from the word   “Chanda” (Rhythm~ poetic meter).

**This Upanishad directly deals with the true nature of Brahman, the Supreme Self, without a Second.

ChAndogya Upanishad consists of Eight chapters. The first five chapters forms the part of Karma Kanda[ rituals] and Upasana Kanda [worship and meditation]. Chapter- 6, 7 and 8 form the part of Jnana Kanda[profound Self-knowledge].

The essence of the Teaching is: – “Brahma Vidya”

Brahma Vidya: It is the knowledge of the ultimate Truth which results in Self realisation. The knower of this Truth remains untouched by any situation in life.

This chapter is especially intended for those who are unable to grasp the vastness of “Absolute”, the subject like Bhooma Vidya (Infinity), taught in the previous chapter. Though this chapter confines itself to the Heart of an individual, but that does not limit itself to the body of an individual. The heart here mentioned is used as symbol as the center of the pure subjectivity in us and therefore heart refers to consciousness, which is apparently located within the walls of the body, but never limited to physical body.

Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-8A: Section-1 to Section-3 has been published. Here is the link.

A request to my readers: Please read my previous posts on ChAndogya Upanishad, especially 6th & 7th chapter. Links are given below:

  1. Chapter Six: Section-1 to Section-4(Khanda-1 to Khanda-4). The link is here:  Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-6A of 6
  2. Chapter Six: Section-5 to Section-8(Khanda-5 to Khanda-8). The link is here: Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-6B of 6
  3. Chapter Six: Section-9 to Section-16(Khanda-9 to Khanda-16). The link is here: Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-6C of 6[END OF 6TH CHAPTER]
  4. Chapter-7 : Section-1 to Section-6 has been discussed. The link is here:- Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-7A
  5. Chapter-7 : Section-7 to Section-12 has been discussed. The link is here:- Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-7B
  6. Chapter-7 : Section-13 to Section-22: The link is here:- Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-7C
  7. Chapter-7 : Section-23 to Section-27: The link is here:- Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-7D[FINAL PART]

This post is part-2[8B] from 8th Chapter of Chandagyo Upanishad. Section-4 to Section-6 will be discussed here. 

Section-4 [Three Mantras]: Life Beyond

Mantra-1: This Self is the Bridge[“setu”~wall] which keeps the creatures from breaking in. Day and night do not go near Him, nor age, nor death, nor grief, nor good, nor evil. Sin turns away from Him because Brahman knows no sin.

The bridge is to be considered as Atman that connects one world with another world. It is like an embankment over which days and night can not pass. Time can not touch this Realm. It is beyond Time. This mantra emphasize on the truth that in Atman there is no contact with anything that is phenomenal. Old age, death, sorrows, good, evil nothing can touch Atman. This is the Realm of pure Being. This is world of Brahman which is untouched by every kind of evil. Evil is nothing but the consciousness of Body and Objects. Therefore, Atman is free from every kind of contamination as it is beyond Time and Space.

Mantra-2: This Self is the Bridge. When man crosses that bridge, if blind, he shall see, if sick, he shall be well; if unhappy, he shall be happy. When he crosses that bridge, though it may be night, it shall be day, for “Brahmaloka” is shining always.

This is Brahmaloka: Brahmaloka does not mean some world or Realm comparable with the one in which we are living. Brahman, the Absolute Itself, is called world of Brahman. It is just symbolic way of representing its own Being as the totality of experience. The field of experience is representing “loka”, the Realm. “Sarvam khalu idam Brahma” (सर्वं खल्विदं ब्रह्म तज्जलानिति शान्त उपासीत)- All this is Brahman, everything goes back to Brahman, and everything is sustained by Brahman.

Mantra-3: Brahmaloka is for those that are masters of themselves. They can move anywhere in this world at their pleasure.

In this Mantra, Upanishad is teaching us that through ” Brahmacharya” means continence(self-control), attains the level of Brahman. We have seen in Katha Upanishad about two paths: “Sreyas” and “Preyas”. One who practices Brahmacharya takes the path of “Sreyas”. Thereby one reaches to the state of no limit in respect of powers, capacities, knowledge, and existence.

Section-5 [Four Mantras]: Importance of Brahmacharya:

Mantra-1: That which is known as Sacrifice[yajna] is Brahmacharya. This is because one who knows the Self, attains Brahmaloka through Brahmacharya. Again, that which is known as worship[ista] is Brahmacharya.

The conduct of Brahman is Brahmacharya. To live as Brahman would be Brahmacharya. It is very difficult to conceive this. This is total abstraction of the senses in a sublimation of Consciousness which recognises itself alone, to the exclusion of everything else.

Mantra-2: That which is known as “Sattarayana” [a sacrifice lasting for a long time] is Brahmacharya. Through Brahmacharya, the individual self gets liberated. Then that which is called “mauna”[silence] is Brahmacharya., for through Brahmacharya one realizes the self, and having realized the Self one remains absorbed in the thought of It.

“Sattarayana” is a kind of ritual which is equivalent to practice of continence. It is a particular sacrifice which involves the services of many priests. Upanishad explains by splitting the word “Sattarayana” = sat + trayana: means sat is Being and trayana is the way of freedom or protection from every corners. Similarly, mauna, a vow of silence is also Brahmacharya. Taking a vow of silence, a person contemplates on his identity with Brahman.

Mantra-3: That which is known as “anasakayana” [ the path of fasting] is Brahmacharya, for through Brahmacharya one attains the Self which is immortal. Then that which is called “aranyayana” [life in the forest] is Brahmacharya. Ara means an ocean and nya means an ocean; and these two oceans abide in the region of Brahman. In that third world there, one finds a lake called airammadiya, a delightful tank full of gruel, an aswattha tree from which exudes nectar, and a palace of gold built by Brahma and named Aparajita. 

Aranyayana is dwelling in forest which is vanaprastha life. leading this life in austerities with great vows is a path of Brahmacharya for the attainment of Brahman. Whatever be the austerities, self-control is the highest austerity, and nothing is comparable to it. it is said in this Mantra that there are two oceans in the realm of Brahman filled with nectar where this world and that world both come together in a fraternal embrace as if two oceans “Ara” and “Nya” merge into one. They exists in the third world, beyond this world.[Not a physical world though but it is the Spiritual world] It is immortal bliss that one would experience after reaching there. Mantra says that there is an “aswattha” tree (peepul tree), very vast in its expanse from every pore of which nectar exudes. It is the Kalpavriksha, as mentioned in puranas. Kalpavriksha is such kind of tree present there where sitting under the tree whatever you wish is  fulfilled immediately. Immortality flows from that tree. It is also mentioned that there is the city of Brahman, where there is a palace named as “prabhuvmitam” built by Brahma himself, which shines like gold. Upanishads describe these mystical experiences of Consciousness are symbolical, which are achieved by constant practice of Brahmacharya.

Mantra-4: When they attain through Brahmacharya, the two oceans “Ara” and “Nya” in Brahmaloka, that Brahmaloka is theirs, and they can then move freely in all the worlds.

Brahmaloka is not a physical region like this Earth. It is a state of being. All these would be in our reach provided we are able to withdraw our senses and mind under control to fix centre of our consciousness in nothing but Brahman. Then we are free, and this freedom is called moksha~ liberation.

Section-6 [Six Mantras]Course after Death:

Mantra-1: Orange, blue, yellow, red, are not less in man’s arteries than in the Sun.

The heart is the place where one meditates on Brahman. The heart is said to be shaped like a lotus bud, and it also has some similarities to the Sun. The sun emits its rays, which spread out in all directions. These veins are filled with a very thin substance. The substance changes its color, and along with it veins also change color. Sun also changes color likewise.

Mantra-2: As a long highway passes between two villages, one at either end, so the Sun’s rays pass between this world and the world beyond. they flow from the Sun, enter into the arteries, flow back from the arteries, enter into the Sun.

We must follow what Upanishad is saying in this Mantra. there is a real live connection between Sun and us here in this Earth. The rays are connection between Sun and this world full of living beings, starting from microbes, algae, trees etc. This connection is not an imagination. It is real and integral connection of Sun with Earth to sustain life on Earth. It is an integral system that involves Sun and its family [all being on earth]

Mantra-3: When man is asleep, enjoying his sleep, he creates no dream; his soul sleeps in the arteries. No evil can touch him, for he is filled with light.

When a person is in deep sleep, he is free from all worries. In deep sleep,  mind lies inactive, desires nothing, dreams nothing, and knows nothing. This is his intellectual condition. Because of his union with the Self and his unbroken knowledge of it, he is filled with joy. he knows his joy and his mind is illuminated.

Mantra-4: When a person is dying, those around him ask if he knows them. As long as there is life left in the body, he recognizes them.

At the time of death, mind is compelled by the pranas to withdraw itself into its source, no sensation, no thought, no recognition remains whatsoever. Then what happens to that person?

Mantra-5: But when the life leaves the body, ascending with the Sus’s rays, he meditates on OM and with the speed of thought, goes to the Sun. Sun is the gate of the Heaven, where the wise can pass.

The essence of this mantra is about the journey to Brahmaloka after death of a person. Those who knows the meaning of OM and think on OM, while leaving this body on Earth, enters into Brahmaloka. When the dying person leaves the body, he quickly goes to the Sun, ascending through Sun rays. The time taken to reach the Sun[Brahmaloka] is compared with the time taken by the mind to change from one thought to another thought. It is as fast as that. Please read Section-15 of Chandagyo Upanishad  about ” A Sick Man on his death bed”

Mantra-6: In this connection there is a sloka which says: There are a hundred and one arteries leading to the heart; one of them pierces the crown of the head. He who goes upward through it, attains immortality; he who does not, is born again.

Katha Upanishad, Mantra-2.3.16 : One among these hundred and one moves vertically, as it were towards the crown of the head. this is usually called the sushumna-nadi. If our prana and mind can travel through this central nerve current called the sushumna and up through the crown of the head, we attain immortality.

Conclusion:

The Upanishad in this section describes that there are psychic nerve centres(chakra) along the region of the spine and also “Nadis”[channels] which start from heart-space and spread all over the body in thousands, like the rays of the Sun. In Deep sleep these rays enter the heart-space, and we experience great serenity in the absence of dream and waking experiences which are the cause of sufferings. Kundalini Yoga describes tis in details.

The link for reading text in Sanskrit is here:-   Chandgoya Upanishad 

Recommended readings:

  1. Back to the Truth: 5000 years of ADVAITA by Dennis Waite. **
  2. THE TEN PRINCIPAL UPANISHADS: Translated by Shree Purohit** Swami and W.B.Yeats
  3. Brahma Sutra Bhasya of Sankaracharya: Translated by Swami Gambhirananda.**
  4. Commentary of ChAndogya Upanishad: By Swami Krishnananda.
  5. ChAndogya Upanishad: By Swami GuruBhaktananda.
  6. EIGHT UPANISADS -VOL-1 with commentary of Sankaracharya, Translated by SWAMI GAMBHIRANANDA.
  7. THE TAITTIRIYA UPANISHAD: SHIKSHAVALLI-ANANDAVALLI-BHRIGUVALLI with Sri Shankara’s Commentary By Sri Swami Satchidanandera Saraswati.
  8. A-U-M Awakening to Reality: By Dennis Waite***
  9. Panchadasi: Swami Vidyaranya:
  10. Information available on internet.

It is my sincere request to the esteemed readers to share their opinion or queries if any. Suggestions to make the site attractive will be incredibly helpful for me. Readers are requested to read all the posts to have continuation of the topic from the beginning. My mail ID is: arun7663@gmail.com

Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-8A

Introduction: Eighth Chapter:

The ChAndogya Upanishad is part of ChAndogya Brahmana of the Sama Veda which is one of the largest important Upanishads with Eight Chapters (Prapathakas) with many Mantras(verses )including some stories as themes to gain Upanishadic knowledge. This Upanishad is placed in the 9th position in the list of Ten Principal Upanishads. The name of the Upanishad is derived from the word   “Chanda” (Rhythm~ poetic meter).

**This Upanishad directly deals with the true nature of Brahman, the Supreme Self, without a second.

ChAndogya Upanishad consists of Eight chapters. The first five chapters forms the part of Karma Kanda[ rituals] and Upasana Kanda [worship and meditation]. Chapter- 6, 7 and 8 form the part of Jnana Kanda[profound Self-knowledge].

The essence of the Teaching is: – “Brahma Vidya”

Brahma Vidya: It is the knowledge of the ultimate Truth which results in Self realisation. The knower of this Truth remains untouched by any situation in life.

This chapter is especially intended for those who are unable to grasp the vastness of “Absolute”, the subject like Bhooma Vidya (Infinity), taught in the previous chapter. Though this chapter confines itself to the Heart of an individual, but that does not limit itself to the body of an individual. The heart here mentioned is used as symbol as the center of the pure subjectivity in us and therefore heart refers to consciousness, which is apparently located within the walls of the body, but never limited to physical body.

A request to my readers: Please read my previous posts on ChAndogya Upanishad, especially 6th & 7th chapter. Links are given below:

  1. Chapter Six: Section-1 to Section-4(Khanda-1 to Khanda-4). The link is here:  Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-6A of 6
  2. Chapter Six: Section-5 to Section-8(Khanda-5 to Khanda-8). The link is here: Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-6B of 6
  3. Chapter Six: Section-9 to Section-16(Khanda-9 to Khanda-16). The link is here: Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-6C of 6[END OF 6TH CHAPTER]
  4. Chapter-7 : Section-1 to Section-6 has been discussed. The link is here:- Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-7A
  5. Chapter-7 : Section-7 to Section-12 has been discussed. The link is here:- Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-7B
  6. Chapter-7 : Section-13 to Section-22: The link is here:- Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-7C
  7. Chapter-7 : Section-23 to Section-27: The link is here:- Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-7D[FINAL PART]

This post is part-1[8A] of Eighth Chapter of Chandagyo Upanishad. Section-1 to Section-3 discussed here. 

Section-1: [Six Mantras]: The Universal Self within the Heart:

In this section we will learn that there is the City of Brahman ( Brahmapuram), the Absolute, in our own Self.

Mantra-1-2: The Chidaakaash Within:

“Within the City of Brahman, which is the Body, there is the Heart, and within the Heart there is a little house. The house has the shape of a Lotus, and within it dwells that which shines by its own light which is to be sought after, inquired about, and realized. What is there in that space? One should know what is there? Why it is so important? We will try to know that from the following Mantras.

** The Body is the abode of Brahman, the Self. In that Body, the core-centre is at Heart. Within heart is a “dahara”, the space, which is not akasha , one of the five basic elements, as we have seen earlier. This akasha is “Chidaakaash”, the space of Consciousness. 

Mantra-3: Heart is emblem of the Cosmic Secret:

Teacher said: “You ask me what is inside this little space. I tell you that everything is inside there.” There is as much in that little space within the heart, as there is in the whole Universe outside. Heaven, Earth, Fire, Wind, Sun, Moon, Lightning, Stars, whatever is and whatever is not, everything is there.

[*** HOLOGRAPHIC UNIVERSE] It is an emblem of the cosmic secret. Whatever is the extent of this vast space that is outside, that is the extent of this little space in our heart also. The whole of the celestial sphere can be found inside this little space. The principles of the five elements, – earth, water, fire, air, and ether- and everything you see or do not see, all are present here in this little space.

Mantra-4-5: Teacher continues:-

What lies in that space, does not decay when the body decays, nor does it fall when the body falls. That space is the home of Brahman. Every desire is there. Self is there, beyond decay and death; sin and sorrow; hunger and thirst; His aim Truth, His will Truth. Man can live in the body as long as he obeys the law, as man may live in a certain farm, in a certain town, in a certain province, or wherever he wishes, if he obeys the law.

** Though old age comes to the body, the lotus of the heart does not grow old. When body dies, it does not die. Brahman exists there. He is untouched by any deed. Does not suffer ageing, free from hunger, grief, and thirst. His desires are right desires, and his desires are fulfilled.

Mantra-6: Swarajyam

As just in this world, the Region won by action perishes, so does perish in the other world, the Region won by righteous deeds. Earthly pleasers exhaust themselves; heavenly pleasures exhaust themselves. Wherever men go without attaining Self or knowing the Truth, they can not move at their pleasure; but after attaining Self and knowing Truth, wherever they go, they move at their pleasure.

** We know all the wealth accumulated by one exhausts or perishes with time. Likewise, heavenly enjoyments which are acquired by the good deeds( through sacrifices etc) also exhausts after certain time. Therefore, who dies without realising the Self, the Truth, can not find eternal happiness wherever he goes. But for those who know the Self can attain eternal happiness wherever he goes , means in whichever Loka he goes.

Section-2 [Ten Mantras]: Different higher worlds

Mantra-1. If a person wants to see someone, say a forefather in the other world, he can see him at once. There is no such thing as other world for a person who has Realised the “Atman”

Mantra-2. If a man wants the company of his fathers, all he need to do is to Will it. They will appear and make him happy.

Mantra-3. If  he wants the company of his mothers, all he need to do is to Will it. They will appear and make him happy.

Mantra-4. If he wants the company of his brothers, all he need to do is to Will it. They will appear and make him happy.

Mantra-5. If he wants the company of his sisters, all he need to do is to Will it. They will appear and make him happy.

Mantra-6. If he wants the company of his friends, all he need to do is to Will it. They will appear and make him happy.

Mantra-7. If he wants women, all he need to do is to Will it. They will appear and make him happy.

Mantra-8. If he wants perfume or flowers, all he need to do is to Will it. It will appear and make him happy.

Mantra-9. If he wants food and drinks, all he need to do is to Will it. It will appear and make him happy.

Mantra-10. If he wants a thing or a place, all he need to do is to Will it. It will appear and make him happy.

The above 10 mantras in this section emphasize on the subject that everything we can think of, – relatives, friends, fathers, mothers, husbands, wives, good things, great things, pleasant things, objects of desire present in this world or in the other world -whatever they be, they do not take time to manifest themselves if the will is exercised in the proper manner. That means the will has to be in tune with the law of Atman. All such desires in our hearts are really distorted forms of the manifestation of Consciousness in some way or the other. There is some defect in the movement of Consciousness when it gets lodged in the body of an individual and imagines that it is somehow or other limited to the extent of that body alone. This type of imagination is falsehood which gets mixed-up with truth and then it becomes difficult for us to know the Reality, The Truth, the Infinite.

Section-3 [Five Mantras]: The Space within the Heart:

Desires are true but covered by falsehood:

त इमे सत्याः कामा अनृतापिधानास्तेषाꣳ सत्यानाꣳ
सतामनृतमपिधानं यो यो ह्यस्येतः प्रैति न तमिह
दर्शनाय लभते ॥ ८.३.१॥

Mantra-1. Those justified desires which are such, remain covered by falsehood. Falsehood is the cover for those existing true desires because whosoever of one’s relatives departs from here, is not available to be seen here again.

Unfailing desires are covered by falsehood. That means desires are indeed true, but they are covered by falsehood. Truth means vision for the things as they are in reality and falsehood means which opposes that reality. In reality things are not disconnected from one another. But for our wrong notions, we see the things different from one another in this Universe. Therefore, what we perceive as different worlds, is not different. It is for the varying consciousness of the limited self; we experience different worlds. What we consider as different “lokas”[realms of being] are actually one and present in our heart. When “jivatma” is imprisoned in a particular body, then due to finite and limited consciousness, it appears that jivatma is different from external world. But truly it is not!

अथ ये चास्येह जीवा ये च प्रेता यच्चान्यदिच्छन्न
लभते सर्वं तदत्र गत्वा विन्दतेऽत्र ह्यस्यैते सत्याः
कामा अनृतापिधानास्तद्यथापि हिरण्यनिधिं निहितमक्षेत्रज्ञा
उपर्युपरि सञ्चरन्तो न विन्देयुरेवमेवेमाः सर्वाः प्रजा
अहरहर्गच्छन्त्य एतं ब्रह्मलोकं न विन्दन्त्यनृतेन हि
प्रत्यूढाः ॥ ८.३.२॥

Wise man sees everything in Self:

Mantra-2. Again, those of his relatives who are still alive and those who are dead, and also those things a person cannot get even if he wishes for them-all these he gets by going within his heart. All true desires of a person are in his heart, though they are hidden. It is like when there is gold hidden some place underground and people who are ignorant of it walk over that spot again and again, knowing nothing about it. Similarly, all these beings go to Brahmaloka every day, and yet they know nothing about it because they are covered by ignorance.

Inside the heart is the whole Universe. When we have susupti, dreamless sleep, we are then one with Brahman and one with the whole world. We are not conscious of it, because of our ignorance.

In this section the Upanishad is teaching us to understand the truth that those people who have passed on from this world, those who are born and those who are not yet born, those who have come and those who have gone to other worlds are in our own hearts. They are not outside somewhere. We carry them in our own hearts, in the space of our Consciousness. It has been said earlier that whatever is outside is also inside.

Self stays in the heart:

Mantra-3. Self stays in the heart; heart, a word that seems to say here it is. Who knows this, daily enjoys the kingdom of Heaven.

Where the Self resides? It is within. Normally people think GOD is above in sky or in temple or somewhere beyond[ In English word, GOD is known as Supreme to the people who believes in GOD]. But the truth is this that in reality, GOD is in our own heart. The heart is the seat of Self-realization. One who knows that, goes daily to the heavenly world in the deep sleep (dreamless sleep). In deep sleep he is with Brahman. that means we go into our own Self. We become one with the Self. This we have seen in Mandukya Upanishad.

Mantra-4. A wise man, leaving his body, joins the flame; is one with His own nature. That nature is Self, fearless immortal Brahman.

Knowledge is associated with light. ” Tamasah ma jyotih gamaya- lead us from darkness to light. Means lead us from darkness of ignorance to the light of knowledge. Mandukya Upanishad has explained in details that during Awaking condition we are more attached to our body and try to enjoy through our sense organs. That becomes the cause of unhappiness. When we overcome our desires [which are active during awaking condition], we find our true nature. Our true nature is free from fear and full of Bliss.

Mantra-5. Whatever binds mortal and immortal, they call truth. Who knows this, daily enjoys the Kingdom of Heaven.

This Mantra says that Sa, ti, and yam – these are the three syllables which represent Brahman. Sa = Immortal, ti = mortal, yam = controls mortal and immortal. He who knows this enjoys divine bliss everyday in dreamless sleep.

Conclusion:

This chapter states that in this Body is “City of Brahman” and in that city there is a palace shaped like a lotus. In that palace there is a little space within the Heart. It is special because the entire Universe is contained within it. If everything is in man’s body, every being, every desire, what remains when old age comes, when decay begins, when the body falls? What lies in that space, does not decay when the body decays, nor does it fall when the body falls. That space is the home of Brahman, the Supreme. Every desire is there. Self is there, beyond decay and death; sin and sorrow; hunger and thirst. Self stays in heart. Heart, a word that seems to say, “here it is”. Who knows this, daily enjoys the kingdom of Heaven [DEEP SLEEP~ “susupti”].

The link for reading text in Sanskrit is here:-   Chandgoya Upanishad 

Recommended readings:

  1. Back to the Truth: 5000 years of ADVAITA by Dennis Waite. **
  2. THE TEN PRINCIPAL UPANISHADS: Translated by Shree Purohit** Swami and W.B.Yeats
  3. Brahma Sutra Bhasya of Sankaracharya: Translated by Swami Gambhirananda.**
  4. Commentary of ChAndogya Upanishad: By Swami Krishnananda.
  5. ChAndogya Upanishad: By Swami GuruBhaktananda.
  6. EIGHT UPANISADS -VOL-1 with commentary of Sankaracharya, Translated by SWAMI GAMBHIRANANDA.
  7. THE TAITTIRIYA UPANISHAD: SHIKSHAVALLI-ANANDAVALLI-BHRIGUVALLI with Sri Shankara’s Commentary By Sri Swami Satchidanandera Saraswati.
  8. A-U-M Awakening to Reality: By Dennis Waite***
  9. Panchadasi: Swami Vidyaranya:
  10. Information available on internet.

It is my sincere request to the esteemed readers to share their opinion or queries if any. Suggestions to make the site attractive will be incredibly helpful for me. Readers are requested to read all the posts to have continuation of the topic from the beginning. My mail ID is: arun7663@gmail.com

*THE CITY OF BRAHMAN*