In the House of Death: Story of a Boy-Nachiketas: Part-2

Introduction: Death is a Teacher:

Please read the first part of this story: The link is here: In the House of Death: Story of a Boy-Nachiketas: Part-1

This is the second part of the legendary story of a little boy Nachiketa, barely ten years old, son of Sage Vajasravasa , who meets Yama (The Death God in Hindu philosophy). Through conversation, Yama reveals Supreme Knowledge to Nachiketa, the knowledge of the nature of Self (Atman) and the path to gain Wisdom, for Moksha (liberation from the cycle of birth and death).

Text is lengthy, since all the dialogs are covered to get the Essence of Katha Upanishad. Readers are requested to read with patience. My efforts will be successful, if you like the content.

Yama: Lord of Death!  In short, I address here as Death!

Death said: ” This question has been discussed by the gods, it is deep and difficult. Choose another gift, Nachiketa! Do not be hard. Do not be hard. Do not compel me to explain.

Nachiketa said: ” Death! you say that the gods have discussed it, that it is deep and difficult; what explanation can be good as yours?

Death tempts Nachiketa a bit more: 

Death said: ” Take sons and grandsons, all long lived, cattle and horses, elephants and gold, take a great kingdom. Anything but this; wealth, long life, Nachiketa! Empire, anything whatever; satisfy the heart’s desire. Pleasure beyond reach, fine women with carriages, their musical instruments; mount beyond dreams; enjoy! But do not ask what lies beyond death”

Nachiketa said: “Destroyer of man! these things pass. Joy ends enjoyment, the longest life is short. keep those horses, keep singing and dancing, keep it all for yourself. Wealth cannot satisfy a man. If he but pleases you, master of all, he can live as long as he likes, get all he likes; but I will not change my gift. What man, subject to death and decay, getting the chance of Un decaying life, would still enjoy mere long life, thinking of copulation and beauty. Say where man goes after death; end all that discussion. This, which you have made so mysterious, is the only gift I will take.”

Two Paths in Human Life: ” The Good and the Pleasant” # SREYAS & PREYAS Sreyas is Vidya(wisdom), and Preyas is Avidya (ignorance).

Death said: ” The good is one, the pleasant another; both command the Soul. Who follows the good, attains sanctity, who follows the pleasant, drops out of the race. Every man faces both. The mind of the wise man draws him to the good, the flesh of the fool drives him to the pleasant.

Lord Yama praises Nachiketas’s discrimination:

Death Continues: Nachiketa! Having examined the pleasures, you have rejected them; turned from the vortex of life and death. Diverging roads: One called ignorance, the other Wisdom. Fools brag of their knowledge; proud, ignorant, dissolving, blind led by the blind, staggering to and fro. What can the money-maddened simpleton know of the future? ” This is the only world” cries he thinks there is no other, I kill him again and again. Some have never heard of the Self, some have heard of the Self, some have heard but cannot find Him. Who finds Him is a world’s wonder, who expounds Himis world’s wonder, who inherits Him from his Master is a world’s wonder. No man of common mind can teach Him; such men dispute one against another. But when the uncommon man speaks, dispute is over. Because the Self is a fine substance, He slips from the mind and deludes imagination. Beloved! logic brings no man to the Self. Yet when a wise man shows Him, He is found. Your longing eyes are turned towards reality.

Lord Yama’s attainment, when He was young:

Lord Yama continues: Would that I had always such a pupil. because man cannot find the Eternal through passing pleasure, I have sought the Fire in these pleasures and, worshipping that alone, found the Eternal. Nachiketa! The fulfilment of all desire, the conquest of the world, freedom from fear, unlimited pleasure, magical power, all were yours, but you renounced them all, brave and wise man. ” The wise, meditating on God, concentrating their thought, discovering in the mouth of the cavern, deeper in the cavern, that Self, that ancient Self, difficult to imagine, more difficult to understand, pass beyond joy and sorrow. The man that, hearing from the Teacher and comprehending, distinguishes nature from the Self, goes to the source; that man attains joy, lives for ever in that joy. I think, Nachiketa! your gate of joy stands open.”

Nachiketa asked: ” what lies beyond right and wrong, beyond cause and effect, beyond past and future?”

The Goal of all Spiritual efforts- “OM”

Death said: “The word the Vedas extol, austerities proclaim, sanctities approach- that word is OM! ” That word is eternal Spirit, eternal distance, who knows it attains to his desire. ” That word is the ultimate foundation. who finds it is adored among the saints. “The Self knows all, is not born, does not die, is not the effect of any cause; is Eternal, self-existent, spelt AUM, perishable, ancient. How can the killing of the body kill Him? He who thinks that He kills, he who thinks that He is killed, is ignorant. He does not kill nor is He killed. ” The Self is lesser than the least, greater than the greatest. He lives in all hearts. When senses are at rest, free from desire, man finds him and mounts beyond sorrow. though sitting, he travels, though sleeping is everywhere. Who but I Death can understand that God is beyond joy and sorrow. Who knows the Self, bodiless among the embodied, unchanging among the changing, prevalent everywhere, goes beyond sorrow. “The Self is not known through discourse, splitting of hairs, learning however great; He comes to man He loves; takes that man’s body for His own. “The wicked man is restless, without concentration, without peace; how can he find Him, whatever his learning? He has made mere preachers and soldiers His food, death its condiment; how can a common man find Him?”

Let us put it mathematically: “smaller than the smallest, greater than the greatest”. Suppose n is a number, and we consider two loops. n=n+1 and n=n-1 in two different cases.
case 1. n+1> n; in the loop n=n+1, n approaches to ∞ (infinity)
case 2. n-1 < n; in the loop n=n-1, n approaches to zero; ε (epsilon) but ≠ 0. This example will just help to imagine the vastness of Brahman.
Planck length, the smallest in size = 1.6 x 1035 meters. Planck time, the smallest time = 1044seconds. Volume of the observable Universe is 3.566×1080 m3

Conclusion:

एतद्ध्येवाक्षरं ब्रह्म : = This word alone is verily “Saguna Brahman”. एतद्ध्येवाक्षरं परम्: = This word alone is verily the “Nirguna Brahman”. This syllable AUM(ॐ) is indeed Brahman. This syllable is the Highest, Eternal. Whosoever knows this syllable obtains all that he desires. एतदालम्बनं ज्ञात्वा ब्रह्मलोके महीयते : = This word is the ultimate foundation. Who finds it is adored among saints.

ब्रह्म` ~ “Brahman” : The Principal word in Upanishad: What is That?

Brahman: IT is That which is Absolute, fills all space, is complete in Itself, to which there is no second and which is continuously present in everything, in every being and everywhere. It is homogeneous in nature.

 

Important Reads related to this article

  1. The Four Great Sayings of Vedas:
  2. The Divine Art!!!
  3. THE WISDOM OF THE FIVE SHEATHS:

Conclusion:

Failure to comprehend the Essential Unity of Being is the Cause of Rebirth.

Why do we take rebirth or otherwise we can say we move from death to death. Why? It is due to wish of fulfilling desires that remain till death. But if we can realize the True Reality of the Self, the Eternal Self, from whom everything manifests, the desires get vanished, get dried up. All desires melt is the light of the Self. This is Nirvana. Nachiketas wanted to know, what happens to the Souls after death. Lord of Death ” Yama ” explained the reality through conversations between them. That is the Essence of Katha Upanishad.

Recommended readings:

  1. Back to the Truth: 5000 years of ADVAITA by Dennis Waite. **
  2. THE TEN PRINCIPAL UPANISHADS: Translated by Shree Purohit** Swami and W.B.Yeats
  3. Brahma Sutra Bhasya of Sankaracharya: Translated by Swami Gambhirananda.**
  4. Commentary of Katha Upanishad: By Swami Krishnananda.
  5. Katha Upanishad: By Swami GuruBhaktananda.
  6. EIGHT UPANISADS -VOL-1 with commentary of Sankaracharya, Translated by SWAMI GAMBHIRANANDA.
  7. THE TAITTIRIYA UPANISHAD: SHIKSHAVALLI-ANANDAVALLI-BHRIGUVALLI with Sri Shankara’s Commentary By Sri Swami Satchidanandera Saraswati.
  8. Commentary of Mandukya Upanishad: By Swami Krishnananda.
  9. MANDUKYA Upanishad By Swami GuruBhaktananda.
  10. A-U-M Awakening to Reality: By Dennis Waite***
  11. Panchadasi: Swami Vidyaranya: 
  12. Information available on internet.

It is my sincere request to the esteemed readers to share their opinion or queries if any. Suggestions to make the site attractive will be highly helpful for me. Readers are requested to read all the posts to have continuation of the topic from the beginning. My mail ID is:   arun7663@gmail.com 

 

In the House of Death: Story of a Boy-Nachiketas: Part-1

Introduction:-

This is a legendary story of a little boy Nachiketas, barely ten years old, son of Sage Vajasravasa. Nachiketa meets Yama (The Death God in Hindu philosophy) and get answers of his question: ‘What is Death?”

Through conversation, Lord Yama reveals “Supreme Knowledge” to Nachiketa, the knowledge of the nature Atman and the path to gain Wisdom,  Moksha (liberation from the cycle of birth and death).

Sage Vajasravasa wished to perform a sacrifice called Vishwajit (Sarva Dakshina), meaning victory over the whole universe. Through such sacrifice, the performer aims to gain the fruit of gaining a higher world and enjoy the pleasures there. (Vajasrava means a Giver). The boy faced wrath of his father after completion of sacrificial fire , when he found there was fault in the part of his father. As such the boy was offered to Yama, by his father in anger.

Finally he got the desired knowledge from Yama when he exhibited “Mumukshautva” (intense desire to seek Wisdom) and Vairagya(dispassion for all worldly pleasures).

The Story in details:-

Sage Vajasravasa, desiring Heaven, rewards, performed the Visvajit sacrifice, in which he gave away all his property as gift[Dakshina]. He had a son by name Nachiketa.

Gifts not worth the name:

When the gifts were being distributed, Nachiketa, who was still a boy said to himself: Joyless, surely, are the worlds to which he goes who gives away cows no longer able to drink, to eat. to give milk, or to calve. He went to his father and said: Father! To whom will you give me? Nachiketa repeated this question second and a third time. At last his father got angry and replied: ‘Unto death I offer you’.

Nachiketa then proceeded to meet the king of Death: “Yama”

Nachiketas at the door of Death

Nachiketa thought: whether I die now or later matters a little. What purpose of the King of Death will my father serve today by thus giving me away to Death? Nachiketa said: Think of those who went before, those that will come after. Man dies and born again like a blade of grass. A mortal ripens like a corn and corn springs up again.

"Man dies and is born again like a blade of grass. This means seed grows only to fall and fall only to grow. This is the cycle of human life because birth and death are correlatives."

Lord Yama’s Instructions on Hospitality: 

Nachiketa went into the forest and sat in meditation within the house of Death. Death king Yama was out of his kingdom on his job. When Death appeared his servant said: Lord! when a holy man enters a house as guest it is as if fire has entered. The wise man cools him down. So bring him water O king of Death!

If a holy man comes into fool’s house and is given nothing, the fool’s family, public and private life, ambitions, reputation, property, hopes alliances, all suffer. Thereupon Lord Yama said to Nachiketa: ‘A guest should be respected. You have dwelt in my house three nights without eating; I bow to you O holy Boy! Take from me three boons[gifts]. Choose now three boons, one for each night, O Brahmin! may all be well with me’!

The First Boon: 

Nachiketa said: ‘O Death! may Gautama, my father, be calm, cheerful and free from anger toward me! may he recognise me and greet me when I shall have been sent home by you! This I choose as the first of three boons’.

Death grants the first boon!

King of Death said:  ‘I will so arrange things, that your father, will recognise and love you as before and he will sleep peacefully at night and his grudge against you will vanish’.

The Second Boon: 

Nachiketa said: ‘ There is no fear in the kingdom of Heaven, because you are not there, nobody there is afraid of old age. man is beyond hunger, thirst and sorrow. You know, O Death! Please explain me what Fire leads to Heaven, show it, I am full of faith. I ask this as my second boon.’

Death said: ‘ I will explain it, listen! find the rock and conquer unmeasured worlds. Listen, for this came out of cavern.’

Death grants the second boon! 

Yama told him that out of Fire comes this world, what bricks and how many go to the alter, how best to build it. Nachiketa repeated all. Death encouraged ran on. I give you another gift. This fire shall be called by your name. Count the links of the chain: 

*Worship the triple  Fire: 1) Knowledge, 2) Meditation, and 3) practice.

*The triple process: 1) Evidence, 2) Inference, and 3) Experience.

* The triple duty: 1) Study, 2) Concentration, and 3) Renunciation.

Understand that everything comes from Brahman. That Brahman alone is sought and found, attain everlasting peace; mount beyond Birth and Death.

***Here, Fire means Energy-

King of Death continued: ‘ When man understands himself, understands Universal self, the union of the two, kindles the triple Fire, offers the sacrifice; then shall he, though still on Earth, break the bonds of Death, beyond sorrow, mount into Heaven.[ **This is liberation, while living on Earth]

The Nachiketa Agni[Fire]:

The perfect sacrifice is explained by Yama.

 Out of fire arises all that exists in the Universe. Mastering this, one gains mastery over any field of human activity, and acquires whatever one desires in terms of worldly prosperity and power. However, it is all within the transitory realm; all gains here are impermanent. Nachiketas very attentively listened and was able to follow what was said. He repeated all that Yama explained. Being happy with Nachiketas, Yama encouraged and said " I will give you another gift. This fire shall be called by your name." And it is known as "Nachiketas Fire". 

‘The Fire that leads to heaven is your second gift, Nachiketa! It shall be named after you. Now choose the third gift.’

The Third Boon: 

The secret of Death!!!

Nachiketa said: ‘Some say that when man dies he continues to exist, others say that he does not. Explain, and that shall be my third gift.’

It is too difficult for you Nachiketa!

Death said: ‘ This question has been discussed by the gods, it is deep and difficult. choose another gift, Nachiketa! Do not be so hard. Do not compel me to explain.

Nachiketa said: ‘Indeed on this matter, even by the gods doubts have been entertained. You also say, O Death, that this principle is not truly comprehendible easily. But a teacher like you can explain this. Another such teacher I shall never find. therefore, I have no option before me but this. No other boon equal to this there be for me to choose!

To continue in the next part….

Third gift was indeed granted and it is a great part of the story, where the words of wisdom are the main essence. To be published in the second part, or else it will be a very lengthy blog.

Interested readers may go through the following post

Essence of Katha Upanishad :Part 4C of 4: -The Concluding Part-

*** This story is from Katha Upanishad. Kathopanishad is part of Krishna Yajurveda and consists of two Chapters. Each Chapter has three sections. This Upanishad is a favourite one in all ages and it is placed in third position in the list of Ten Principal Upanishads.

Conclusion:-

Through this dialogue between Nachiketa and Lord of Death, the response of Death has to be observed minutely! Every one is interested to know the secret of Death! But what are the conditions that an aspirant should posses to know the secret. That discussion proceeds from here onwards.

NEXT PART !!..COMING SOON…😊🙏❤️

Brain Waves & Meditation on OM[AUM]: An insight

Introduction:-

Please go through this simple content which is nothing but my experience only. Just as it is: Thought of sharing my experience. Please spare few minutes. 🙏😊❤️

IMPORTANCE OF MEDITATION:

Since ancient time function of brain and meditation have been linked.

We can understand the relationship between brain activity and meditation by the use of modern  technology such as EEG. Basically we are all vibrational beings living in the vibrational universe.

Frequency of vibration determines our experience of reality. The fundamental elements of our physical vibrations are known as brainwave frequencies. Frequencies are measured in Hertz. In brain mapping the frequencies are measured in Hertz which are typically in the range between 0.5 to 60Hertz. According to studies, published in different websites, during meditation a discernible brainwave patterns seen  on EEG.

In neuroscience, there are five distinct brain wave frequencies, known as Alpha, Beta, Theta , Delta and Gamma.

To  understand the function of brainwave frequencies, which affect our daily life following vibrational patterns are described in brief.

Delta(0.5-3.0 Hz): The deep sleep Wave.

The Delta frequency is the slowest of the frequencies and it is experienced in deep, dreamless sleep and in very deep, transcendental ,  meditation where awareness is completely detached. Delta is the realm of unconscious mind. It is the Gateway to the Universal mind.

Alpha(7.5-14 Hz): The Deep Relaxation wave:

Alpha brain waves are present in deep relaxation with the eyes usually closed and while day dreaming or during light meditation. It is an optimal time to program the mind for success. It is the Gateway to the Subconscious mind. It heightens imagination, visualization, memory, learning and concentration. It lies at the base of consciousness of human mind.

Theta (4-7.5 Hz): The Light Meditation and Sleeping Wave.

Theta brain waves are present during deep meditation and light sleep including REM dream state. It is the realm of Subconscious mind. It is also known as twilight state as it is normally experienced between Alpha (drift off to sleep)and Delta(arise from deep sleep).A sense of deep spiritual connection and with the Universe can be experienced at Theta. Voice of Theta is silence.

Beta(14-40Hz): The waking Consciousness and Reasoning wave.

Beta brain waves are associated with normal waking consciousness and a heightened state of alertness, logic and critical reasoning. Daily activities are performed in this state. Too much Beta can translate into stress, anxiety and restlessness. The voice of Beta is the little nagging chatterbox of inner critic.

Gamma(40-80Hz): The Insight Wave.

This range is recently discovered. Little is known about this state of mind. Gamma waves with the highest frequency can have a frequency of anywhere between 25 and 100 Hz. Initial research shows that Gamma waves are associated with bursts of insight and high level information processing. Gamma brain waves are fastest brainwave frequency with smallest amplitude. Feelings of Blessings with peak concentration has been reported by experienced meditators.

Neuroscientists believe that gamma waves are able to link information from all parts of the brain-the gamma wave originates in the thalamus and moves back of the brain to the front and back again @ 40Hz.This is the brainwave state of that feeling that any thing can be done.

Now we may draw analogy of the above topic with Mandukya Upanishads, which is shortest among all Upanishads. According to the Mandukya Upanishad, four conditions of Spirit can be described as below.

1)Waking condition: Perception turned outward.

2)Mental condition : Perception turned inward, known as dreaming condition. Self enjoys subtle matter.

3)Deep sleep condition: No desire, no dream. This is intellectual condition. Because of union with Self and his unbroken knowledge, one feels joy. He knows joy. His mind is illuminated.

ॐ~AUM

A~ Waking

U~ Dreaming

M~ Deep Sleep

Turiya: The Fourth condition of the Self which can be achieved through deep meditation that corresponds to “OM” as ONE , invisible Word. Self is Whole and beyond bargain.

The world disappears in HIM. SELF is one without a second.

This condition is known as #Turiya#

Please read Mandukya Upanishad in two parts to understand the topic which you will find inline with Brain waves pattern. Links are here:

1:MaNDukya Upanishad- The Nature of OM: – Part-1

2:MaNDukya Upanishad- The Nature of OM: – Part-2

Any decrease in mind clutter is an increase in our vibrational connection to higher Consciousness.

MaNDukya Upanishad- The Nature of OM: – Part-2

Introduction:

Mandukya Upanishad belongs to Atharva Veda. It is the shortest of all the Upanishads with only 12 verses and placed in the 6th position in the list of Ten Principal Upanishads.

This Upanishad teaches the significance of the sacred syllable ॐ~AUM (OM) and it correlates with four states of Consciousness. It describes the Turiya state, the state of transcendental Consciousness in which all the divisions and Duality disappears. The SELF alone exists in its pure state.

Among the Upanishads, the “Mandukya” may be regarded as the most important. It is said : ” mandukyam ekam eva alam mumukshunam vimuktaye”. For the liberation from bondage, for a seeker, the maNDukya alone is sufficient.

Upon meditating on the Mystic Syllable OM [AUM], mind can be trained to achieve freedom gradually to attain ultimate Reality.

Please read my previous post on Mandukya Upanishad, Part-1, where I have discussed up to 7th mantra out of total twelve mantras. 7th mantra is most important among the Vedic scriptures. This mantra describes the nature of Absolute reality~ Brahman. Please read first part of the post. Link is here:-

In this post, I will discuss the last five Mantras [from 8th mantra to 12th mantra].

माण्डूक्योपनिषत्

॥ अथ माण्डूक्योपनिषत् ॥

Mantra-8:- ॐ~AUM (OM) with four quarters:

“सोऽयमात्माऽध्यक्षरमोंकारोऽधिमात्रं पादा मात्रा मात्राश्च पादा अकार उकारो मकार इति “॥ ८॥

“so.ayamAtma.sdhyakSharamo~NkAro-adhimAtram pAdA mAtramAtrAshcha pAdA akAra ukAro makAra iti” – [8]

“The same Atman, (which has been described in 7th Mantra as having four quarters) is again, AUM, from the point of view of the syllables. The “AUM “with parts is viewed from the stand point of sound. The quarters the letters and the letters are the quarters. The letters here are A, U and M”.

According to Shankara, 7th mantra have concentrated on the abhidheya meaning ‘that which is being spoken of’, i.e. the thing named or denoted. OM [AUM], therefore, is effectively the abhidhAna-name or appellation. This means that Atman is equated to OM in the linguistic sense. The letters constituting OM are A, U and M.
Mantra-9:- The first mAtra of OM-akAraH: the letter “A” : vaishvAnara- the waking state.

“जागरितस्थानो वैश्वानरोऽकारः प्रथमा मात्राऽऽप्तेरादिमत्त्वाद् वाऽऽप्नोति ह वै सर्वान् कामानादिश्च भवति य एवं वेद “॥ ९॥

“jAgaritasthAno vaishvAnaro-akArah prathamAmAtra-a-apteraadimattvaadvA-a-apnoti ha vai sarvAnkAmAnAdishcha bhavati ya evaM veda”.-[9]

“He who is VaishvAnara, having for its sphere of activity the waking state is A, the first letter of AUM, on account of its all-pervasiveness or on account of being the first. One who knows this attains the fulfilment of all desires and becomes the first of all”.

prathamA mAtra: – The first mAtra of OM-akAraH: the letter “A” vaishvAnara- the waking state. AdimatvatvAt: being the first. Pervasiveness-“A” which pervades all sounds. “A” is the fundamental sound. We can not speak any word without opening the mouth and the sound thus produced is “A”. We can regard this sound as pervading every other sound. Similarly we we regard the waking state as having primacy. We only know of the existence of the dream state and deep sleep states when we are at waking state. Obviously we have to be awake in order to pursue this enquiry and to attain enlightenment.

In the scripture VaishvAnara is said to pervade the whole of the Universe. In Bhagavad-Gita, Ch10.33, Lord Krishna says: ” I am the letter “A”, describing himself as Ishwara. This mantra is advocating Upasana on OM, with specific attention on the first letter “A”.

One who understands this, gets all he wants; becomes leader among men.

Mantra-10:- The letter “U”, the second mAtra of OM is “taijasa”, the dream state

“स्वप्नस्थानस्तैजस उकारो द्वितीया मात्रोत्कर्षाद् उभयत्वाद्वोत्कर्षति ह वै ज्ञानसन्ततिं समानश्च भवति नास्याब्रह्मवित्कुले भवति य एवं वेद” ॥ १०॥ 

“svapnasthAnastijasa ukAro dvitIyAmAtrotkarShAdubhayatvAdvotkarShati ha vai j~nAnasantati-nsamAnashcha bhavati nAsyaabrahmavitkule bhavAti va evaM veda” -[10]

“The dreaming condition [taijasa], called mental condition, corresponds to the second letter “U”. It upholds; stands between waking and sleeping. He who understands, upholds the tradition of Spiritual knowledge. looks upon everything with an impartial eye. No one ignorant of Brahman is born into his family”.

The letter “U”, the second mAtra of OM is “taijasa”, the dream state, because both are regarded as superior and also are in the middle of their respective series. Whosoever knows this will become superior in knowledge and accepted by all. All members of his family will be wise. As a matter of fact, A being the first of all sounds is superior to all letters. But “U” coming after “A” may be said superior to “A” in all indirect way. as such the subtle taijasa is regarded as superior to vishva because subtle is superior to gross. Gross can be considered as the effect of the subtle cause. Gross equates to matter, subtle to energy. Mind is superior to physical body. State of mind makes us superior to the animals. Gross body returns to earth on death, but the subtle and causal body remains present for rebirth. 

Note:- At the macrocosmic level, at the end of the Universe[Pralaya], the entire gross creation [Virat] is subsumed into Hiranyagarbha. 

Mantra-11:- Deep sleep, the intellectual condition, called “Prajna” corresponds to the third letter “M”.

“सुषुप्तस्थानः प्राज्ञो मकारस्तृतीया मात्रा मितेरपीतेर्वा मिनोति ह वा इदꣳ सर्वमपीतिश्च भवति य एवं वेद” ॥ ११॥

“suShuptassthAnaH prAj~no makArastRRitIyA mAtra meterapItervA minoti havA idaM sarvamapItishcha bhavati ya evaM veda”-[11]

“Undreaming sleep, called the intellectual condition [prAj~no], corresponds to the third letter “M”. It weighs and unites. he who understands, weighs the world; rejects; unites himself with the cause”.-[11]

Sankara Explains:-

One who is prAj~no associated with deep sleep is “M” , the third letter{sound) of AUM. The key word “miti” in the mantra needs to be understood. “miti” means measure. As food grains are measured in utensils before use and that is filled again when it is reused on regular basis, which means grains reappear again. similarly, at individual level, the waking and dream states as though disappear in deep sleep, emerge again sometime later. Similarly, at the macrocosmic level, the gross[Virat] and subtle[Hiranyagarbha] worlds disappear at the end of creation into the causal state(Ishwara~antaryamin) and reappear at the next creation. This is analogous to the scientific theory of “Big-Bang & Big-Crunch”. In the same manner, while chanting OM (AUM), the sound “A” and “U” disappear when we close mouth and only sound “M” remains. And the sound “A” and “U” reappear again when the mouth is opened for chanting AUM. waking and dream states are merged in deep sleep. As we have seen in mantra-4 of this Upanishad, that they[ A= Vishva & U= Taijasa] become “mass of consciousness” (prajnanaghana)  in M (deep sleep state).

In deep sleep, all perceptions and cognitions converge into a single mode of the mind: It becomes mass of Consciousness[ ekibhutah]. There is no modifications of the mind[ due to absence of Vrittis].

The happiness of deep sleep is greater than all other forms of happiness. 

Therefore one who knows this, comprehends the real nature of the Universe. He realises himself as Atman and the cause of the Universe i.e. Ishwara.

Mantra-12:- “Amaatra”- The fourth letter: “Turiya”

“अमात्रश्चतुर्थोऽव्यवहार्यः प्रपञ्चोपशमः शिवोऽद्वैत एवमोंकार आत्मैव संविशत्यात्मनाऽऽत्मानं य एवं वेद “॥ १२॥

“amAtrashchaturtho-avyavahAryaH prapa~nchopashamaHshivo-Advaitaevamo~NkAra-atmaiva saMvishatyAtmanA-a-AtmaM ya evaM veda ya evaMveda”-[12]

“The fourth conditioned of the Self corresponds to OM as one, indivisible word. He is whole; beyond bargain. The world disappears in Him. He is the good; the one without a second. Thus OM is nothing but Self. He who understands, with the help of personal self, merges himself into the impersonal Self.”

The part less “OM” is the fourth quarter; It is beyond all conventional dealings; It is the limit of the negation of the phenomenal world. It is all- Auspicious, all-Blissful; It is One without a second; the Non-Dual Reality; This OM is verily the same as the Atman or Self within. The Self realises Itself through the Self; He who knows thus, merges himself  into the impersonal Self.

Conclusion:-

A) Individually( for Jiva), the waking consciousness is called Vishva. It is called Taijasa in dream and Prajna in deep sleep state. Correspondingly, from the view of Cosmic level, these are: Virat in waking, Hiranyagarbha in dreaming and Ishwara in deep sleep. 

B) The relationship between individual and the cosmic, between Vishva & Virat, Taijasa & Hiranyagarbha, Prajna & Ishwara is integral part of ONE [ Non-Dual Consciousness]. This realisation will put Jiva in Ishwratwa and make it  Omnipresent, Omniscient and Omnipotent.

C) The knower of Brahman, who has realised the highest Truth, will enter into the Self by burning away the Third state of latency[ the dormant Vasanas~ (causal) are burnt]. Henceforth, he is not born again, as there are no Karmas to cause a further birth.

D) AUM is realised when the illusion of DUALITY vanishes.

Recommended readings:

  1. Back to the Truth: 5000 years of ADVAITA by Dennis Waite.**
  2. THE TEN PRINCIPAL UPANISHADS: Translated by Shree Purohit** Swami and W.B.Yeats
  3. Brahma Sutra Bhasya of Sankaracharya: Translated by Swami Gambhirananda.**
  4. Commentary of Mandukya Upanishad: By Swami Krishnananda.
  5. MANDUKYA Upanishad By Swami GuruBhaktananda.
  6. The Mandukya Upanishad: with Gaudapada’s Karika and Sankara’s commentary: By swami Nikhilananda
  7. EIGHT UPANISADS -VOL-1 with commentary of Sankaracharya, Translated by SWAMI GAMBHIRANANDA.
  8. THE TAITTIRIYA UPANISHAD: SHIKSHAVALLI-ANANDAVALLI-BHRIGUVALLI with Sri Shankara’s Commentary By Sri Swami Satchidanandera Saraswati.
  9. A-U-M Awakening to Reality : By Dennis Waite***
  10. Information available on internet.

             It is my sincere request to the esteemed readers to share their opinion or queries if any. Suggestions to make the site attractive will be highly helpful for me. Readers are requested to read all the posts to have continuation of the topic from the beginning. My mail ID is :   arun7663@gmail.com 

A Brief Note on Ten Principal Upanishads.

Introduction:-

One of the three basic Texts of Vedanta is “Upanishad”. Other two are Bhagavad-Gita and Brahma-Sutra. Together these three Texts constitute “Prasthana Traya”: known as Triple canon of Vedanta. Upanishads constitute the revealed Texts, known as “Sruti Prasthana”. Vedanta is the name given to them because they are End means concluding part of the Veda. Bhagavad-Gita is “Smriti-Prasthana”, which occupies an unique place in Vedantic tradition. A popular verse compares the Upanishads to the cows, The Bhagavad-Gita to the milk, Sri Krishna to the milk man, Arjuna, the Pandava Hero to the calf and the wise people to the partakers of the milk. The third of the canonical text is “Brahma-Sutra” which is regarded as “Naya-Prasthana”.

“samasta-vedanta-sarasangraha-bhutam”

In this post we will discuss about Upanishads in brief:

Salient features on Upanishads:

  • Upanishad = Upa + Nishad: Spiritual knowledge obtained by disciples sitting near or at the feet of The Guru [ means the Teacher].
  • Scholar says that Upanishads were composed during 4000-5000 BC. Some says: 2000-14000BC.
  • Nowhere it is mentioned about any author n the Upanishads. No date of origin can be fixed.
  • Teachings were imparted in stillness, noise free environment like forests where tranquillity can not be disturbed. Those Upanishads are known as Aranyaka and these were specially intended for Vanaprastha.
  • Teachings were transmitted orally and hence called as “SRUTI”.
  • Value of Upanishad for Mankind is for all time, all places and all ages. Lessons in Scriptures are very practical and applicable for modern world as it was for Indo-Aryan period.
  • Upanishads were transported to western countries initially through Persian translation[1700 AD].
  • French scholar Anquetil Duperron brought a copy of manuscript from Persia to France. Later on it was translated in French and Latin.
  • First English translation was made by Raja Ram Mohan Roy. [1775-1833].
  • Every Upanishad begins with a Peace mantra.(shanti path).
  • There are 108 Upanishads. Among them 10 Upanishads are considered as Principal Upanishads.
  • Who Am I? What is this Universe? Whence and how we are born? What is mortality or Immortality? What is Atman or Brahman? What is liberation(from cycle of birth)? What is death?- All questions have answers in Upanishads. 

The Ten Principal Upanishads are:

1) IshaVasya Upanishad: Occurs in the Samhita portion of  Shukla Yajur Veda.

2) Kena Upanishad:  It is embedded inside the last section of the Talavakara Brahmanam of the Samaveda.

3) Katha Upanishad: Belongs to Katha Branch of Krishna Yajurveda

4) Prashna Upanishad: Comes from the Brahmana portion of the Atharva Veda, belonging to Pippalada Sakha.

5) Mundaka Upanishad: It is Part of Atharva Veda.

6) Mandukya Upanishad: The Mandukya Upanishad, belongs to Atharva Veda. It is the shortest of all the Upanishads with 12 verses and placed in the 6th position in the list of Ten Principal Upanishads.

7) Taittiriya Upanishad: It is a part of the Krishna Yajur Veda and placed in the seventh position in the list of Ten Principal Upanishad.

8) Aitareya Upanishad: Belongs to Aitareya Aranyaka**(Teachings in the forest), part of Rig-Veda.

9) ChAndogya Upanishad: It is part of ChAndogya Brahmana of the Sama Veda

10) BRRihadAraNyaka Upanishad: It forms the fourteenth Kanda of Satapatha Brahmana of “Shukla Yajurveda.” This is the biggest one.

ब्रह्म` ~ “Brahman” : The Principal word in Upanishad: What is It?

First of all, we need to know the true meaning of “Brahman” [ब्रह्म`]

Brahman: IT is That which is Absolute, fills all space, is complete in Itself, to which there is no second and which is continuously present in everything, in every being and everywhere. It is homogeneous in nature.

The word ब्रह्म` “Brahman” will be used repeatedly. Meaning of Brahman is VAST. This is to be noted here that the word “Brahman” does not refer to any Cast , Creed or Sect. According to Vedanta the word ” Brahman” has been derived from the root word “brh” which means growing or expanding and suffix “man” added to it signifies absence of limitations. In Vedanta, the word Brahman is a neuter gender and hence it is referred as pronoun ” That”. It is very difficult to describe Brahman, which is ultimately indefinable, indescribable, and utterly beyond all human comprehension. Brahman cannot be described through senses alone. Vedanta has however taught us how to realize Brahman which is “Supreme Consciousness”

 The oneness of Soul (Jiva~Atman) and GOD (Param Atman), the ultimate Truth is the principal essence of all Upanishads. 

Please visit my website for more details. https://arunsingha.in

 

Pictures shown below are relevant to the Text of Upanishads.

A special note On International Yoga Day-2022:

Introduction: 

The word “YOGA” has been derived from the Sanskrit word “YUJ”. This means “to Connect or to Combine”. In very simple word it is “UNION”. 

∪ ⇒ Union: Union with Source(Brahman/ Purusha)

∑ ⇒ Summation{Of All that we perceive or do not perceive }

∫ ⇒ Integral[ Non-Dual]

+ ⇒ Add [ All good qualities]

There are multiple paths for Union. After deep studies of Vedanta (ten Principle Upanishads) and Patanjali Yoga Sutras, I have found and adopted two easy paths to achieve my goals.

1) Vedantic Approach( Advaita- Non-Dualism)

2) Yogic Approach ( Patanjali Yoga sutras)

Vedantic Approach:

What should be my (our) goal?

Answer: To be United with Supreme[ The absolute “Brahman”] : Complete cessation of sufferings and attainment of Bliss is the goal of everyone.

” Attyantika Dukshya Nivritti, Paramananda praptyachya”

Most important condition to remove sufferings is “fearlessness”.

A vision of Oneness is the sole condition that brings fearlessness.

There is nothing to fear. Everything is Self-created. HE( The Absolute) is that Essence, by drinking which, man rejoices. That Self is the sole giver of Joy (Bliss). When man finds invisible, nameless, homeless, shapeless, he is no longer terrified. He becomes free from fear who attains such Oneness. But if the slightest ” Otherness” is allowed to enter then he is smitten with fear. That man, thinking himself wise, becomes terrified. ” 

The knower of Brahman reaches the Supreme”.

How to Know Brahman?

Knowledge of Brahman can not be gathered by mere reasoning. Knowledge can be attained through intuition or revelation. Intuition is the final result of the enquiry into Brahman. There are three stages which are very essential for progressing in this path. Three stages are as below:

Following are the steps: 

1.Sravana :  Listening to the teachings of the sages on Vedanta. Now instead of Sravana, we can use the word Study of Vedanta, because Sravana was the practice during early Vedic period as no method of writing existed.

2.Manana : This stage is the reflection on the teachings. This means thinking about what has been heard and subjecting that into a reason based on experience gained.

3.Nididhyasana : Stage of meditation on the truth [MahaVakyas]. It is the culmination of the practice of Sravana and Manana. BRRihadAraNyaka Upanishad says  on Nididhyasana. ” The Self , my dear Maitreyi, should be realized-should be heard of , reflected on and meditated upon; by the realization of the self, my dear”.

Sravana, Manana, Nididhyasana leads us to intuition (aparoksha anubhuti). In this way, “Brahma Kara Vritti ” is generated from ” Sattvic anta Karana ”  This ” Brahma Kara Vritti” destroys the mula-Avidya or primitive ignorance which is the root cause of all bondage, births and deaths.

When this ignorance or veil is removed, Brahman which is Self effulgent reveals itself in its pristine glory and splendour. 

Now the Text is for whom?

 The Vedanta is for the person who is competent to understand and study sastras(Scriptures) ,has tranquil mind, with required attributes as described in Vedanta.

After attainment of certain preliminary qualifications which are known as four salvations(Sadhana Chatustaya) ,one can progress towards the direction of knowing Brahman.

Four salvations are:

  1. “Nitya-anitya-vastuveveka” which means discrimination between the eternal and non eternal.
  2. ” IhamutrarthaphalabhogaViraga” : Indifference to the joys in this life or in in Heaven, and of the fruits of one’s action.
  3. ” Shatsampat” : Six fold virtues that are : i) Sama (Control of mind), ii) Dama ( Control of senses),iii) Uparati (Cessation from worldly enjoyments), iv) Titiksha ( Endurance of pleasure and pain, heat and cold), v) Sraddha (Faith), vi) Samadhana (Deep concentration).
  4. “Mumukshautva” (Desire for liberation).

Why one should enquire Brahman? Why?

Most of the religions believe that life in earth or life in heaven are attained on the basis of one’s virtuous deeds(“KARMA”) which is transient. But once you know Brahman, you will enjoy everlasting bliss and immortality.

Knowledge of Brahman destroys ignorance which is the root cause of all sufferings. 

” Sastrayonitvadhikaranam” : Brahman is realisable only through the scriptures. The scripter is the source of right knowledge.  Through scripture only we get a comprehensive understanding of the nature of Brahman. Brahman is formless, colourless, attribute less. Hence it can not be grasped by the senses alone. Brahman is ONE, infinite and without second.

THE FOUR GREAT VEDIC STATEMENTS

Yogic Approach: Ashtanga Yoga: Patanjali Yoga sutras:

Photo by Pixabay on Pexels.com

According to Maharshi Patanjali , Ashtanga Yoga is  not limited to any class, place, time and circumstances.

This path of Yoga is Universal. 

The essence of Patanjali’s Yoga sutra is in the second sutra(1.2):

” yogashchittavrittinirodhah” [sutra-1.2] : Yoga is for the control of thought-waves in the mind. To still the fluctuating mind.

Yogas citta-vritti-nirodah” which literary means “Yoga is the stilling of the modifications of the mind”.

Principal Teachings of Yoga Sutras: 

“Ashtanga Yoga” : Eight limbs of Yoga are as follows.[8 steps]

All the steps are scientifically designed. That is the specialty of Ashtanga Yoga. If one has followed all the steps properly, then only Dhyana is possible

1. Yama – Restraints.

2. Niyama – Observances.

3. Asana -Physical postures.

4. Pranayama – Control of Prana (Breathing control).

5. Pratyahara – Withdrawal of the senses.

6. Dharana – Concentration

7. Dhyana – Meditation.

8. Samadhi – Absorption.  

Details of Each of the Limbs of Yoga:

Yama: The first “anga” 

This consists of prohibitions against unethical deeds. These are basically restraints. Following are to be noted: 

  • Ahimsa-Non violence:  Non-violence truly  meant here as  to refrain from causing harm , showing anger , being harsh to others including self. Love  must be unconditional and universal. At the same time we must love ourselves equally.                                                                             
  • Satya-Truthfulness: : This means, on being firmly established in truthfulness ,the Yogi gets the power of attaining for himself  the fruits of work without the work . 
  • Asteya-Non-stealing: With the establishment of virtues like honesty, aspirant develops an intuitive awareness.                                      
    Brahmacharya- celibacy:  Right use of energy: sutra 2.38 says Brahmacharya pratisthayam viryalabhah”. It is about controlled and disciplined sex. 
  • Aparigraha- non possessing, non accumulation: sutra 2.37: ” Aparigraha sthairye janmakathamta sambodhah”  which means : On becoming steady in non-possessiveness, there arises the knowledge of how and from where is it generated. 

Niyama: Second  limb (“anga” )

It is composed of some injunctions to develop various ethical virtues. Following are the components of Niyama.

  • Saucha (cleanliness) :  Purity of body and mind.
  • Santosha ( Contentment): To keep mind away from dwelling in the past or future. One should not  regret on missed opportunities and also need not worry about future. Contentment is  the way to live in present moment, NOW.    
  • Tapas (discipline, austerity etc.) : Mandates spiritual disciplines.  A state of spiritual maturity.  With the practice of austerity, all kinds of impurities are removed from body and mind. 
  • Svadhyaya ( study of self and sacred texts): This sutra teaches for self-observation, study of scriptures, recitation of mantras and union  with the desired deity ( Ishta devata).                                                                     
  • Isvara Pranidhana (Total surrender to the Supreme being):   Dedicated services for the welfare of others including mankind, animal kind, plants and nature.               

The third anga ” Asana”

It is important part of Ashtanga Yoga. The importance is to make spine held erect and relaxed with the three upper parts of the body, the chest, the neck and the head in a straight line. This is required for nerve currents to channelize for further improvement in concentration.

The object of  Yoga is to make a man rise above body consciousness. In Patanjali Yoga sutra, it is simply stated that asanas should be stable and comfortable for meditation.

The fourth anga “pranayama” 

Commonly believed as control of breath but scholars says this is actually control of Universal Energy. The Prana  moves the whole Universe. Prana is believed to be a cosmic energy. It is prana vibrating at the beginning of cosmic cycle that shapes akasha (space) out of which all energies are evolved. Biological functions of all kinds are performed by this vital energy. The knowledge and control of this prana is known as pranayama.

Practice of pranayama is done after mastering asana. When pranayama is practiced under the guidance of right “Guru” (Teacher), one can have control over prana and it becomes possible to feel the vibrations which helps attaining higher insight. Thereby ,the power generated will help the nerves in getting optimum functions. It is believed that Pranic healing, faith healing etc. are  the results of doing pranayama. 

Pratyahara” : the fifth anga.

“Pratyahara”  : Withdrawals of senses:  It helps in attaining a mind without fluctuations, since withdrawals of senses bind the mind to a fixed point. It is impossible to concentrate unless the mind is purified.  Pratyahara gives our mind a moment to not evaluate and teaches us to be free from any reactions developed by senses. 

Sixth anga: Dharana- Concentration: 

“deshabandhashchittasya”  => this suggests to confine mind in a territory, a very limited space, which disallows movements of mind. That is called “Dharana”.

One pointed attention: Dharana is the process of fixing the attention of mind to a certain point. That may be any object of concentration (internal or external), sound, deity or  noble idea for the benefit of creation. After successful practices of first five limbs, one becomes ready for Dharana

Dharana, Dhyana & Samadhi: These three limbs together lead aspirants to the ultimate goal. 

If the fourfold qualities are dealt with right actions, then the practitioner of Yoga will overcome the distractions of mind. These are : 1. friendliness towards happiness, 2. compassion towards misery,  3. rejoicing for virtues and 4. indifference to vices.  With such preparation and practice, “Dharana” comes much more easily and naturally. 

 Seventh Anga: Dhyana- meditation: 

Definition : DhyanaThe extension and lengthening of Dharana is Dhyana. Dharana continued without interruption is Dhyana. One has to change his or her way of life to reach unto this stage of Dhyana (concentration). Let us look into sutra 3.2 again for further analysis.  “tatra pratyayaikatanata dhyanam” :  If we now split the sloka like this =>>  tatra + pratyaya +ekatanata, then  tatra => means ” in that place” which refers to “desha” as mentioned in sutra 3.1. pratyaya=> means total content of mind which occupies the field of consciousness at a particular time.  Mind remains in continuous contact in Dharana.                        Ekatanata=> means extending continuously without interruption. Before practicing Samadhi, this kind of un interrupted continuous Dhyana is essential for the aspirant. 

Therefore let us keep in mind that when Dharana is stretched for a long period it becomes Dhyana. In other words elongated condition of Dharana is Dhyana. 

SamadhiThe state of Cosmic Consciousness- the 8th anga: 

sutra 3.3: "tad evarthamatranirbhasan svaroopashoonyam iva samadhih" means=> In that absolute state, then there is no meditator or the thing that is meditating upon. What remains only is the meditation, that is called samadhi. 

When Dhyana enters into Samadhi , the Gate which leads into the world of realities opens. Samadhi means a state of mind which through the practice of Dharana and Dhyana has become so  completely tranquil and the person meditating  is so absorbed that the he or she even forgets own existence.

Let us analyse the word “svaroopashoonyam”  of sutra 3.3. ” svaroopa” + shoonyam”  means that ” svaroopa” which is the residual consciousness of its own action disappears completely i.e. becomes “shoonyam” .

When you are fully absorbed with the vastness of the Supreme being and even the sense that I am meditating is not there and the ego “I” goes then, only the true Self, higher Self ,the Big I” remains.  This is possible when there are no Vrittis in chitta. In other words mind does not fluctuate. In Samadhi, Mind  surrenders all its resistances to the union with the object of meditation. In this state, field of observation and the observing intelligence merge and total intelligence shines as the sole substance of reality. 

sutra 3.4 "trayamekarta samyamah" means => The three practices Dharana, Dhyana and Samadhi together on same object is called samyamah.

If we analyse the word samyamah”  we will find it has two parts. Sama + Yama. Sama means perfection and Yama means control. 

Conclusion:

Eight limbs as a whole constitute one complete path which leads the aspirant upwards.

If followed properly, the person will definitely feel joy and peace of mind which will accompany to the bed at the end of the day. 

When the mind is set into a pattern, automatically one connection will be established with higher Self. That is individual’s experience which can be considered as Self-Realization

 

HAPPY FATHER’S DAY [2022]: TO ALL FATHERS

Introduction: (Conceptual):

Generation and procreation is an autonomous system. That is what the essence of this part.

KHANDA-II of AITAREY UPANISHAD

The creation of human body is described in order to inculcate a sense of dispassion by showing the impermanence of the body. Creation continues through procreation. A man is born, he gives birth to a son and he takes rebirth after death. This signifies that a person has really three births. The procreative fluid of a father is said to be the essence of his Self. The mother looks after it during pregnancy as her own Self. After birth, the parents nourish the child so that he can be their substitute for performance of pious deeds.

The importance of natal care and oneness of the father and the son are emphasized.

KHANDA-II (Chapter-4)

Three Births of the Self [ Three incarnations]:

Sloka: 4.1- First Birth :”The Pregnant Father”

This Jiva in the male body of his father first becomes semen. This semen is the vigour extracted and transformed from all the limbs. First the father holds and nourishes it in his own body and rears it which is not different from him. When he injects this in mother’s body he procreates himself in the form of a foetus. This is his first birth.

Sloka: 4.2- :”The Development of the Foetus”

That semen becomes one with the woman-just like a limb of her own. That is why it does not hurt her. She nourishes this self of his that has come into her.

Sloka: 4.3- Second Birth :”The Pregnant Mother”

She, being the nourisher of the child , should be nourished. The woman nourishes the embryo. Immediately after its birth the father nourishes the child. Nourishing the child from birth onward, he thus nourishes himself for the continuation of these worlds. For thus alone are these worlds perpetuated. This is one’s second birth.

Sloka: 4.4- Third Birth :”The Pregnant Son”

Father himself becomes son. When son comes of age, father entrusts him with all the family duties and responsibilities and frees himself from parental debt. As life span of father shortens, father departs from this world and takes birth in another womb according to his Karma. This is his third birth. Thus the cycle of birth and death continues and become a bondage till he does not realize the truth, the reality.

Sloka: 4.5- “Breaking Through Iron Fetters”

 Rishi Vamadeva realized the truth while he was in mother’s womb.

Rishi said ” While yet in embryo, I knew all the births of these Deities!, i.e. the inner senses and Indriyas are subjected to birth and death and not the Atman. Before I realized  this secret I had to pass through several Births which are compared with cages made of Iron. I was so attached with them that it was very difficult for me to get rid of those iron gates. Now by applying full strength of knowledge I broke all the fetters, became detached. Like a hawk, I escaped, being free and now I have no relation with the body. I am not the Body.”

Sloka: 4.6- ” The Jivanmukti and Videhamukti of Vamadeva”

Having gained the knowledge of Atman, and freedom from Body Consciousness, Vamadeva took his Upward path. He attained the heavenly world of Bliss and fulfilled all his desires. He became immortal, yes He became immortal !!!

” Freedom from Body” : We can understand this in two ways:

  1. Death: This is applicable to a mortal
  2. Freedom from Body-Consciousness: Upward path towards Nirvikalpa Samadhi.

For a man, once the highest state of True realization is reached, the attainment of the Heavenly worlds of Bliss accompanies him, while still in the Body. While still in the body, the realized state experiences the Supreme Bliss. He enjoys all he desires.

Self Realization is the only way to come out of the bondage of repetitive cycle of Birth and Death. For that one should have Vairagya.

The three “Aavasthas”(states) and “Swapnas”(Dreams): in relation to Three Births:

Three Aavasthas are three dwelling places occupied by the Supreme Being after HE enters the body. The three Swapna state (Swapna Aavasthas) because of ignorance.

Until man realize the Supreme truth and awakens to his spiritual destiny, he is considered to be in the state of Dream(Swapna).

The Essence of IshaVasya Upanishad- Part-2

Introduction:

 IshaVasya Upanishad appears in the Samhita portion of  Shukla Yajur Veda. It is one of the Ten principal Upanishads. Isha Upanishad has Eighteen Mantras. Among Ten Principal Upanishads, this comes in the beginning of the list. Isha means the Lord of the Universe. In my previous post on this Upanishad I have discussed Mantra no-01 to Mantra no -07.

Link of the previous post : The Essence of IshaVasya Upanishad- Part-1

In this part we will discuss Isha Upanishad Mantra no-08 to Mantra no-13 .

§ Eighth Mantra: The Path of Renunciation:

1) Sah paryagat shukramakaayam avarnam; asnaaviragm shuddhamapaapa-viddham; 2) kavih maneeshee paribhooh, swayambhoo yaathaa-tathyatah; arthaanvyadadhaatshwateebhyah samaabhyah.

The Self [ the atman] is everywhere, without a Body, without a shape, whole, pure, unpierced by evils, wise, all knowing, far shining, self depending, all transcending, functions and duties are allotted by HIM alone to the Creator for eternity.

Analysis: 

There is no place where He is not there. He is everywhere. He is in everything. He is not limited by Time and Space. There is nothing that He needs to possess and nothing that He needs to achieve. He is the seed, the substratum, the cause of all. He has no physical body. As long as there is body, there is happiness and misery. He is immortal. He is beyond all the three gunas: Tamas, Rajas, and Sattwa. He is His own father and mother. None conceived Him. No one is the cause of His being. He is Self-existent.

§ Ninth mantra: Avidya & Vidya:

1) Andham tamah pravishanti ; ye avidyaam upaasate; 2) tatah bhooyah ive te tamah; ye u vidyaayaam rataah.

Pin your faith to natural knowledge, stumble through the darkness of the blind, pin your faith to supernatural knowledge, stumble through a darkness deeper still.

§ Tenth mantra: The fruits of Avidya & Vidya:

Anyat eve aanuh vidyayaa, anyat aahuh avidyayaa; iti shushruma dheeraanaam, ye nah tat vicha-chakshire.

They enter into blinding darkness who are worshippers of Avidya alone; but they enter even greater darkness, who verily are worshippers of Vidya alone. One thing, they say, is obtained from Vidya, and another thing, they say, from Avidya; Thus we have heard from wise, who have explained it to us.

§ Eleventh mantra: Combination of Avidya & Vidya:

Vidyaam cha avidyaam yah, tatvedaubhayam saha; avidya mrityumteettvaa, mashnute vidyayaamrita.

They that know and distinguish between natural knowledge and supernatural knowledge shall by the first cross the perishable in safety; shall, passing beyond the second, attain immortal life. 

Vidya (Knowledge) and Avidya(Ignorance: he who knows them both together, overcomes death [darkness] through Avidya and obtains immortality through Vidya.

Above three mantras are very important. We must understand the essence of the mantras. The essence is that we should equalise jnana (vidya) and ajnana (avidya) and should not adhere to either the one or the other alone. According to the scholars, knowledge of Ishwara can not be obtained by Karma alone nor by knowledge alone. Avidya = Karma and Vidya = Knowledge. Avidya yields fruits of karma, which has time bound existence. Hence attainment of Moksha [ liberation] is not possible, since several births are required to enjoy the fruits of Karma. This is called falling into utter Darkness which is nothing but SAMSARA. The mantra further says that if Upasana of Vidya means devotion is offered alone , it is still worse, because it will lead to greater Darkness. He who understands the correct meaning of this avidya and vidya and maintains balance between them and does Upasana, accordingly, can cross the world of Death and attains mortality.

Different scholars of different darshanas has given different opinion on vidya and avidya. Let us look into Shankaracharya’s commentary. His method of analysis is on the basis of subtle meaning of both the words. He always considered Advaita Philosophy to explain these two words: avidya and vidya. The knowledge of the world is Avidya and the knowledge of Ishwara is Vidya. The world of objects is presented to us by our senses and we see the world [jagat] as real. We are ignorant about the thread of Consciousness running through each and every object. There is certainly connection between the visible world and unseen Ishwara. In general we believe that we the jivas are separate entity and Ishwara is separate entity. The cause of existence and experience of the world is due to the presence of Ishwara. So long as we are in the world with a sense of separate existence as the Jiva, the world has to be accepted as though it is real.

§ Twelfth mantra: Worshipping Unmanifest and Manifest:

1) andham tamah pravishanti; ye asambhootim-upaasate; 2) tato bhooya iva te tamo; ya u sambhootyaagm ratah.

Pin your faith to the seed of nature, stumble through the darkness of the blind; pin your faith to the shapes of  nature, stumble through a darkness deeper still.

They enter into blinding darkness who aim to conquer the Unmanifest cause of creation; but they enter into even greater darkness.

§ Thirteenth mantra: Fruits of Unmanifest and Manifest:

1) anyat evaaahuh sambhavaat, anyat aahuh asambhavaat; 2) iti shushruma dheeraanaam, ye nah tatvicha-chakshire.

The seed of nature brings one result; the shapes of nature another. We have heard it from the wise, who have clearly explained it.

Readers are requested to read the Sanskrit version of this Upanishad from the site whose link is here:

Conclusion:

Action: Karma: Duty

Karma is to be performed without expecting the fruits of Karma: Niskama Karma.

Jnana: Knowledge: The Truth

The nature of the  Oneness : One Unity is the Ultimate Jnana: True knowledge.

Oneness: It is that, when: 

  • A person does not see as mine or not-mine.
  • No more love and hate for objects
  • No more likes and dislikes.
  • One transcends all pleasure and pain.
  • There is no more Duality of subject and object.
  • The waves and ocean are both seen as water alone.
  • The blazing sparks are not different from the fire producing them.

Rebirth continues until Realization.

Katha Upanishad Mantra-2.3.4 says: If one does not succeed in realizing Him (The Self), before the fall of the Body, then in the worlds of created things, a rebirth for the Body is ordained.

Recommended readings:

  1. Back to the Truth: 5000 years of ADVAITA by Dennis Waite. **
  2. THE TEN PRINCIPAL UPANISHADS: Translated by Shree Purohit** Swami and W.B.Yeats
  3. Isavasya Upanishad for Beginners: By Swami Krishnananda.
  4. Brahma Sutra Bhasya of Sankaracharya: Translated by Swami Gambhirananda.**
  5. Commentary of ChAndogya Upanishad: By Swami Krishnananda.
  6. IshaVasya Upanishad: By Swami GuruBhaktananda.
  7. EIGHT UPANISADS -VOL-1 with commentary of Sankaracharya, Translated by SWAMI GAMBHIRANANDA.
  8. THE TAITTIRIYA UPANISHAD: SHIKSHAVALLI-ANANDAVALLI-BHRIGUVALLI with Sri Shankara’s Commentary By Sri Swami Satchidanandera Saraswati.
  9. A-U-M Awakening to Reality: By Dennis Waite***
  10. Panchadasi: Swami Vidyaranya:
  11. Information available on internet.

∝ζ::  Concluding part will consist Mantra-14 to Mantra-18: Will be published soon!😊🙏🙏❤️

It is my sincere request to the esteemed readers to share their opinion or queries if any. Suggestions to make the site attractive will be incredibly helpful for me. Readers are requested to read all the posts to have continuation of the topic from the beginning. My mail ID is: arun7663@gmail.com

Spark of the Flaming Fire

 

The Essence of IshaVasya Upanishad- Part-1

Introduction: ईशोपनिषत्

§ The IshaVasya Upanishad is the only one which occurs in the Samhita portion of  Shukla Yajur Veda. It is one of the Ten principal Upanishads. Though,  one of the shortest Upanishads, yet it is loaded with profound thoughts.

§ Isha Upanishad is a smaller one with 18 Mantras. This appears in the final chapter of Shukla Yajurveda. Among Ten Principal Upanishads, this comes in the beginning of the list. Isha means the Lord of the Universe. 

What is Upanishad?

Upanishad is Brahmavidya:

Upanishads are ancient Texts which do not construct any complex system of ideas and beliefs. They are plain and straightforward, yet very difficult to grasp. Require repeated reading and thinking on the context [SRAVANA, MANANA & NIDIDHYASYANA]. This is the science of Mind. Upanishads are instructions of Teachers to disciples through dialog between the two.

Upanishad literally means ” To learn the teachings, sitting rear the Teacher,( or sitting near the feet of Teacher). Upanishad is Brahmavidya [ sacred knowledge]which leads the aspirant towards Brahman who are desirous of liberation. There are 108 Upanishads. Out of 108, Upanishads, Ten Upanishads are regarded as Ten Principal Upanishads. They are: 

  1. IshaVasya Upanishad
  2. Kena Upanishad
  3. Katha Upanishad
  4. Prashna Upanishad
  5. Mundaka Upanishad
  6. Mandukya Upanishad
  7. Taittiriya Upanishad
  8. Aitareya Upanishad
  9. ChAndogya Upanishad
  10. BRRihadAraNyaka Upanishad

In this part we will discuss Isha Upanishad.

Study of this Upanishad will deliver teachings on both ” Jnana Yoga” and  “Karma Yoga”. Aspirants who seek freedom from the bondage of this World will go for ” Jnana Yoga”, where renunciation is the most appropriate path to achieve goal. And ” Karma Yoga” is for the aspirants who are very desirous of attaining highest degree of closeness with GOD, such as achieving “Brahma Loka”.

This Upanishad starts with the Shanti Mantra as below:
ॐ पूर्णमदः पूर्णमिदं पूर्णात् पूर्णमुदच्यते । पूर्णस्य पूर्णमादाय पूर्णमेवावशिष्यते ॥ 
ॐ शांतिः शांतिः शांतिः ॥
Om poornamadah poornamidam poornaat- poornam-Udachayate; Poornasya Poorna-maadaaya Poorna-mevaa-vasishyate. Om Shanti! Shanti! Shanti!

Meaning of this mantra is :   ∞ + ∞  = ∞ 

” That is Whole, this is Whole; from the Whole, the Whole becomes manifest; from the Whole, when the Whole is negated, the Whole alone is what remains”

॥ अथ ईशोपनिषत् ॥

First mantra: The Path of Renunciation:

1) Ishavasyam idam sarvam yat kim ca jagatyam jagat; 2) tena tyaktena bhunjitha, ma gridhah kasyasvid dhanam.

Analysis: The Lord Pervades the World(s)

  1. Whatever exists in this changing Universe is full of the Lord. All this is enveloped by the Supreme being. That supreme reality pervades everything here and there. There is no such place where It is not there. It exists in everything.
  2. Protect the Self by renunciation. Claim nothing; enjoy, do not covet anybody’s property. Let go and rejoice. Be practical. It does not mean giving up.

Though it is believed that possession and acquisition lead to happiness, but possessiveness creates attachment. Attachment brings unhappiness. Renunciation is the path for true happiness. An aspirant who devotes himself or herself entirely to contemplation of the Self as the Lord, has no further need of worldly duties. This renunciation leads to the knowledge of the Self and finds immortality.

Second mantra: “Niskama Karmayoga” is the concept we get from the second mantra.

1) Kurvanneveha karmani jijivisecchatam samah; 
2) evam tvayi nanyatheto'sti na karma lipyate nare.  

Kurvanneveha karmani” means only by doing Karma [ karma means duties]( here karma means all rituals like Agnihotra etc). “jijivisecchatam samah”  means like to live for 100 years. By doing such karma , bad karma will not touch you. It is recommended that such karma should be done with constant selfless attitude. Performing duties without any motive, one will not be bounded to the actions. This path of action is known as ” Pravritti Marga”

Second mantra emphasize on doing our duty as an act for Ishwara ( means His creation) as His agent and not to act for own self, to benefit self. Doing so, live as long as you wish. 100 years of living is just symbolic here.

 All we know that , when we reach at the core of the Consciousness, the Awareness, we find there a stillness in mind which has no conflicts, no disruption in mind. We can then think of a state of ” NO MIND” what we say as ” Chitta Vritti Nirodah” the beginning of Patanjali Yoga Sutras. Here mind is calm, quite and still. In reality that is our true nature. “YOU ARE THAT’ according to ChAndagyo Upanishad. If we can live this way, karmic law can not bind us. “na karma lipyate” Therefore let go and be pleased with what you have and enjoy.

Third Mantra: 

§ The Sunless World: The path of sufferings:

1) Asurya nama te loka andhena tamasavrtah; 2) tamste pretyabhigacchanti ye ke cat mahano janah.

They that deny the Self, return after death to a godless birth, blind, enveloped in darkness. [ These births partake of the nature of Asuras, the demons”)

The third Mantra says about the darkness which has to be understood in depth. This is the world of demons filled with demoniac wealth. Asurya = a + surya: means where Sun is not there. This literally means that there is only darkness in that world. There is no light there. This darkness is meant for ignorance. Light of Wisdom shines this darkness. 

The Upanishad says this world of  darkness [ Asurya loka] as world of a) Spiritual Blindness, b) Spiritual darkness, c) Spiritual ignorance and engaging in the deeds that kill the awareness. Such darkness keeps away from the freedom of the Eternal, Immortal, Divine Self.

Here lokas are referred to those dimensions, also known as astral planes, where births takes place according to fruits of karma which are enjoyed “lokyante”. Ignorance which block the realization of one’s true nature of Self, thereby becomes the cause for repeated births according to the deeds. ” ye ke catmahano janah” : This means that those who do not know atman due to ignorance are slayers of atman(atmahanah). And for this fault of slaying atman they return to Samsara( this world).

Q) What causes rebirth? 

Answer: So long you are away from knowing your true self, you yourself is the cause of your rebirth.

 Fourth Mantra: Nature of the Self(Atman)

 1) anejadekam manaso javiyo nainaddeva apnuvanpurvamarsat ; 2) tad dhavatah anyan-atyeti tisthat tasminnapah matarisva dadhaati.

§ Unmoving, it moves swifter than thought. Remaining still, It outstrips all that run.

The Self is One. Unmoving, it moves faster than mind. The senses (Devas) lag, but Self runs ahead. Unmoving, it outruns pursuit. Out of Self comes the breath, that is the life of all things. In It, as Water by the Air, all action of all living beings are supported.

Analysis:-

This Self, the Absolute Truth, the Awareness, Infinite, Immortal, Omnipresent, indescribable, known as Brahman in Vedas is without attributes and beyond Space and Time. This Self is truly ONE, the WHOLE and therefore all-embracing.

This is to be understood that there is a centre which is not fixed in one place but it moves. Everything moves, such as this Universe is expanding. Galaxies are going far away from one another. Subatomic particles, electrons move. Mind moves. Everything moves but One remain unmoving and that is Awareness.

This Self is beyond the senses, beyond the understanding, beyond all expression. It is pure Awareness[ NIRGUNA BRAHMAN]. It is BLISS. It is ONE without SECOND. Know it Alone!

The Devas represent the mind and senses. The ignorant mind, not aware of who the Self is, tries to catch It, through different paths, different knowledge, but never succeeds. The Self, as it were, is always ahead of the mind. 

All the objects are perceived through five senses. We have limitations of perceptions. These five senses are five instruments. The Brain system processes data inputs received through these five instruments. There are creatures, whose instruments are different from us. Whether it be vision or hearing or sensing through skin etc. As like in case of snakes, which can sense 0.02 degree of difference in temperature. Similarly there are examples in case of audible sound frequencies. For vision too there are different creatures with different abilities. Therefore different impressions, and different perceptions work. Nothing is impossible. so, the interpretation of existence is quite relative according to difference in perceptions.

Essence of existence (SAT) is that It is all pervading. If we can activate the core of everything, that is Consciousness, then we can perceive some extra, more than what is ordinary. For that we must remove avidya (ignorance). We have to search for extra which can not be perceived through sense organs. That is known as “seeking the truth”. 

So nearer yet far away. For that we have to realize that : I am not separate from the Truth, the Existence(sat), the Consciousness(chit). I am the Consciousness. I am aware that I am pure Consciousness. Pure Consciousness is that Consciousness, where there is no thought.

Fifth Mantra:

§ The Self appears to move-yet It moves not. It is far distant-yet It is near. It is within all, and It is without all.

1) tat ejati tat na ejati tat doore tat u antike, 2) tat antarasya sarvasya tat u sarvasyasya bahyatah.

1) The meaning of the mantra in this part is that: the Atman moves and yet It moves not; It is far away and yet is near. 2) The second part of the mantra says: It is within all of this; and yet It is also outside of all this.

Analysis:

The Self is beyond all mental concepts. far and near, within and outside, moving and unmoving – all these are concepts of mind with respect to space and time. Mind tells us that we can not catch the Self. The mind and the Self are in two different realms of reality. But let us look into the pictures given below: 

This is how ONE became many.

 Sixth Mantra: The Jnani- Seer of the Self:

1) yas tu sarvani bhutani aatmani eva anupashyati 2) sarva bhutesu ca aatmanam tatah na vijugupsate.

1) He who sees all beings and forms in the Self, he alone really sees. 2) He also sees the Self in all beings and forms, there after he feels no hatred towards anyone.

Analysis: Everything in the creation is Atman:

The sixth mantra says that seeing all beings in the Lord, means as being superimposed on the Lord and seeing the Lord in all beings means as the substratum of all beings. God- realization ceases the existence of individuality and creates Universality. Sarvatma Bhava must be the feelings for equality. This is the true essence of God-realization. This will ensure the absence of all ill feelings in human. We should see the Virat [jagat] as our own Atman. There should be neither Raga nor Dvesa, nor the feelings of exhilaration nor grieving. When one has such an integrated vision of life, it becomes impossible to hate any being. Dislike and hatred only come when we see others as different from us.

Seventh Mantra: Freedom from Delusion and sorrow:

1) yasmin sarvani bhutany atmaivabhud vijanata 2) tatra ko mohah kahsoka hekatvam anupasyatah.

1) When all beings and forms have become one in his own Self-knowing thus; 2) how can he feel delusion and grief thereafter, who sees oneness (Non-Duality) alone everywhere.

Analysis:

When the feeling of Oneness will be permanent, the person will not consider any event or object as his or her. The thinking of mine or not mine will vanish. There will be equality in all spheres of life under all circumstances. One transcends all pain and pleasures. Then there will be no more duality of subject and object. No more experiencer, experiencing and experienced. As in an ocean, the waves are not separate from ocean. Arises in the ocean and merge there itself.

Conclusion:

Reward of Realisation: The Birth of Universal Love

When we realise the Text so far discussed above, we will be to establish an World free of Hate. The vision of Unity will prevail then. Universal Love will be seen everywhere. The experience of Oneness with all beings comes as a result of the highest knowledge by discovering the true nature of Self.

Readers are requested to read the Sanskrit version of this Upanishad from the site whose link is here:

Recommended readings:
  1. Back to the Truth: 5000 years of ADVAITA by Dennis Waite. **
  2. THE TEN PRINCIPAL UPANISHADS: Translated by Shree Purohit** Swami and W.B.Yeats
  3. Isavasya Upanishad for Beginners: By Swami Krishnananda.
  4. Brahma Sutra Bhasya of Sankaracharya: Translated by Swami Gambhirananda.**
  5. Commentary of ChAndogya Upanishad: By Swami Krishnananda.
  6. IshaVasya Upanishad: By Swami GuruBhaktananda.
  7. EIGHT UPANISADS -VOL-1 with commentary of Sankaracharya, Translated by SWAMI GAMBHIRANANDA.
  8. THE TAITTIRIYA UPANISHAD: SHIKSHAVALLI-ANANDAVALLI-BHRIGUVALLI with Sri Shankara’s Commentary By Sri Swami Satchidanandera Saraswati.
  9. A-U-M Awakening to Reality: By Dennis Waite***
  10. Panchadasi: Swami Vidyaranya:
  11. Information available on internet.

It is my sincere request to the esteemed readers to share their opinion or queries if any. Suggestions to make the site attractive will be incredibly helpful for me. Readers are requested to read all the posts to have continuation of the topic from the beginning. My mail ID is: arun7663@gmail.com

 

Happy Mother’s Day: 2022: O Mother, salutations to your feet.

Happy Mother’s day to all Mothers of this Universe. 

Devi is Mother! Universal Mother! 

English literal meaning of the above mantra is this: ” To that Devi Who in All beings is abiding in the form of Mother, Salutations to Her. Salutations to Her, Salutations again and again.”

I bow down and surrender myself  to you, O’ Devi, The Universal Mother! 🙏🙏🙏

Today, on the occasion of Mother’s day I am going to share one Text written by Adi Shankaracharya    “Matripanchakam”

But, before that I must share a story on Adi Sankaracharya and his mother Aryamba. Shankaracharya got his primary education from his mother as he lost his father Sivaguru.  when he was just 7 years old. Mother Aryamba played a key role in teaching Vedas and Upanishads to the young Shankara.

Without going into details about Shankaracharya, I would like to share one significant event here.

From the early childhood Shankara was very keen on becoming a monk. His mother opposed this idea of Shankara on becoming a monk. However Shankara had firm determination on becoming a monk.  One day Shankara accompanied his mother to a nearby river and took a plunge into the river. Suddenly, a crocodile appeared from beneath the river and caught hold of his leg. Shankara then cried out to his  mother for help. His mother saw that crocodile was pulling his son into the river. His mother also felt  helpless. Shankara then urged her to allow him to die as monk. As soon as his mother gave her a consent, the crocodile spared his life and went back to the river. Shankara was saved miraculously. After that he began his journey to become a monk after his mother gave him permission with one condition that he would be present during her death and follow all the rituals that are recommended in shastras.

Shankaracharya promised his mother that he would be present during her death and follow all the rituals

At the age of 12 he left home. Once, when Adi Shankaracharya was in the North India, he intuitively came to know that his mother is sick and death is near. Upon realization, that his mother has limited time in this world, he walked all the way back to his native Village : Kaladi, Kerala, India. He stayed for few days beside his mother’s death bed. Finally she died and Adi Shankaracharya went back to Himalaya. 

Adi Shankara expounded the doctrine of Advaita Vedanta. He advocated the ancient concept of Hinduism which explains the unification of Atman and Brahman. He started his writing his own analysis on Upanishads, Brahma sutra, Bhagavad Gita and other sacred Texts. ” Matripanchakam” is one among them.

Following Five verses are believed to be composed by Adi Shankaracharya on the death of his mother.

1)The unbearable pain endured by her at the time of delivery, the lack-lustre feeling and the emaciation of the body during pregnancy, the year-long sharing of the bed dirtied by the baby, none of these sufferings borne by the mother because of pregnancy can be compensated in the least by a son, however great he may be. Salutations to that mother.

2) Having dreamt of me as clad in the robes of an ascetic, she rushed to the gurukula where i was studying and wept aloud. The entire gurukulam also wept with her at once. O mother, salutations to your feet.

3) O mother, I did not give you even water at the time of death. I am barred from performing the prescribed religious rites for you on your death anniversary. O mother I could not taraka mantra for you at the time of death. O mother, bestow your incomparable compassion on me who was late in coming.

4) When you fondled me as a child these affectionate words came out of your mouth: “You are a jewel, you are my eyes, O my dear one, my son, may you live long!” To that mouth I am now giving these dry grains!

5) O mother, who at the time of delivery cried aloud in pain, ” O mother, O father, O Lord Shiva, O Krishna, O Govinda, O Hari, O Mukunda”, I offer this obeisance to you.

The Sanskrit document can be read at this site: Link is here. https://sanskritdocuments.org/doc_z_misc_shankara/maatri5.html

Salutation to the Divine Mother!

Ancient Hindu Scriptures expound a reverence for the Divine Mother. The 10th Chapter of Rigveda, known as Devi Sukta [ Hymn on Goddess] says:


I am the Queen, the gatherer-up of treasures, most thoughtful, first of those who merit worship.

Thus, gods have established me in many places with many homes to enter and abide in.
Through me alone all eat the food that feeds them, -each man who sees, breathes, hears the word outspoken.

They know it not, yet I reside in the essence of the Universe. Hear, one and all, the truth as I declare it.
I, verily, myself announce and utter the word that gods and men alike shall welcome.

I make the man I love exceeding mighty, make him nourished, a sage, and one who knows Brahman.

I bend the bow for Rudra [ Shiva], that his arrow may strike, and slay the hater of devotion.
I rouse and order battle for the people, I created Earth and Heaven and reside as their Inner Controller.
On the world’s summit I bring for the sky the Father: my home is in the waters, in the Ocean as Mother.

Thence I pervade all existing creatures, as their Inner Supreme Self, and manifest them with my Body.

I created all worlds at my will, without any higher Being, and permeate and dwell within them.
The eternal and Infinite Consciousness is I; it is my greatness dwelling in everything.
                                      ——- Devi Sukta: Rig Veda: 10.125.3 – 10.125.8.

Conclusion: Without mother there can not be a father.

YOU ARE MOTHER!!!

Published in your name, O’ my Mother! I love YOU.

It is my sincere request to the esteemed readers to share their opinion or queries if any. Suggestions to make the site attractive will be highly helpful for me. Readers are requested to read all the posts to have continuation of the topic from the beginning. My mail ID is : arun7663@gmail.com

Jesus Loves Us: A Good Friday Message:

HE is the innermost reality, and you have an innermost relationship with Him. HE is your Eternal Father, Eternal Mother, Eternal Friend, Eternal Companion. All worldly relationships are intended to devlop within you and this is Awareness which is the One and the only One, and that is GOD.

Photo by MART PRODUCTION on Pexels.com

St. Paul said:

This is what lord Jesus Christ has demonstrated by undergoing crucifixion. It is one of the gloomiest days in the human history, yet it is called “GOOD FRIDAY” because on this day Lord Jesus Christ showed that death cannot touch the Spirit. Death is for the body, not for the Divine Spirit that is ever shining within. 

Jesus Christ did not try to defend himself. He did not try to save himself, but he sacrificed His life so that human beings can find the way to immortality.

The Grace of the Lord is ever ready to descend upon you. Just open the door.

We must believe that we not only belong to this physical Universe, but we are ever with The  Supreme  Spirit that pervades the whole Universe. Just as a wave exists in the ocean, similarly we exists in the Supreme Spirit beyond time and Space.

The Pure Consciousness which is Self shining, upholds this Universe. Let us realize that, our unity with the Supreme Spirit is the ultimate truth. A person who realizes his or her unity with the Divine being sees no Death, Death is meant for the Body which is perishable. 

This is why Lord Jesus Christ did not resist. He knew that one Soul dwells in all beings. So He said: ” Resist not Evil. Return good for Evil. Love your enemies. Bless those who curse you. Do good to them who hate you. Pray for them who despitefully use you and persecute you.”  [ Matthew: 5.39 ]

That is the message Jesus Christ has given to the mankind. He has exemplified by His crucifixion. This cross is the symbol of love and forgiveness.

Hear me, O children of Immortal Bliss, those that dwell in this Universe, those that dwell in the worlds beyond, hear me; I have realized that Supreme Being, the Self-effulgent One, beyond all darkness, resplendent like the glorious SUN. By knowing HIM alone, one goes beyond death. There is no other way out of Death. [Svetaswar Upanishad. II:5; III:8]

Photo by Felipe Balduino on Pexels.com

No Eye can see Him, nor has He a face to be seen:

His Form does not exist within the range of vision; none can behold Him with eyes(senses). But, through Meditation, by controlling the mind with the Intellect, He can be found in the Feart (By intuition is He revealed ).Those who know this become Immortal. [ Katha Upanishad: Mantra-2.3.9:]

Published in your name, my Lord. I love YOU.

It is my sincere request to the esteemed readers to share their opinion or queries if any. Suggestions to make the site attractive will be highly helpful for me. Readers are requested to read all the posts to have continuation of the topic from the beginning. My mail ID is : arun7663@gmail.com

Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-6B of 6

Introduction: Sixth Chapter:

The ChAndogya Upanishad is part of ChAndogya Brahmana of the Sama Veda which is one of the most largest important Upanishads with Eight Chapters (Prapathakas) with many verses including some stories as themes to gain Upanishadic knowledge. This Upanishad is placed in the 9th position in the list of Ten Principal Upanishads. The name of the Upanishad is derived from the word   “Chanda” (Rhythm~ poetic meter). This Upanishad directly deals with the true nature of Brahman, the Supreme Self, without a second.

ChAndogya Upanishad consists of Eight chapters. The first five chapters forms  the part of Karma Kanda and Upasana Kanda. Chapter Six, Seven and Eight form the part of Jnana Kanda.

Sage Uddalaka’s  son Svetaketu , having gone when 12 years old returned from Gurukul when he was 24 yrs old , having studied all the Vedas.

Chapter Six contains Sixteen sections. My previous post was on Chapter Six, Section-1 to Section-4(Khanda-1 to Khanda-4). The link is here:  Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-6A of 6

Here we will see Section-5 to Section-8 to learn profound knowledge through dialog between Sage Uddalaka and his son Svetaketu.

Here in section-8, we will see one of the four MahaVakyas: “Tat-Tvam-Asi” .

The Essence of Self Knowledge:

Section:-5: (Five Mantras).

Mantra-5.1: The Triplication of Food

Food, when eaten, becomes divided into three parts: i} That which is its grossest ingredient becomes the faecal matter. ii) Its middling part becomes flesh and iii) its subtlest part becomes the MIND.

Mantra-5.2: The Triplication of Water.

Water, when drunk, becomes divided into three parts: i) What is its grossest ingredient becomes the Urine; ii) Its middling part becomes blood; iii) Its subtlest part becomes the PRANA.

Mantra-5.3: The Triplication of Fire.

Fire, when consumed, becomes divided into three parts: i) What is grossest ingredient becomes the bones; ii) Its middling part becomes marrow; iii) Its subtlest part becomes Speech.

Mantra-5.4: Summary: The subtlest effects:

Hence, dear boy, MIND is made up of Food; PRANA is made up of Water and SPEECH is made up of Fire.

Mantra-5.5.: Svetaketu wants further elaboration:

Svetaketu asks: ” Revered Sir, wont you again explain it to me”. The father replies “Be it so my boy”.

Section-6: (Six Mantras).

Mantra-6.1: Simile of Curd transforms into Butter

Dear boy, of the CURD, that is being churned, that which is the subtlest part rises upwards, and becomes clarified BUTTER.

From curd to Butter: The Butter is always present in the Curd, but it could not be seen until the process of churning took place. The churning separated the Butter.

Mantra-6.2: Food transforms into Mind

In the same way, dear boy, of the Food that is being eaten, that which is subtlest part rises upwards, and becomes the Mind.

Mantra-6.3: Water transforms into Prana

Dear boy, of the water that is being drunk, that which is the subtlest part rises upwards, and becomes the Prana.

Mantra-6.4: Fire transforms into Speech

Dear boy, of the Fire, that is being burnt, that which is the subtlest part rises upwards, and becomes Speech.

Mantra-6.5: The Subtlest Effects:

Hence, dear boy, Mind is made up of Food; Prana is made up of Water and Speech is made up of Fire.

Mantra-6.6: Svetaketu wants more clarity:

Svetaketu again asks: ” Revered Sir, further explain it to me”. The father replies “Be it so dear boy”.

Section-7: (Six Mantras).

An Experiment on Life:

Mantra-7.1: Svetaketu was instructed to Fast:

Dear boy, man consists of sixteen parts. For fifteen days do not eat. Drink as much as water as you like, for Prana is made up of water. If one does not drink, his Prana is cut off.

Mantra-7.2: The Effect of Fasting:

For fifteen days, Svetaketu did not eat. Then he approached his father, saying: ” Revered Sir, what shall I say?”. “My dear boy, now chant the Rig, Yajur and Sama Vedas.” said the father. The boy said: ” They do not at all arise in me, Revered Sir.”

Mantra-7.3a: Simile for loss of Speech:

The father said:” Dear boy, just as, from a large burning Fire, a single ember, the size of a fire fly that is left over, by an amount that is certainly not as great as before, it will now burn.

Mantra-7.3b: Application of the Simile :

Even so, dear boy, of your sixteen parts, only one part is left over now; and by means of that alone, you can not perceive the Vedas. Eat, then you will understand me.”

Mantra-7.4 : Svetaketu eats and recovers his mind:

Svetaketu then ate well, and approached his father again. This time, whatever the father asked him, he answered them all well.

Mantra-7.5a: Simile for recovery of Speech:

The father said:” Dear boy, just as from a large burning Fire, a single ember, the size of a fire fly that is left over, by adding straw to it, it is made to blaze up again; by an amount that is evergreen than before, will it now burn.

Mantra-7.5b: Application of the Simile :

Even so, dear boy, of your sixteen parts, only one part had remained; and that part, being nourished by food, has been made to blaze up once more; and by means of that alone you are now able to know the Vedas!

Mantra-7.6: Conclusion– The Subtlest Effects:

Hence, dear boy, Mind is made up of food; the Prana is made up of Water and Speech is made up of Fire. From his words Svetaketu understood it- Yes he understood it!

Section-8: (Seven Mantras).

Retracing from Effect to Cause:

Adhyaropa or Superimposition: This process takes us downwards from the Cause to its numerous effects. There is another term in Vedanta, known as Apavada or De-superimposition which is reverse to that of Adhyaropa. In this section we will learn the reverse process. We trace our steps upwards from the effects that we know, to the Cause that we do not know

Mantra-8.1: Example-1:Experience of Deep Sleep:

“Sata Saumya tada sampanno bhavati” : One gets absorbed into the true being that one is .

Once the Sage Uddalaka Aruni said to his son Svetaketu: ” Dear boy, know from me the true nature of Sleep. When a man is sleeping, he is said then to be with with ‘Existence’ dear boy. He has become united with It and is resting in his own nature. ” Hence, ” He is sleeping” – thus do people speak of him, for , indeed, he rests in his own nature.

In sleep, you get into yourself, you enter yourself, you become yourself, and know nothing but yourself. This is sleep. You have withdrawn yourself from all outside connections and relationships.

Mantra-8.2: Example-2:Birds Returning to Roost:

Photo by luizclas on Pexels.com

Just as a Bird, tied to a string, after flying in various directions; finding no resting place elsewhere, where it is tied, is where it takes refuge; Even so dear boy, it is with the Mind; after flying in various directions, finding no resting place elsewhere, in Prana alone does it take refuge, for tied to the Prana, dear boy, is the Mind.

Mantra-8.3: Example-3:A message from Hunger:

The nature of hunger and Thirst- know this from me, dear boy. When a man is Hungry, it is said that then Water has led a way what he has eaten. Just as people speak of the leader of cows, the leader of horses, and of men; even so, they speak of Water as the leader of food. A ‘shoot’ is pushed forth from below. One can not know this directly, dear boy; surely there must be some ‘root’ present.

Mantra-8.4: Example-4: The Root and the Shoot:

Where could the root of the Body be apart from food? Even so, dear boy, with Food as the shoot, look for water as the root; with water as the shoot, dear boy, look for fire as the root; and with Fire as the shoot, dear boy, look for Existence as the root. All these creatures, dear boy, have Existence as their root, as their abode, and as their support.

Mantra-8.5: Example-5: A message from Thirst:

Again, when a man is Thirsty, it is said that then Fire has led away what has been drunk. Just as people speak of the leader of cows, the leader of horses, and leader of men; even so they speak of that Fire as the leader of water. A ‘shoot’ is pushed forth from below. One cannot know this directly, dear boy; surely there must be some ‘root’ present.

Mantra-8.6a: Adhyaropa- Tracing the Root:

Where could the root of Food be apart from water? With water as the shoot, dear boy, look for fire as the root; and with Fire as the shoot, dear boy, look for Existence as the root. All these creatures, dear boy, have Existence as their root, have Existence as their abode, and have Existence as their support.

Mantra-8.6b:  The Creation and Dissolution of Man:

How, indeed, dear boy, these three Elements, on reaching man, each one becomes threefold triplicated, that has already been explained to you. Dear boy, at the time of a man’s departure, his speech merges in mind! Mind merges in Prana, Prana in fire, and Fire in the Supreme Deity, Existence.

§: The effect is consumed by the cause and is absorbed into its own Self

By the way of the analysis of the constituents of the individual, it has thus been pointed out by Uddalaka, the sage, that everything in this personality is made up of the essence of the three elements, -Fire, Water and Earth.  And what we call hunger is nothing but the dissolution of the physical food by the element of water and the absorption into the system. What you call Thirst is similarly the absorption of the Water element in the system by the Fire principle within us. The effect is consumed by the cause and is absorbed into its own Self. This process continues until all effects are absorbed into the final Cause of all things, where they abide absolutely and completely.

Mantra-8.7a: Conclusion — “Tat Tvam Asi” ~ Maha Vakya:

That Existence is this same subtle essence. Superimposed on It, is this whole World: Tat Tvam Asi, Svetaketu. That is the Self. That Thou Art, O Svetaketu.

Mantra-8.7b: Svetaketu wants more Clarity:

Svetaketu asks:” Revered Sir, won’t you please explain it further to me?” The father replies: ” Be it so, dear boy.”

Section-9: (Four Mantras).

Photo by Swapnil Sharma on Pexels.com

Photo by David Hablu00fctzel on Pexels.com

Honey from different Trees:

“Tat Tvam Asi” ~ Maha Vakya: This we have first seen in Section Eight. Now from section Nine onwards up to section sixteen we will see same Maha Vakya :”Tat Tvam Asi” eight more times.

Mantra-9.1: Simile: Many Trees, One Honey.

Dear boy, consider this example: Bees procure(dislodge) Honey from different trees, by collecting their juices and reducing then into one essence. Then, these juices have no differentiation, such as ” I am the juice of this tree, I am the juice of that tree.”

Mantra-9.2: Application: Many Creatures, One Existence.

Even so, dear boy, all these creatures, having merged into Existence, do not know, ” We have merger into Existence.

Mantra-9.3: Endless Rebirth for the ignorant.

These creatures that are here(in ignorance), the tiger or lion, the wolf or boar, the worm or flying insect, the gnat or mosquito- whatever they are that they become again.

Mantra-9.4a: Conclusion — “Tat Tvam Asi”

That Existence is this same subtle essence. Superimposed on It, is this whole world.(The whole world has That as its Self, its Essence.) That is the Truth; That is the Self. ” That Thou Art”, O Svetaketu.

Mantra-9.4b: Svetaketu wants more Clarity:

Svetaketu asks:” Revered Sir, won’t you please explain it further to me?” The father replies: ” Be it so, dear boy.”

Section-10: (Four Mantras).

Rivers merge into Ocean:

Mantra-10.1: Simile: Many Rivers, One Ocean.

These rivers, dear boy, flowing to the east are called ‘ Eastern’ rivers and flowing west, ‘western’ rivers. They rise from the Ocean and merge in the ocean, becoming the Ocean once again. There these rivers, as themselves, they do not know “I am this river, I am that river.”

Mantra-10.2: Application: Many forms, One Existence.

Even so, dear boy, all these creatures, having merged into Existence, do not know, ” We have merger into Existence.

Mantra-10.3: Endless Rebirth for the ignorant.

These creatures that are here(in ignorance), the tiger or lion, the wolf or boar, the worm or flying insect, the gnat or mosquito- whatever they are that they become again.

Mantra-10.4a: Conclusion — “Tat Tvam Asi”

That Existence is this same subtle essence. Superimposed on It, is this whole world.(The whole world has That as its Self, its Essence.) That is the Truth; That is the Self. ” That Thou Art”, O Svetaketu.

Mantra-10.4b: Svetaketu wants more Clarity:

Svetaketu asks:” Revered Sir, won’t you please explain it further to me?” The father replies: ” Be it so, dear boy.”

§§: Ultimate cause dissolves in the Absolute:

What is the ultimate cause? The cause ultimate can only be that which is not absorbed into a higher cause. The absorption process ceases when the ultimate cause is reached. The grosser forms get absorbed into the subtler ones, and the subtler ones reach the causal state, the so called ultimate cause from the empirical point of view. This ultimate cause dissolves in the Absolute. There, everything comes to a cessation. The individuality gets dissolved, as it were. It gets tuned up to the ultimate Reality. So, there is an absorption of the grosser element of the earth into the water element, the water element  into the fire element and the fire element into the ultimate Reality which is called Sat, pure Being.

End of section-10 of 6th Chapter of Chhandagyo Upanishad:

“The most familiar form of Energy is the Photon, a massless, irreducible particles of light”.

[pg-339: Death by Black Hole]

Conclusion:-

Chhandagyo Upanishad investigates philosophically the most meaningful and most conceptualised thoughts in Indology such as Cosmology, Metaphysics, Theology, Transcendentalism, Phenomenology, and Epistemology. However the concept of Brahman has undoubtedly been the fundamental element or minor root of the Chhandagyo Upanishad. In this connection, I would request my esteemed readers to read one special post    ” The Divine Art” which is highly conceptual and intellectual. Link is here: ” The Divine Art”

Recommended readings:

  1. Back to the Truth: 5000 years of ADVAITA by Dennis Waite.**
  2. THE TEN PRINCIPAL UPANISHADS: Translated by Shree Purohit** Swami and W.B.Yeats
  3. Brahma Sutra Bhasya of Sankaracharya: Translated by Swami Gambhirananda.**
  4. Commentary of ChAndogya Upanishad: By Swami Krishnananda.
  5. ChAndogya Upanishad: By Swami GuruBhaktananda.
  6. EIGHT UPANISADS -VOL-1 with commentary of Sankaracharya, Translated by SWAMI GAMBHIRANANDA.
  7. THE TAITTIRIYA UPANISHAD: SHIKSHAVALLI-ANANDAVALLI-BHRIGUVALLI with Sri Shankara’s Commentary By Sri Swami Satchidanandera Saraswati.
  8. A-U-M Awakening to Reality : By Dennis Waite***
  9. Panchadasi: Swami Vidyaranya: 
  10. Information available on internet.

It is my sincere request to the esteemed readers to share their opinion or queries if any. Suggestions to make the site attractive will be highly helpful for me. Readers are requested to read all the posts to have continuation of the topic from the beginning. My mail ID is : arun7663@gmail.com

My journey through Books: Part-2

Preface:

In this part I will start with the summary of the books which helped in growing towards Enlightenment. How Books can have positive impact is projected here. I will request the esteemed readers to kindly go through this post. Please read!!!

The first book that triggered was: “Who will cry when you die” and will brief a bit about other books that helped me in overcoming mental sufferings .

Certain event in my personal life shattered me. I was not able to bear with. I started thinking that the main part of my life is going to be ruined. Situation was very difficult to cope up with my job (Job was of great responsibilities being in Air Navigation System for safe Air Traffic). I had tremendous mental pressure which I could not express and share . During that time, I came across with the Book  “Who will cry when you die” which was a kick start for me to a new direction.

Actually, I was wrong in my thinking, that I understood after opening the book.

Before reading the book my thought patterns were different. Possessiveness was a major component of thoughts which is the main cause of human sufferings. I was emotional and so I started thinking that I will be no more here and no one will cry for me. May be for some days, they will mourn and just put a garland on death anniversary what we see usually. What more one can expect even after death.

“Who will cry when you die” is a different story. My mind made a space for acting on the simple tips and guidance given in the book. It showed me the light for removing all insignificant worries for living a true Life.

The points I noted as important Tips are here:

  • We should do what we love to.
  • Separate the essential and non essential activities.
  • Be humble, forgiving, and thankful.
  • Increase deposits into your love account.
  • Be Kind and joyous.
  • Worry less and live more.
  • Think positive and attract positivity.
  • Prioritize your Time.
  • Carry a Goal Card
  • Pain is Teacher
  • Take care of your Body and Mind.

After effect: I gifted books to a few for finding happiness.

The Second book that added more power: The Monk Who sold his Ferrari: By Robin Sharma.

Following points gave me more strength.

  • Master your Mind.
  • Follow your Purpose.
  • The Ten Ancient Rituals for Radiant Living.
  • Power of Discipline and it’s Mantras. 
  • If you Die today! [ Your actions, if today is your last day of living life]
  • Live like a Child.
  • Embrace the Present.
  • Grow your Destiny.

The Result: As a whole my life got a positive direction and started new living. Gifted the book “The Monk Who sold his Ferrari” to many, such that they get direction too.

The Third book: The Power of your Subconscious Mind: By Joseph Murphy
The book explains and guides how to access the untapped potential of our Subconscious Mind. Immediately after completion of the book “The Power of your Subconscious Mind”, I found there is a dramatic change in my thinking pattern. Teachings of all the above books were in action. I understood the law of attraction is working. I am attracting what I thought for. I realized that I am able to attract positive if I wish. Yes, that started happening. Same thing happened earlier also in my college days or in my service life. But I did not realize that I attracted what I achieved. Very simple is that.

Above mentioned three books changed my life to a new direction and thereby a new journey started in my life. These three books along with other books worked as saviour in my life. These three books were the pioneer to build an interest in the field of Vedanta and Modern Science[ Quantum Physics and Quantum Biology]. 

*#* Law of attraction works. I will write separately on the theory of law of attraction based on my experiences.

Power of my Subconscious mind picked up next Powerful and Specific Books that are: – One after One.

The most important scientific Book helped me was:  THE BIOLOGY OF BELIEF: 10th Anniversary Edition: Unleashing the Power of Consciousness, Matter & Miracles: Lipton Bruce H.

Summary: Cells as Miniature Human:

Bruce H Lipton, an American cell biologist, notable for his views on Epigenetics. In his book, he claims that ” Beliefs control human biology rather than DNA and inheritance. According to Lipton, A human is a co-operative of 50 Trillion cells. Human Beings are simply the consequence of ” Collective amoebic Consciousness” Having harmonious relation of the 50 trillion cells, a human can take control of his/her life. Each sell is an intelligent being that can survive on it’s own, as scientists demonstrate when they remove individual cells from the body and grow them in a culture. Bruce concluded that we are not victims of our genes, but masters of our fates, able to create lives overflowing with peace, happiness, and love.

After effect: I started following lectures of Dr. Lipton

Please watch this video, the link given below:

Bruce Lipton The Biology of Belief Full Lecture

The other Book: Evolve your Brain: The Science of Changing your Mind: By Joe Dispenza: 

Brief Summary of the above:

Dr. Joe holds a Bachelor of Science degree and is a Doctor of Chiropractic. His post graduate training includes the fields of neuroscience and neuroplasticity. Through his research, he explores the science behind spontaneous remissions to empower people to change from the inside out. Combining the fields of Quantum Physics, Neuroscience, Brain chemistry, Biology and Genetics, Dr. Dispenza explores the effects of Meditation on how people can heal themselves of Chronic and Terminal diseases. This book helped me in developing constant thoughts of positivity.

Video link: Evolve Your Brain with Joe Dispenza.

PART-A: List of the books I have gone through initially:

  1. Who will cry when you die : By Robin Sharma: 21-12-2016
  2. The Monk Who sold his Ferrari: By Robin Sharma: 21-12-2016
  3. The Power of your Subconscious Mind: By Joseph Murphy: 21-3-2017
  4. Subconscious Mind Power: How to use the Hidden Power of your Subconscious mind: By Thompson James: 24-10-2017
  5. Master your Mind, Master your Life:15 Mind set hacks That will unleash your full potential Today: By Magnus Steele:05-12-2017
  6. The Shift: Taking your life from your Ambition to Meaning: By Wayne W. Dyer: 08-01-2018
  7. Evolve your Brain: The Science of Changing your Mind: By Joe Dispenja: 31-12-2017
  8. I am The Mind: By Deep Trivedi: April:2017
  9. I AM: The Power of Discovering Who you Really are: By FALCO HOWARD: 15-6-2017
  10. THE BIOLOGY OF BELIEF: 10th Anniversary Edition: Unleashing the Power of Consciousness, Matter & Miracles: Lipton Bruce H.
  11. MINDSET : How Positive thinking will set you Free & Help you achieve massive success in your life. By Benjamin smith.
  12. How to Eliminate Negative Thoughts and Emotions. By beau Norton, the CEO & Founder of ” Perfectly at Peace”.
  13. How to Transform your life: A blissful journey : Geshe Kelsang Gyasto
  14. Raise your Vibration: 111 Practices to increase your Spiritual connection: By Kyle Gray.
  15. Raise your Vibration: By Sabrina Reber
  16. Death by Black Hole and other COSMIC QUANDARIES: By Neil De Grasse Tyson
  17. The power of Truth: by William George Jordan
  18. Back to the Truth: 500 years of ADVAITA
  19. The Secret of Infinite Intelligence: By Antar
  20. THE DIVINE MATRIX: Bridging Time, Space, Miracles, and Belief. By GREGG BRADEN
  21. THE TEN PRINCIPAL UPANISHADS.****** Translated By: Shree Purohit Swami and W.B.YEATS.
  22. BLACK HOLES: The BBC Reith Lectures : Stephen Hawking.
  23. Taking the Quantum Leap: The new Physics for Non scientists: By Fred Alan Wolf
  24. You are the Universe by Deepak Chopra and Menas Kafatos.
  25. BIOCENTRISM : How life and Consciousness are the keys to understanding the True nature of the Universe: By Robert Lanza MD with BOB BERMAN
  26. The Self Aware Universe: How Consciousness creates the material world: By Amit Goswami, Ph.D.
  27. THE HOLOGRAPHIC UNIVERSE: By Michael Talbot.

In the next parts I will write more about other books on my life changing events. 

It is my sincere request to the esteemed readers to share their opinion or queries if any. Suggestions to make the site attractive will be highly helpful for me. Readers are requested to read all the posts to have continuation of the topic from the beginning. My mail ID is : arun7663@gmail.com

Story of “King Janasruti and Raikva, a cart puller”

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Story of Janasruti and Raikva.

Introduction:

This story of  King Janasruti and Raikva, the poor cart puller appears in Fourth Chapter (4.1 to 4.3) of the ChAndogya Upanishad. Raikva imparted “Samvarga Vidya” to the King Janasruti.

Samvarga Vidya: ~ All Absorbent Meditation.

Sage Raikva, apparently was a poor man having nothing but a cart, unknown to the people and no body recognized him as such. But he had one specialty, a power which was such that he could absorb all things into himself by a special technique of Meditation (a Vidya). He practiced this Vidya which was known as “Samvarga Vidya–the all-absorbent Meditation”

The Story:

Once upon a time there was a king named Janasruti, the great grandson of Janasruta. He was a highly charitable person who used to make large donations with due love and respect. He used to arrange huge quantity of cooked food for the people and he made many rest houses all over his kingdom. He enjoyed people coming, staying in rest houses and enjoying his food that was served.

4.1.1-7: One evening the king was resting on the roof of his place and he noticed a couple of swans flying above him in the sky. These swans were actually sages or gods in disguise. Just then the swan flying behind made a joke, called out to the one ahead: ‘ Hey, you short-sided one! Don’t you see that the brightness of Janasruti has spread all over the sky like daylight? Beware you do not touch it. See that it does not burn you”.

The swan in front replied: Say who is this king Janasruti? The way you are saying one would assume he is equal to Raikva with the cart’. Then the other swan asked, ‘ And who is this Raikva with a cart you are referring to?’

The Swan then replied,” Just as in a game of Dice, when a person wins the toss called Krta, he automatically wins the lower tosses also, in the same way whatever good work people do goes to the credit of Raikva. If anyone knows what Raikva knows, he becomes like Raikva. This is how I would describe Raikva.”

This remark of one of the birds was heard by the king. King Janasruti felt humiliated by what the swans had said about him. Maybe he could not be compared with Raikva, but in what way did Raikva excel over him? Who was this Raikva with a cart? Janasruti had a sleepless night. The next morning when he got up, the first thing he did was to question his attendant about this Raikva. He wanted to somehow find out in what respect Raikva was superior to him.

Having looked for him, the attendant could not find Raikva and reported back to the King. Janasruti then said,” Well , why don’t you go to the places where Brahmins are found like in forest. Look for him there.

4.1.8: The attendant finally saw that a man sitting under a cart, scratching a rash on his body. Sitting down close to him, the attendant asked,” Sir, are you Raikva with the cart” The man replied, Yes I am. The attendant thought, I have found him and returned to the King.

4.2.1–5: Then the King Janasruti went to that place with six hundred cows, a gold necklace, and a chariot drawn by mules (so that Raikva would teach him). He said to Raikva: ” O Raikva, all these six hundred cows, a gold necklace, and a chariot drawn by mules are for you. Please tell me about the God you worship.” Raikva was annoyed and refused to teach King, because the King tried to offer wealth.

King then tried to tempt Raikva. King said to Raikva” I am giving you these thousand cows, the gold necklace, this chariot drawn by mules, this daughter of mine to be your wife, and also this village in which you live. Now , Sir, please teach me.

Lifting the face of the princes, Raikva said: ” You have brought me many things, but they are not making me speak. It is the face of the princes making me speak.” The villages in the Mahavrsa province, where Raikva lived, were known thenceforth as Raikvaparna. Raikva agreed to teach.

Raikva started spiritual teachings[ Samvarga Vidya]

4.3.1-2: Raikva said: ” The Air swallows everything. When fire extinguishes, it disappears into the Air. When the Sun sets, it disappears into the Air. And when the moon sets, it disappears into the Air. When water dries up, it disappears into the Air. The air swallows all these. This is the worship of forces of nature(Adhidaivata)

4.3.3-8: Raikva continued: ” Next is the worship concerning the body. Prana swallows. When a person sleeps, speech, the eyes, the ears, and the mind all these go into the prana. Prana swallows all these. Air and Prana swallow everything. Air among the gods and Prana among the organs. Once Saunaka, the son of Kapi, and Abhipratarin, the son of Kaksasena, were being served their meals when a Brahmacharin appeared and begged for some food. They however, refused to give him any. The Brahmacharin said: ” One god has swallowed four sages. Who is he who protects this world? O’ Kapeya, O’ Abhipratarin, that god exists in many forms, but human beings can not see him. The food is meant for him, but you are not giving it to him.” Saunaka replied: “It is not correct that we do not know him. He is Prajapati. He creates and also destroys everything.  He is the Self of all, and He is also the destroyer of all. He is Supreme. All wise people worship Him. Saunaka then advised his servant to give some food to the Brahmacharin. Then they gave him alms. The first five(Vayu, fire, the Sun, the moon, and water) and the second five(Prana, speech, the eyes, the ears and the mind) together they make Ten. That is Krta. These ten are the ten directions, and they are the food. The Krta is Virat. As Virat is all pervasive, everything is its food. By that Virat, all this is seen. He who knows this Virat becomes Virat himself. He becomes all pervasive and everything becomes his food.

Conclusion:

Raikva said, ” In this creation there are many elements which are worshipped as gods. There is wind that sweeps everything. The fire burns up whatever comes in contact with it. There is also the vital breath which activates a living being. It exists by itself. And yet it creates and sustains the creation. Thus the entire creation is a complex instrument that is carrying out its work at the behest of the Spirit.”

” O King! Have neither pride nor vanity for the charities that you dispense. Go thou, great king, to thy palace. Give but not pride. Give generously but not with  egotism. Give freely but not with an aim to gain fame. Give but not as something that is yours, but as something given to you by the Spirit for giving to others. He who sees this truth becomes a seer and to him nothing is wanting and he becomes the enjoyer of things.”

The King was extremely satisfied with these words of wisdom that came from Raikva. While departing he gave a thousand cattle, numerous gold coins and chariots, and his own daughter in marriage to Raikva. This time Raikva did not reject all these. 

 What is Samvarga Vidya?:

Everyone of us is pulled towards the objects of sense, where as we can not pull anything into our own selves. Senses are always outward. We are like slave of the outwardly pleasures of sense. Therefore we are slave of worldly pleasures. How can we absorb these outwardly pleasures, desires? How can we make these desires our slaves? If we can understand the teachings imparted by Raikva, we can control our desires and make them our slaves. Therefore consuming (controlling) desires and merging them inside, we can make them our slaves. They will be at our feet. This Vidya is known as Samvarga Vidya, a technique of Meditation.

Recommended readings:

  1. Back to the Truth: 5000 years of ADVAITA by Dennis Waite.**
  2. THE TEN PRINCIPAL UPANISHADS: Translated by Shree Purohit** Swami and W.B.Yeats
  3. Brahma Sutra Bhasya of Sankaracharya: Translated by Swami Gambhirananda.**
  4. Commentary of ChAndogya Upanishad: By Swami Krishnananda.
  5. ChAndogya Upanishad: By Swami GuruBhaktananda.
  6. EIGHT UPANISADS -VOL-1 with commentary of Sankaracharya, Translated by SWAMI GAMBHIRANANDA.
  7. THE TAITTIRIYA UPANISHAD: SHIKSHAVALLI-ANANDAVALLI-BHRIGUVALLI with Sri Shankara’s Commentary By Sri Swami Satchidanandera Saraswati.
  8. A-U-M Awakening to Reality : By Dennis Waite***
  9. Panchadasi: Swami Vidyaranya: 
  10. Information available on internet.

It is my sincere request to the esteemed readers to share their opinion or queries if any. Suggestions to make the site attractive will be highly helpful for me. Readers are requested to read all the posts to have continuation of the topic from the beginning. My mail ID is : arun7663@gmail.com

Photo by Bradley Hook on Pexels.com

Story of “Satyakama Jabala”

Introduction:

This story appears in Fourth Chapter of “ChAndogya Upanishad”, which is part of “ChAndogya Brahmana” of the Sama Veda.  It is one of the largest Upanishads with Eight Chapters (Prapathakas) which contains many Khandas(sections) including some stories as themes to gain Upanishadic knowledge. This Upanishad is placed in the 9th position in the list of Ten Principal Upanishads. The name of the Upanishad is derived from the word   “Chanda” (Rhythm~ poetic meter). This Upanishad directly deals with the true nature of Brahman, the Supreme Self, without a second.
For full Text of ChAndogya Upanishad (छान्दोग्योपनिषत्) in Sanskrit, please use this link:— https://sanskritdocuments.org/doc_upanishhat/chhaandogya.html

Here we will learn some Vedantic philosophy through the story of Satyakama Jabala to Know “Brahma Vidya” as described in Fourth Chapter: Fourth Khanda to Ninth Khanda (4.4-4.9)

Story of Satyakama Jabala:–

Gautama, the son of the sage Haridruman, was a celebrated Rishi of the Vedic age. He was known as Haridrumata Gautama. He was well versed in the Vedic lore and had many students in his Tapovana(Place of spiritual practices at forest).

A young boy named Satyakama once expressed a desire to his mother Jabala to go to Rishi Gautama’s Tapovana to study and practice BrahmaCharya. Therefore one day the young boy went to Ashrama of Sage Haridrumata Gautama and said, ” Revered Sir, I desire to live under you as a Brahmacharin. Please accept me as your disciple.” Rishi Gautama said,          ” Most affectionate blessings!”.  Rishi asked Satyakama, “Dear boy, of what gotra or lineage (ancestry) are you?” The boy replied, ” Sir, I do not know of what gotra I am. I asked it to my mother. She said:” I also do not know of what gotra you are. I used to serve many people and I got you in my youth. So I am not sure of what lineage you are. However, I am Jabala by name and you are Satyakama”. Therefore, Sir, I reveal myself to you as Satyakama Jabala.”

Appreciating Satyakama’s honesty and courage to speak the truth, Rishi Gautama smiled and said, ” No one who is not Brahmin can speak thus. Dear boy, bring the sacrificial fuel. I shall initiate you as a Brahmacharin, for you have not deviated from truth.” In that way Satyakama Jabala initiated into the life of a Brahmacharin.

After a few days, Rishi sorted out four hundred lean and weak cows and said to Satyakama, ” Dear boy, take these cows to the forest and graze them.” Satyakama bowed down with submission and while driving the cows said,      ” Sir, I shall not return these cows multiply into a thousand.” Satyakama lived in the forest and looked after the cows. Years went by. The number of cows increased to a thousand. 

The story continues. During the stay in forest, Satyakama got some spiritual knowledge from Four entities. Please read the following paragraphs.

Satyakama with his cows in the forest.

1. Knowledge imparted by the Bull:

[Here Vayu (The Air) represents Bull]

One day in the evening a bull came to Satyakama and said him,” Dear boy! now we are a thousand in number. Take us to the house of Rishi Gautama”.  The Bull said that there are four quarters for “Brahman”(The Supreme). The first quarter(foot) consists of four quarters of Universe. I shall teach you one quarter of the Brahman. It is Prakashavan or the Radiant. He who meditates on this Brahman as the Radiant, becomes Radiant in this world.” Thus having spoken the Bull told Satyakama that Agni, the God of fire, will teach him more later. At dawn, Satyakama drove the cows towards his Guru’s Ashram.

2. Knowledge imparted by the Agni (Fire) :

In the evening when the cows came together, Satyakama kindled a fire there, added fuel to the fire, penned the cows and sat down near them behind the fire, facing east.

Then the Fire addressed him and said: ” Dear Boy, I will teach you the second quarter (foot) of the Brahman. It has four parts. They are: The Earth. The Sky, The Heaven and The Ocean. It is Anantavan or the Endless. One who knows Him (Brahman) to be thus and meditates upon Him as Endless, becomes endless in this world.”  After that the Fire told him that a Swan was going to tell him about the third quarter of the Brahman.

3. Knowledge imparted by the  Swan:

[Here The Swan represents Aditya(SUN)]

At dawn, Satyakama continued to drive the cows towards the Guru’s ashram. Towards evening when the cows came together, he kindled a fire there, added fuel to the fire, penned the cows and sat down near them behind the fire, facing east. All of a sudden a swan came flying and said,” Satyakama! I shall teach you the third quarter of Brahman. The third foot consists of four parts. They are: Fire, Sun, Moon and the lightning. He is called “Jyotishman” or the Effulgent. One who knows him thus and meditates upon him as the Jyotishman, becomes Jyotishman in this world.” Then the swan told him that a “Madgu” (waterfowl, a kind of diver bird) would teach him the last part of the Brahman.

4. Knowledge imparted by the Water-fowl (Madgu) :

[The Water fowl represents Prana (Breath) here]

On the following day, once again, Satyakama drove the cows in the direction of his Guru’s ashram. Towards evening when the cows came together, he kindled a fire there, added fuel to the fire, penned the cows and sat down near them behind the fire there, facing east. Then a water-fowl came before him and said,” Satyakama! I shall teach you the fourth and final part of Brahman which again has four parts. They are: Prana, Eye, Ear and Mind. He is Ayatanavan or the all supporting. One who knows him thus and meditates upon Him as the Ayatanavan (All supporting), becomes that in this world.”

Satyakama returned to Rishi’s Ashram:

When Satyakama reached the Guru’s ashram with the thousand cows, the Guru greeted him, ” O Satyakama” ! Satyakama replied “Yes Lord”.  Guru said, ” Your face shines with the knowledge of Brahman. Who taught you that?”

Satyakama told his Guru, ” Certainly no human being. But will you, O Lord, please teach me now about Brahman, the subject closest to my heart. Sir, I now request you to expound it to me personally. Because  I know that the knowledge received directly from one’s own Guru becomes perfect.”

Then Rishi Haridrumat Gautama, replied, “Brahman is everywhere. Brahman is everything ( Brahmaivedam Sarvam). It has no beginning and no end. ” And Brahman is realized by knowing the Self, which is our True nature.  This is Supreme knowledge known as Brahma Vidya”.

And that is how Satyakama got the full knowledge of Brahman from his Guru and later, he himself became a great teacher of Brahma Vidya .

Conclusion:–

What is the important message we get through this story?

  • Rishi Haridrumata Gautama ignored the issue of family lineage. That means Rishi did not consider the cast of Satyakama.

  • The eligibility for learning Vedanta philosophy require two important points. One is genuine desire to learn the ultimate truth which is known to be “Brahma Gyan”(Knowledge of Supreme). The other point is freedom from impediments and worthiness to enter the sacred realm. In the case of Satyakama, both were present in Satyakama as was observed by the Rishi.

  • The most important message of this story is the fact that sources other than human can impart knowledge and Wisdom. The teachers of Satyakama were:  The Bull. The Fire, The Swan and The Waterfowl and Rishi Haridrumata Gautama.

Recommended readings:

  1. Back to the Truth: 5000 years of ADVAITA by Dennis Waite.**
  2. THE TEN PRINCIPAL UPANISHADS: Translated by Shree Purohit** Swami and W.B.Yeats
  3. Brahma Sutra Bhasya of Sankaracharya: Translated by Swami Gambhirananda.**
  4. Commentary of ChAndogya Upanishad: By Swami Krishnananda.
  5. ChAndogya Upanishad: By Swami GuruBhaktananda.
  6. EIGHT UPANISADS -VOL-1 with commentary of Sankaracharya, Translated by SWAMI GAMBHIRANANDA.
  7. THE TAITTIRIYA UPANISHAD: SHIKSHAVALLI-ANANDAVALLI-BHRIGUVALLI with Sri Shankara’s Commentary By Sri Swami Satchidanandera Saraswati.
  8. A-U-M Awakening to Reality : By Dennis Waite***
  9. Panchadasi: Swami Vidyaranya: 
  10. Information available on internet.

Useful links:

Links of other posts on Chhandagyo Upanishad are given here. Readers are requested to read those posts one by one. Take time to read and understand the essence.
  1. Essence of Chhandogya Upanishad: Part-1A: First chapter starts and deals with the meditation on OM ” Udgitha Vidya” which has been discussed in my previous blog on ChAndogya Upanishad. The link is here:—
  2. “Panchagni-Vidya” [the doctrine of five fires]: 

It is my sincere request to the esteemed readers to share their opinion or queries if any. Suggestions to make the site attractive will be highly helpful for me. Readers are requested to read all the posts to have continuation of the topic from the beginning. My mail ID is : arun7663@gmail.com

Wisdom of Five Fires: Panchagni Vidya

Disclaimer:

  • The article is based on my studies, my concept, my thoughts on the subject. It is further supplemented with my experiences and self realization.
  • ☆I found some link between modern science(Quantum mechanics) and teachings of ancient sages as mentioned in Vedanta, regarding Universe, Supreme Consciousness or the Ultimate truth , the Ultimate Reality whatever we say.
  • ☆ The term “MAN” wherever used in this entire text is intended to consider as “HUMAN” irrespective of gender differences.
  • ♡ Having gone through the Vedanta/ancient texts, commentaries, translated by different writers, translators, publishers on the same topic, I have tried my best to share the subject matter as I understood and convinced too. My intention is to reach to you with the topic that I found very useful for human lives. I am not good in English literature. Please give your valuable suggestions for the improvement and valuable inputs to make the text beneficial for mankind.
  • ☆ The Spiritual context is purely based on ancient sacred texts. Sanskrit slokas are taken from books and websites. There may be little variation in the translations and commentaries. I have shared my own views and explanations according to my concept gathered in the subject through experience and intuitions. There is no discrimination against any religion, race, cast or creed.
  • Your feedback will be highly appreciated. I am sure that the subject matter is highly logical and does not bring any conflict. Hope you will enjoy reading. Regards. NAMASTE. I can be reached at : arun7663@gmail.com

INTRODUCTION:

Wisdom of Five fires (Panchagni Vidya) is part of ChAndogya Upanishad and it appears in Fifth chapter of the Upanishad. ChAndogya Upanishad is part of ChAndogya Brahmana of the Sama Veda which is one of the most largest Upanishads with Eight Chapters (Prapathakas) with many verses including some stories as themes to gain Upanishadic knowledge. This Upanishad is placed in the 9th position in the list of Ten Principal Upanishads. The name of the Upanishad is derived from the word “Chanda” (Rhythm~ poetic meter). This Upanishad directly deals with the true nature of Brahman, the Supreme Self, without a second.
First chapter starts and deals with the meditation on OM ” Udgitha Vidya” which has been discussed in my previous blog on ChAndogya Upanishad. The link is here:— Essence of Chhandogya Upanishad: Part-1A
In this section we will discuss a brilliant study of the “Panchagni-Vidya” [the doctrine of five fires]
Note: The word Vidya in Panchagni Vidya is to be understood as Upasana~ Meditation. Here Vidya does not mean Knowledge.

The Five Fires~ Panchagni in the Panchagni Vidya are:

  • Heaven
  • Rain God
  • Earth
  • Male
  • Female

The Belief is that the five fires are given the five liquid oblations of

  1. Faith to Heaven: Soma Raja is generated
  2. Soma to Rain god: Rain is generated
  3. Rains to Earth: Food is generated
  4. Food to Man: Sperm is generated
  5. Seminal fluid to Woman: New born emanated.

॥ पञ्चमोऽध्यायः ॥

Link for Sanskrit Text of Chhandogya Upanishad:

The story of King Pravahana Jaivali and Svetaketu.
Upanishad starts with a story: Svetaketu was son of sage Uddalaka Aruni also known as Gautama too. Well educated and confident of his Knowledge. There was a noble, highly learned king of Panchal, during the late Vedic period named Pravahana Jaivali. Svetaketu went to his court for sharing his knowledge in King’s court. The moment Svetaketu arrived at the court, the king received him with due respect and offered him requisite hospitality, being a Brahmin boy and well versed with Vedas and all branches of learning. The king asked the boy: ” Are you well educated? Have you studied? Is your education complete? Has your father instructed you?”
The boy replied. “Yes, my education is complete and I am well-read.” Then the King asked some questions. ” Naturally, you are a well informed and able to answer my questions. You are proficient in every branch of learning.” The boy affirmed. King the asked following five questions.

The first question asked by the King:

“Do you know where people go after they depart from this world? When people die, where do they go? Do you know the answer to this question, my dear boy?”
The boy replied, “I do not know. I am unable to answer.”

King then asked second question:

“Do you know wherefrom people come when they are reborn into this world?” The boy said, ” No, I do not know answer of this also”.

The Third question:

” Have you any idea of the paths along which the Souls ascends, the paths being known as Devayana and Pitriyana? Do you know the difference between these two paths? Why is one distinct from the other?” The boy said, ” I do not know the answer to this question also.”

The Fourth question:

“Why is it that the yonder world is not filled with people and overflowing? Always, the world is able to contain people and it is never flooded with them. What is the reason for this?” The boy said, ” This also I do not know.”

The Fifth question:

” Do you know what are the five oblations that are offered and how the fifth oblation as liquid becomes a human being?”
“The boy said, this too I do not know”
Then the King said, ” Why did you say that you are well read and well instructed? King said ” How is it possible that you are not able to answer even these questions. What made you think that you are well educated. What is that your father has taught and you are not able to answer these?” Listening this from the King, boy realized that his education was incomplete and his pride vanished. The boy realized for the first time that it was his wrong idea that he knew everything. Feeling disgraced, he returned home and took his father to task for not teaching this Vidya which could have helped him in answering the questions put by the king. But Sage Gautama himself was unaware of the answers. Therefore sage Gautama went to the king Pravahana to learn the Vidya. King received with due respect and offered him many gifts. But the sage Gautama refused to accept gifts since he was interested only to be enlightened on the discourse which King mentioned to the boy Svetaketu. King then Commanded him, ” Stay for a long time.” Then King said, O Gautama, before you, this Vidya was never went to Brahmanas: it is for this reason, that among all people, it was only with the Kshatriya.

Great king imparted to the circle of Brahmins by way of this initiation called the knowledge of the Panchagni-Vidya. The King explained five fires:

5.4.1-2: The First fire is svargaloka (Heaven): The Sun is the fuel (sacrificial stick) of this Fire. The rays of the Sun are the smoke, while the day is the flame. The moon is the ember( red hot coal~चिंगारी). The stars are the sparks of this fire. When Agnihotra is performed, the jivas become Soma Raja(moon) and enter svargaloka.

5.5.1-2: The Second fire is Parjanya.

O Gautama! the god of rain is the sacrificial fire; air is its fuel; the cloud is the smoke. Lightning is the flame. The Thunderbolt is the charcoal. The roars of the fire are the sparks. Soma Raja (Jiva) is the oblation in this fire.

5.6.1-2: The Third fire is the Earth. For this fire, the year is the sacrificial fire. Akasha (sky) is the smoke. The night is the flame. The directions are the live charcoals. The directions are the sparks. The oblation in this case is rain. When the rains reach the earth, food is grown.
5.7.1-2: The forth is man himself. His speech(vaak) is the sacrificial fire. His prana is smoke. His tongue is the flame. The eyes are the live charcoals, and his ears are the sparks. Here the oblation is food. From that food the seed of man is born.

5.8.1-2: The fifth fire is Woman. The interconnection between man and woman is the live charcoal. The small pleasures are the sparks. The oblation is the seed of man and from this does a new-born emanate.

Commentary:

The Jiva which has ascended to the Heavenly world by the virtue of good deeds descends on the exhaustion of that merit to the earth to take up another life, from heaven in the form of rains. There in the earth, the self enters a food grain growing on a plant and then enters the blood of the male who consumes that food grain and that turns into sperm. Finally, when the seminal fluid enters the female womb upon coitus, the Jiva also enters the womb along with it. In the womb it gets embodied.

**Khanda 5.4 to 5.8 describe the conception of Human being using metaphor of Sacrifice( Yajna~ meditation). The fifth offering mentioned here is the seed of man(Semen) that brings about conception at the end.

॥ इति अष्टमः खण्डः ॥

इति तु पञ्चम्यामाहुतावापः पुरुषवचसो भवन्तीति
स उल्बावृतो गर्भो दश वा नव वा मासानन्तः शयित्वा
यावद्वाथ जायते ॥ ५.९.१॥

स जातो यावदायुषं जीवति तं प्रेतं दिष्टमितोऽग्नय
एव हरन्ति यत एवेतो यतः संभूतो भवति ॥ ५.९.२॥

5.9: The Ten months in mother’s womb:

5.9.1: Thus after the fifth oblation, water becomes Purusha [ पुरुषवचसो] known as Man. The foetus lies within the mothers womb, covered with membrane, for about nine or ten months, and then it is born.[**This is the answer to the fifth question asked by the King Pravahana]

5.9.2: When a person is born, he lives as long as he is destined to live. Then, when he dies as ordained, he is carried from here to the fire from which he came.

5.10: Path of Devayana

5.10.1-2: Those wo know this (Panchagni vidya), and those who live in the forest, practicing austerities with faith- they go to the path of Devayana(the world of light) From the world of light they go to the world of day; from the world of day to the world of bright fortnight; from the world of bright fortnight to the six months when Sun moves northward [Uttarayana]; from there go to the Sun, from the Sun to the moon; and from the moon to lightning. There someone, not human, receives them and leads them to Brahmaloka. This path is Devayana (path of gods).

5.10.3: On the other hand, those who live in the village and perform acts of public service, charity, and so on, attain the world of smoke. From there they go to the world of the night; from night they go to the world of the dark fortnight; and from the dark fortnight they go to the world of the six months when the Sun moves to the south. This means that they never attain the world of of the year.

5.10.4: From the six months of the southern solstice, they go to the world of the ancestors, from there they go to the sky. Then from the sky they go to the moon. This is King Soma. This is the food of the gods. The gods enjoy eating this food.

5.10.5-6: Living in the world of the moon until the merit (the fruits of his work) is exhausted, he then returns to this world along the same path. First going to the sky, he then goes to air. Having become air, he next becomes smoke. Having become smoke, he then becomes mist. From mist they become a cloud, after which they pour forth as rain. Then they are born as food. To emerge from these is difficult, only if someone or other eats him as food and pours him out as semen can he be reborn.[ Those who eat these things produce children just like themselves]
5.10.7: Those whose conduct on Earth has given pleasure, can hope to enter a pleasant womb; but those whose conduct has been foul can expect to enter a foul and stinking womb.
5.10.8: But those small and continually returning creatures(like flies and worms) are not to be found on either of these two paths : theirs is a third condition, ” Be born and die” That is why the world up there is not filled up, and that is why a man should carefully watch his actions. On this there is the following verse:

This completes the answers to the five questions.

5.10.9: A person who steals gold, or drinks liquor, or goes to bed with his master’s wife, or kills a Brahmin-these four are lost. Also lost is the fifth- one who keeps company with such people.
5.10.10: But he who knows the five fires remains pure even if he is in the company of these people. He who knows this is pure and innocent, and after death he goes to the world of the good and pure.
The Celestial Region, the Atmosphere, the Earth, Man and Woman- These are the five stages of the Fire which becomes the object of meditation known as the Panchagni Vidya.

By the interconnection, combination and harmonious adjustment of the structure of these five levels of manifestation, birth takes place. This symbiology of Birth is applicable for all organisms in the world. This is theory of manifestation. Every event is Universal event, even the birth of a human. Every birth is to be considered in the light of Panchagni Vidya.

The whole point of this description in the context of the Panchagni Vidya is to describe us how the event of Births happen? What are the stages of the descent of the soul into the physical embodiment? It has to be understood through philosophical point of view. The point made out is that higher realms are activated by the consequences produced by our actions, in turn which become causes of our descent.

Two paths are laid before the soul after death. One is Devayana, the Northern path. It is for those who sought Wisdom. The other is Southern Path~ Pitriyana.

Now, the Upanishad here tells us that the whole universal activity of creation may be conceived as such a kind of sacrifice,—yajna. The mantras that are chanted in the performance of yajna are the sacred intentions. Offerings are made to certain Deities.

A Single autonomous Process:

Universe and it's various constituents are only parts of it, internally connected. The whole universal manifestation is a single process and it is a continuous process. The process of Births and Deaths are to be explained from this point of view, where all phenomenal experiences are part of this single autonomous process and are connected to ultimate cause. There is some law which works in some particular manner on account of which we are compelled to follow this course of repeated cycle of Births and Deaths, known as transmigration.

The whole universe is our father; the entire universe is our mother:

There are various stages of manifestation. How the birth of an individual takes place, how a child is born? For that, the underlying philosophy or science to be understood. What we the common people know that child is born from womb of the mother. That is true. But the process of birth takes place throughout the cosmos. All the governing forces of nature (of the Universe) are active in the production of a single child.
The whole cosmos is behind the scene. The Universe is the parent of the little baby. That is the ultimate cause. It has connection with cause of all causes( Causal), by a chain of causal connections.

When the secret is known, no one will say, ” It is my son or my daughter.” It is neither yours neither mines. It belongs to that from where it has come.

It has come from the cells of this Universe. It has not come automatically in the seminal essence of the father or the womb of the mother. A system works here with a process since primordial time. It is the quintessence of every particle of the whole of Nature. That is why we say “Brahmanda is in the Pindanda” ~ The macrocosm is in the microcosm.

Conclusion:

The Panchagni-Vidya is a meditation,—it is not an outward ritualistic sacrifice; it is a contemplation by the mind in which it harnesses every aspect of its force for the purpose of envisaging the reality
Existence itself is regulated by the presence of the sun. The sun is the cause of life on earth. But, who is the cause of the sun? The sun is also an effect of certain factors,—we may call them astronomical. That vibration is precedent and anterior to what we call the manifestation of even the causal condition of this world. Prior to all this, something else must be there, and prior to that, again, another thing, and so on, so that even our insignificant life in this world, in this physical body, can be said to be completely controlled by factors which are transcendent, beyond the sun and the moon and the stars, and where we go in this manner of tracing our cause back, we cannot know. This is the point driven home into the mind of Gautama by Pravahana Jaivali in the context of the explanation of the Panchagni-Vidya.

Connected Universe:

The world, which is called the celestial realm, is itself the sacred fire into which oblations are offered. This is how the meditation is to be conducted. The fuel, which ignites the fire and causes the flames to rise up in this sacrifice, is the sun. As smoke rises from the fire in a sacrifice, we contemplate the rising or the emanation of the rays from the sun, symbolically. As the flames shine, so is the shining of the daytime due to the fire of the sun in the sacrifice. We may compare the embers, remaining after the flames subside in a sacrifice, to the moon who is something like the subsidence of the flames of the light of the sun, or we may even say, the comparison is made because moonlight arises generally when the sun’s flames subside. Compare the stars to the sparks which are ejected from the flames of the fire, because they are scattered, as it were, in the sky. Now, this is a sacrificial mode of contemplation on the higher regions of the cosmos.
There is a mutual dependence between the outer world and the inner world of the individual. Our thoughts influence the atmosphere. We must realize that thoughts are vibrations and it is nonlocal. This vibrations are not isolated activity inside our brain. The vibrations emanate like an aura to certain distance from the body of a person. The distance depends upon the intensity of the intensity of the aura(good vibes~ harmonious thoughts.)Therefore cumulative effect of the vibrations produced by all the individuals can bring very good result in that environment in return.

Readers are requested to study further on the following topics/websites

2. We are influenced by the environment around us. EPIGENETICS a new subject.
There is a cycle, as it were, a wheel rotating in the form of give-and-take between the gods in the heaven and the human beings here. We give something and we are given back something. Nature gives us what we give to it in the form of our own deeds in this world. We do not get what we do not deserve, and we cannot get, also, what we have not given actually. What we have given, what we have deserved, what we have parted with in the form of a sacrifice, that is given back to us, with compound interest sometimes, according to the law of Nature. On account of this cyclic activity of Nature, in which the individuals get involved through their actions, there is rainfall. So, we can imagine how rains occur.

Recommended readings:

  1. Back to the Truth: 5000 years of ADVAITA by Dennis Waite.**
  2. THE TEN PRINCIPAL UPANISHADS: Translated by Shree Purohit** Swami and W.B.Yeats
  3. Brahma Sutra Bhasya of Sankaracharya: Translated by Swami Gambhirananda.**
  4. Commentary of ChAndogya Upanishad: By Swami Krishnananda.
  5. ChAndogya Upanishad: By Swami GuruBhaktananda.
  6. EIGHT UPANISADS -VOL-1 with commentary of Sankaracharya, Translated by SWAMI GAMBHIRANANDA.
  7. THE TAITTIRIYA UPANISHAD: SHIKSHAVALLI-ANANDAVALLI-BHRIGUVALLI with Sri Shankara’s Commentary By Sri Swami Satchidanandera Saraswati.
  8. A-U-M Awakening to Reality : By Dennis Waite***
  9. Panchadasi: Swami Vidyaranya:
  10. Information available on internet.

It is my sincere request to the esteemed readers to share their opinion or queries if any. Suggestions to make the site attractive will be highly helpful for me. Readers are requested to read all the posts to have continuation of the topic from the beginning. My mail ID is : arun7663@gmail.com

Essence of Chandogya Upanishad: Part-1A

Introduction:

The ChAndogya Upanishad is part of ChAndogya Brahmana of the Sama Veda which is one of the most largest important Upanishads with Eight Chapters (Prapathakas) with many verses including some stories as themes to gain Upanishadic knowledge. This Upanishad is placed in the 9th position in the list of Ten Principal Upanishads. The name of the Upanishad is derived from the word   “Chanda” (Rhythm~ poetic meter). This Upanishad directly deals with the true nature of Brahman, the Supreme Self, without a second.
Here we will discuss Four sections of the First Khanda of Chapter-1. Chapter deals with the meditation on OM. The syllable OM is to be known here as Udgitha. Chapter-1 has 13 Sections (Khandas). Udgitha Vidya is the main topic to be understood. 

Udgitha Vidya:

OM! Thus one should meditate on the Udgitha, for, one sings the loud chant with OM! The essence of all things is the Earth. The Essence of Earth is Water. The Essence of Water is Plants(Herbs). The Essence of Herbs is Man. The Essence of the Man is Speech. The Essence of Speech is the Rik (hymn). The Essence of Rik is Sama. The Essence of Sama is Udgitha. This is the best Essence of all Essences, the Highest, the Supreme, the Eighth, the Udgitha. 

 SECTION-1:  “OM iti etat aksharam” 

  1. OM! this Word, the Udgitha, should be adored. OM is Chanted, beginning of prayer. Let us meditate on It.
  2. The Earth constitutes the Essence of all substances; water is the essence of the Earth, and annual herbs of water; man forms the essence of annual herbs, and speech is the essence of Man; Rig is the essence of speech, Sama of the Rig, and of the Sama essence is Udgitha.
  3. The Udgitha is the quintessence of all these essences; it is Supreme, the most adorable, the Eighth. OM is the Self of all.
  4. What Is Rig? What is Sama? What is Udgitha?
  5.  Rig is Speech, Sama is Life, and OM, this letter is the Udgitha. Verily this and that, speech and breath(prana), are couples (Mithuna).
  6. The Couple (Mithuna) unites with the imperishable OM!, as couples uniting together gratify each other’s desires.
  7.  Knowing this He who meditate on the imperishable OM, all desires are fulfilled.
  8.  Verily this is an symbol of certain basic qualities. Whatever is enjoined, OM is surely repeated; hence this is called Prosperity. He verily becomes the gratifier of desires, and promoter of prosperity who, knowing all this, adores the imperishable Udgitha.
  9. Through its greatness and effects is the threefold knowledge maintained; for the worship of this word OM recited, OM exclaimed. OM chanted.
  10. Both, those who are versed in OM, the Self thus described, and those who are not, alike perform ceremonies through this letter. Knowledge and ignorance are unlike each other. The act done with knowledge, with inner awareness and faith, grows in power. That in a word, tells the significance of OM, the indivisible.

SECTION-2: Devas & Asuras:-

“Devas” This word stands for such functioning of the sense organs that are regulated and illuminated. Where as the word ” Asuras” stands opposed to Devas. For asuras, natural functions of the sense organs are of the nature of darkness means ignorance.

Devasurasangrama: Battle between Devas and Asuras. Difference between Dharma and Adharma. What should be done and what should not be done, in accordance with the scriptures. Both Devas and Asuras are born of Prajapati. Prajapati stands for the Personality of the being.

 

1.The Devas and the Asuras , the offspring of Prajapati, contended. Thereof the Devas collected the Udgitha, saying, hereby we will overcome the Asuras.

2. They (Devas) adored Breath as the Udgitha; the Asuras contaminated it with sin(पाप्मना~ pierced with evil ); hence it smells both foul and aroma, being verily contaminated by Evil.

3. They then adored Speech as the Udgitha; the Asuras contaminated it with sin; hence it expresses both truth and untruth, being verily contaminated by Evil.

4. They then adored Vision as the Udgitha; the Asuras contaminated it with sin; hence it views objects both worthy and not worthy of observation, being verily contaminated by Evil.

5. Next they adored Audition (Ear) as the Udgitha; the Asuras contaminated it with sin; Hence it hears both what are worthy of audition and what are not, being verily contaminated by Evil.

6. Next they adored Mind as the Udgitha; the Asuras contaminated it with sin, and hence it wills both good and evil, being verily contaminated by Evil.

7. Then they adored that which is the Chief vital Air (mukhyah pranah` Supreme prana), as the Udgitha; the Asuras approached it, and were destroyed as an earthen ball hit against an impregnable rock ( In fact they got lost in prana).

8. Thus, verily, as an earthen ball is destroyed when hit against an impregnable rock, so does he perish, who wishes to contaminate with vice. He who knows, Supreme prana is immune to injury like piece of unbreakable stone.

9. Through it (Mouth), man inhales not odours sweet or foul, indeed it has destroyed Evil; hence whatever is drunk or eaten by it supports, through this one nourishes the sense organs sustains. At the last moment, deprived of support, they depart, and that is why one opens Mouth at the time of their death.

10. Angira adored it, the Udgitha, hence verily it is called Angirasa or the essence of all the Angas (organs)

[Note: The word Angiras is derived from anga+rasa ; angirasa is the rasa means essence of the angas : the sense organs: It is the same Supreme Prana. When the Sage Angira worships Supreme prana, he is worshipping himself. Prana is also Brihaspati, because it is the lord of all Speech. Ayasya means that which comes out of the mouth. Angira, Brihaspati and Ayasya are the sages who worshiped Supreme Prana as Udgitha. They in fact worshiped themselves.]

11. Brihaspati adored it, the Udgitha, hence verily it is called Brihaspati; speech is Brihati whereof it is the source (pati).

12. Ayasa also adored it, the Udgitha, hence it is called Ayasya; or that which proceeds from the mouth (Asya).

13. So, did Vaka, son of Dalbha, know it, and glorify it for the gratification of the desires of the sages of Naimisha, for whom he officiated as a chanter of the Sama Veda.

14. He who, knowing it thus, adores this imperishable Udgitha, becomes the solicitor. This is worship. Praising OM has a threefold reward: relating to the Body(Adhyatma), relating to animals (adhibhuta), and relating to the elements(adhidaiva)

SECTION-3: Udgitha relating to the Deities(gods).

  1. Next the worship of Udgitha is connection with gods: One should meditate upon Him who shines as Udgitha. Let him be adored. For rising he sings for the welfare of the creation; rising he dispels the darkness and danger. He, who knows him thus, becomes a destroyer of the fear of darkness and danger.
  2. Verily the Sun and that the Supreme prana are alike; this is warm as well as that; this may be called transitive; that is transitive and re-transitive; therefore let this and that be adored as the Udgitha. This and that are equal.
  3.  Moreover, let Vyana be adored as Udgitha. That function by which breath is respired is Prana, that by which is inspired is Apana, and the interval of the two is Vyana, which is speech. Therefore speech is articulated irrespective of inspiration and expiration. [ according to Sankaracharya prana is breathing out and Apana is breathing in]
  4.  That which is speech is Rig, therefore do (men) articulate the Rig without inspiring or respiring. That which Rig is Sama, hence is it chanted without inspiring or respiring. That which is Sama, is Udgitha, hence is it chanted without reference to inspiration or respiration. [ Note: One sings the Udgitha by suspending both breathing in and breathing out]
  5.  Moreover, all other mighty actions, such as the production of Fire by Friction, running a course, or stringing a strong bow, are performed without reference to inspiration or respiration, therefore is the Vyana worshipped as the Udgitha.
  6. Next verily let the letters of the word Udgitha be adored as the Udgitha. Respiration ” Prana” is “Ut”, for men attain the power of rising from respiration (Life Breath) ; speech ~ vak is “Gi”, for vak and gira, are said to be the synonymous; “tha” is aliment, for verily, everything is supported by food[sthitam].
  7. The Heaven (dyau) is “Ut, the atmosphere[Sky~ antariksha] is “Gi”, and the Earth (prithivi ) is Tha. The Sun Aditya is Ut, the Wind Vayu is Gi, and fire Agni is Tha. The Sama Veda is Ut, the Yajur Veda is Gi and the Rig Veda Tha. For him who, thus knowing, adores the letters of the Udgitha as the Udgitha, speech itself yields its wealth, and the adorer obtains treasure and the power to consume the same.
  8.  Now, then, that which yields desirable objects, will be disclosed. What are worthy of meditation should be thus adored:- the Sama hymn by which the adorer is to glorify should be enquired into. [You sing a particular Sama for a particular thing you wish to get. Sing it always, and remember that it is the source of what you are wishing for.]
  9.  The Rig hymns in which the Sama hymns occur, the Sages, who first promulgated them, and the Devas glorified by those hymns, should also be reflected upon.
  10.   One may use the Gayatri or some other hymn when praying, but one should meditate on it. Again, one may use a number of Sama mantras while praying, but one must meditate on them along with the Deities to whom they are addressed. [Whether you use the Gāyatrī or some other hymn while praying, you should not forget to meditate on that hymn. In fact, whatever mantras you use, you should meditate on them as well as on the deities to whom they are directed.]
  11.  No matter what direction (quarter) one may face while praying, one should meditate on that direction along with the presiding Deities of that direction.
  12. Finally, as a person ends is prayer, he should ask for whatever he desires, making sure, however, that pronunciation is correct. He should also think of himself. Then whatever he desires he has while praying is promptly and surely fulfilled.

SECTION-4

  1. OM! this letter should be adored, OM is recited. Recite this syllable as part of  your Upasana. How recite OM is being explained:–                                  
  2. The Devas, dreading death, adopted the threefold knowledge of the Vedas. They shielded themselves with mantras. The mantras are called Chandas, because the Devas shielded (achchhadayan) themselves therein.
  3. As Fishermen look at fish in water,  in the same way, Death could see the Divinities( Rig, Yajur and Sama hymns ),they, apprised of it, forsaking the Vedas, switched over to the recitation of OM.
  4. In reciting the Rig hymns OM is articulated (Swarati), so in the Yajur and Sama, therefore indeed, is this letter, the Udgitha possessing immortality and safety, called Svara: Adopting its support the gods became immortal and secure.[Note: Aksara, OM and Svara are the same. When people recite Vedic mantras, they always start with the aksara OM. By taking refuge in OM, one attains immortality and fearlessness]   
  5. Even now anyone who knows this OM and worships it thus can attain the fearlessness and immortality of OM, which is Aksara, or Svara. By becoming one with OM, person can attain immortality, just the Deities did.

Conclusion: Everything is OM !!!

Recommended readings:

  1. Back to the Truth: 5000 years of ADVAITA by Dennis Waite.**
  2. THE TEN PRINCIPAL UPANISHADS: Translated by Shree Purohit** Swami and W.B.Yeats
  3. Brahma Sutra Bhasya of Sankaracharya: Translated by Swami Gambhirananda.**
  4. Commentary of ChAndogya Upanishad: By Swami Krishnananda.
  5. ChAndogya Upanishad: By Swami GuruBhaktananda.
  6. EIGHT UPANISADS -VOL-1 with commentary of Sankaracharya, Translated by SWAMI GAMBHIRANANDA.
  7. THE TAITTIRIYA UPANISHAD: SHIKSHAVALLI-ANANDAVALLI-BHRIGUVALLI with Sri Shankara’s Commentary By Sri Swami Satchidanandera Saraswati.
  8. A-U-M Awakening to Reality : By Dennis Waite***
  9. Panchadasi: Swami Vidyaranya: 
  10. Information available on internet.

It is my sincere request to the esteemed readers to share their opinion or queries if any. Suggestions to make the site attractive will be highly helpful for me. Readers are requested to read all the posts to have continuation of the topic from the beginning. My mail ID is : arun7663@gmail.com

 

Essence of Aitareya Upanishad: Part-B

Disclaimer:

  • The article is based on my studies, my concept, my thoughts on the subject. It is further supplemented  with my experiences and self realization.
  • ☆I found some link between modern science(Quantum mechanics) and teachings of ancient sages as mentioned in Vedanta, regarding Universe, Supreme Consciousness or the Ultimate truth , the Ultimate Reality whatever we say.
  • ☆ The term “MAN” wherever used in this entire text is intended to consider as “HUMAN” irrespective of gender differences.
  • ♡ Having gone through the Vedanta/ancient texts, commentaries, translated by different writers, translators, publishers on the same topic, I have tried my best to share the subject matter as I understood and convinced too. My intention is to reach to you with the topic that I found very useful for human lives. I am not good in English literature. Please give your valuable suggestions for the improvement and valuable inputs to make the text beneficial for mankind.
  • ☆ The Spiritual context is purely based on ancient sacred texts. Sanskrit slokas are taken from books and websites. There may be little variation in the translations and commentaries. I have shared my own views and explanations according to my concept gathered in the subject through experience and intuitions. There is no discrimination against any religion, race, cast or creed.
  • Your feedback will be highly appreciated. I am sure that the subject matter is highly logical and does not bring any conflict. Hope you will enjoy reading. Regards. NAMASTE. I can be reached at : arun7663@gmail.com

Introduction:

In this Blog we will cover KHANDA-II and III. KHANDA-I has been discussed in my earlier Blog Essence of Aitareya Upanishad- Part-A “

In Khanda II, the creation of human body is described in order to inculcate a sense of dispassion by showing the impermanence of the body. Creation continues through procreation. A man is born, he gives birth to a son and he takes rebirth after death. This signifies that a person has really three births. The procreative fluid of a father is said to be the essence of his Self. The mother looks after it during pregnancy as her own Self. After birth, the parents nourish the child so that he can be their substitute for performance of pious deeds. Hence the importance of natal care and oneness of the father and the son are emphasized.

In Khanda III, we will learn that “Consciousness is Brahman”. This Consciousness is Pure. This creation is unreal in nature. Creation is mere a superimposition upon Consciousness.

ऐतरेयोपनिषत्

वाङ् मे मनसि प्रतिष्ठिता मनो मे वाचि प्रतिष्ठितमाविरावीर्म एधि ॥

वेदस्य म आणीस्थः श्रुतं मे मा प्रहासीरनेनाधीतेनाहोरात्रान्
संदधाम्यृतं वदिष्यामि सत्यं वदिष्यामि ॥ तन्मामवतु
तद्वक्तारमवत्ववतु मामवतु वक्तारमवतु वक्तारम् ॥

॥ ॐ शान्तिः शान्तिः शान्तिः॥

KHANDA-II (Chapter-4)

Three Births of the Self [ Three incarnations]:

Verse: 4.1- First Birth :”The Pregnant Father”

This Jiva in the male body of his father first becomes semen. This semen is the vigour extracted and transformed from all the limbs. First the father holds and nourishes it in his own body and rears it which is not different from him. When he injects this in mother’s body he procreates himself in the form of a foetus. This is his first birth.

Verse: 4.2- :”The Development of the Foetus”

That semen becomes one with the woman-just like a limb of her own. That is why it does not hurt her. She nourishes this self of his that has come into her.

Verse: 4.3- Second Birth :”The Pregnant Mother”

She, being the nourisher of the child , should be nourished. The woman nourishes the embryo. Immediately after its birth the father nourishes the child. Nourishing the child from birth onward, he thus nourishes himself for the continuation of these worlds. For thus alone are these worlds perpetuated. This is one’s second birth.

Verse: 4.4- Third Birth :”The Pregnant Son”

Father himself becomes son. When son comes of age, father entrusts him with all the family duties and responsibilities and frees himself from parental debt. As life span of father shortens, father departs from this world and takes birth in another womb according to his Karma. This is his third birth. Thus the cycle of birth and death continues and become a bondage till he does not realize the truth, the reality.

Verse: 4.5- “Breaking Through Iron Fetters”

 Rishi Vamadeva realized the truth while he was in mother’s womb.

Rishi said ” While yet in embryo, I knew all the births of these Deities!, i.e. the inner senses and Indriyas are subjected to birth and death and not the Atman. Before I realized  this secret I had to pass through several Births which are compared with cages made of Iron. I was so attached with them that it was very difficult for me to get rid of those iron gates. Now by applying full strength of knowledge I broke all the fetters, became detached. Like a hawk, I escaped, being free and now I have no relation with the body. I am not the Body.”

Verse: 4.6- ” The Jivanmukti and Videhamukti of Vamadeva”

Having gained the knowledge of Atman, and freedom from Body Consciousness, Vamadeva took his Upward path. He attained the heavenly world of Bliss and fulfilled all his desires. He became immortal, yes He became immortal !!!

” Freedom from Body” : We can understand this in two ways:

  1. Death: This is applicable to a mortal
  2. Freedom from Body-Consciousness: Upward path towards Nirvikalpa Samadhi.

For a man, once the highest state of True realization is reached, the attainment of the Heavenly worlds of Bliss accompanies him, while still in the Body. While still in the body, the realized state experiences the Supreme Bliss. He enjoys all he desires.

Self Realization is the only way to come out of the bondage of repetitive cycle of Birth and Death. For that one should have Vairagya.

The three “Aavasthas”(states) and “Swapnas”(Dreams): in relation to Three Births:

Three Aavasthas are three dwelling places occupied by the Supreme Being after HE enters the body. The three Swapnas are three states as below:

  1. Right Eye: This is where He dwells during the waking state.
  2. The Mind: This is where He dwells during the dream state.
  3. The Heart: This is where He dwells during the deep sleep state.
  4. All the states are considered to be DREAM state (Swapna Aavasthas) because of ignorance.
Until man realize the Supreme truth and awakens to his spiritual destiny, he is considered to be in the state of Dream(Swapna).

KHANDA-III(Chapter-5)

PrajnAnaM Brahma: ” Consciousness is Brahman”

Brahman, The Self (Supreme Consciousness) can be known from two approaches. (A) Upahita Chaitanya and (B) Visishta Chaitanya.

Upahita Chaitanya: This is to be known as Pure Consciousness. Not associated with any upadhis, attributes and indestructible. It is known as Shuddha Brahman. It is the common substratum of all the three states of consciousness.

Visishta Chaitanya: This Self is associated with the various Upadhis and known as Visishta Brahman. Visishta means particular. This Self has two divisions and each has three sub divisions:

A) Samashti: Macrocosmic Level: It’s three sub-divisions are: i) Ishwara or Brahma at the causal level. ii) Hiranyagarbha or Pranaat , the subtle level. iii) Virat at the gross level.

B) Vyashti: Microcosmic Level: It has three sub-divisions, which are: i) Prajnaat- the Causal; ii) Taijasaat – the subtle level; and iii) Vishwaat -the gross level. These three sub-divisions correspond to Deep Sleep, Dream and waking state of Consciousness respectively.

Verse: 5.1- “Un associated(Upahita) Consciousness at Individual level “

OM! Who is this Self we are worshiping? Which of the two is He? A) The Atman: Or B) Is He ” That” (Atman) by which one sees? Or by which one hears? Or by which one smells fragrance? Or by which one knows what is tasty and what is not tasty?

Upahita Chaitanya: The Sakshi (Witnessing Consciousness )witnesses all the bodily and mental functions, but does not get involved in them. It remains untouched. It is That by which, one sees, hears, smells, thinks. This alone is the True Self at the Vyashti level.

Verse: 5.2- ” Associated Consciousness at Individual level “

In this Sloka,  Consciousness in association with the body, mind, intellect, memory and ego-sense is described. This Consciousness is reflected Consciousness. This has a Visishta relationship that produces Jeeva. Rishi describes here sixteen faculties in which Jeeva differ from each other. The faculties are inner instruments, chiefly the Mind and the Intellect which have their vast range to cover.

Sixteen faculties are as below.

i) Samjnaanam, ii) Aajnaanam, iii) Vijnaanam, iv)Praajnaanam, Comprehension, intelligence, v ) Medha, Memory retention, vi) Drishtih, vii) Dhritih, viii) Matih, ix) Maneeshaa, x) Jootih, xi) Smritih, xii) Samkalpah, xiii) Kratuh, xiv) Asuh, xv) Kaamah, xvi) Vashah.

All the faculties are considered to be different names and forms through which PrajnAnaM operates as Visishta Chaitanya in Jeeva. Faculties from i to xiv are part of Subtle body . Last two faculties xv and xvi constitute Causal body. These two are bundle of desires, attachments which causes the man take birth again and again.

Therefore we can summarize the sloka in this way:  “He is that other, living in the mind or in the intellect as imagination, discrimination, knowledge, continuity, intuition, conviction, contemplation, will, emotion, memory, desire, resolution, being, living, loving, longing: all names for one intelligence”.

Verse: 5.3-  “Un associated (Upahita) and associated Consciousness at all levels.” PrajnAnaM Brahma at all levels”

प्रज्ञानं ब्रह्म :

Verse: 5.3: 
एष ब्रह्मैष इन्द्र एष प्रजापतिरेते सर्वे देवा इमानि च
पञ्चमहाभूतानि पृथिवी वायुराकाश आपो
ज्योतींषीत्येतानीमानि च क्षुद्रमिश्राणीव ।
बीजानीतराणि चेतराणि चाण्डजानि च जारुजानि च स्वेदजानि चोद्भिज्जानि
चाश्वा गावः पुरुषा हस्तिनो यत्किञ्चेदं प्राणि जङ्गमं च पतत्रि
च यच्च स्थावरं सर्वं तत्प्रज्ञानेत्रं प्रज्ञाने प्रतिष्ठितं
प्रज्ञानेत्रो लोकः प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठा प्रज्ञानं ब्रह्म ॥ ३॥

In this Sloka, Rishi emphasize that PrajnAnaM Brahma is  present in all levels.

“He is Brahma , He is Indra, He is Prajapati; He is all these gods; He is the Five great elements- Earth, Air, Akasha, Water, Light; He is all these small creatures and the others which are mixed; He is the origin-those born of an egg, of a womb, of sweat and of a sprout; He is horses, cows, human beings, elephants- whatever breathes here, whether moving on legs or flying in the air or unmoving. All the basis of the Universe is Consciousness. Consciousness is Brahman. PrajnAnaM Brahma. प्रज्ञानं ब्रह्म.

प्रज्ञानं ब्रह्म. This is one of the four MahaVakyas:

Consciousness is Brahman. This Consciousness is Pure. Upahita Chaitanya. When it becomes associated Consciousness (Maya + Upahita Chaitanya). This creation is unreal in nature. Creation is mere a superimposition upon Consciousness.

Verse: 5.4- ” Jivanmukti & Kramamukti”

 एतेन प्राज्ञेनाऽऽत्मनाऽस्माल्लोकादुत्क्रम्यामुष्मिन्स्वर्गे लोके सर्वान्
कामानाप्त्वाऽमृतः समभवत् समभवत् ॥ ४॥

He having realized oneness with Pure Consciousness, soared from this world and having obtained all desires in yonder heavenly world, became immortal! Yes immortal.

Verse: 6- ” The Peace invocation”

ॐ वाङ् मे मनसि प्रतिष्ठिता मनो मे वाचि प्रतिष्ठितमाविरावीर्म
एधि वेदस्य म आणीस्थः श्रुतं मे मा प्रहासीरनेनाधीतेनाहोरात्रान्
संदधाम्यृतं वदिष्यामि सत्यं वदिष्यामि तन्मामवतु
तद्वक्तारमवत्ववतु मामवतु वक्तारमवतु वक्तारम् ॥

॥ ॐ शान्तिः शान्तिः शान्तिः॥

                       ॥ इत्यैतरोपनिषदि तृतीयोध्यायः ॥

The End of Aitareya Upanishad.

Recommended readings:

  1. Back to the Truth: 5000 years of ADVAITA by Dennis Waite.**
  2. THE TEN PRINCIPAL UPANISHADS: Translated by Shree Purohit** Swami and W.B.Yeats
  3. Brahma Sutra Bhasya of Sankaracharya: Translated by Swami Gambhirananda.**
  4. Commentary of Aitareya Upanishad: By Swami Krishnananda.
  5. Aitareya Upanishad By Swami GuruBhaktananda.
  6. EIGHT UPANISADS -VOL-1 with commentary of Sankaracharya, Translated by SWAMI GAMBHIRANANDA.
  7. THE TAITTIRIYA UPANISHAD: SHIKSHAVALLI-ANANDAVALLI-BHRIGUVALLI with Sri Shankara’s Commentary By Sri Swami Satchidanandera Saraswati.
  8. A-U-M Awakening to Reality : By Dennis Waite***
  9. Panchadasi: Swami Vidyaranya: 
  10. Information available on internet.

It is my sincere request to the esteemed readers to share their opinion or queries if any. Suggestions to make the site attractive will be highly helpful for me. Readers are requested to read all the posts to have continuation of the topic from the beginning. My mail ID is : arun7663@gmail.com

 

Essence of Taittiriya Upanishad – Bhrigu Valli :

Introduction:

This Part is known as Bhrigu Valli, third chapter of Taittiriya Upanishad. It has Ten Anuvakas ( 10 sections)

The Taittiriya Upanishad is a part of the Krishna Yajur Veda and placed in the seventh position in the list of Ten Principal Upanishad. The Upanishad has three Chapters. First chapter of the Upanishad is Sheeksha Valli which gives the essence of the Karma Kanda of the Veda in terms of disciplines, rituals, meditations, values, code of conduct for daily life has been published in two parts. Sheeksha Valli: part-1A and Sheeksha Valli: part-1B.  

Second Chapter ” Brahmananda Valli teaches in details 1) about the five sheaths that surround our true essence, our true nature as described in the traditional Advaita Vedanta which uses a model to illustrate the successive layers of identification which obscure our real nature. and 2)What is Bliss”(True Joy). It has been published in two parts.  Brahmananda Valli: Part 1-A and Brahmananda Valli: Part-1-B

Bhrigu Valli has 10 Anuvaka : Enlightenment of Sage Bhrigu is highlighted in this Text. Bhrigu was the son of sage Varuna.

Peace invocation from Krishna Yajur Veda:

“Bhrigu May He protect us both. May He take pleasure in us both. May we show courage together. May spiritual knowledge shine before us. May we never hate one another. May peace and peace and peace be everywhere.”

Anuvaka-1:

3.1 Bhrigu, seeking his father Varuna, said: ” Lord ! Please teach me what is Brahman. Varuna replied: ” Food, Prana, Eyes, Ears, Mind and speech. These are all Brahman” From Brahman, all things are born, by whom they live, towards whom they move, into whom they return. Crave to know that well.

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Anuvaka-2: Bhrigu returns for more:

Bhrigu then meditated with austerity (Tapas is an austerity, an act of purification) and understood that Food is Brahman.
Having known that Bhrigu returned to his father and said: ” Lord ! Please tell me more about Brahman.” Varuna said: ” By deep thinking(Tapas), seek thou to know Brahman. Tapas is Brahman.

Anuvaka-3 : Prana is Brahman.

3.3:Bhrigu meditated and found that Prana is Brahman, because it is from Prana alone that all these things are born, by prana they live and towards prana they move, into prana they return when die.
Having known that Bhrigu returned to his father and said: ” Lord ! Please tell me more about Brahman.” ” Varuna said: ” By deep thinking(Tapas), seek thou to know Brahman. Tapas is Brahman.

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Anuvaka-4: Mind is Brahman.

Bhrigu meditated and understood that Mind is Brahman.  Because it is from Mind alone that all these things are born, by mind they live and continue to live into mind they return when die.
Having known that Bhrigu returned to his father and said: ” Lord ! Please tell me more about Brahman.” ” Varuna said: ” By deep thinking(Tapas), seek thou to know Brahman. Tapas is Brahman.

Anuvaka-5: Knowledge is Brahman.

Bhrigu meditated and understood that Knowledge is Brahman.  Because it is from Knowledge alone that all these things are born, by Knowledge they live and continue to live and into knowledge they return when die.
Having known that Bhrigu returned to his father and said: ” Lord ! Please tell me more about Brahman.” ” Varuna said: ” By deep thinking(Tapas), seek thou to know Brahman. Tapas is Brahman.

Anuvaka-6: Bliss (Ananda) is Brahman.

Bhrigu meditated and understood that Bliss (Ananda) is Brahman.  Because it is from Bliss alone that all these things are born, by Bliss they live and continue to live and into Bliss they return when die.
Having known that Bhrigu returned to his father and said: ” Lord ! Please tell me more about Brahman.” ” Varuna said: ” By deep thinking(Tapas), seek thou to know Brahman. Tapas is Brahman.
The Merit of Tapas: 
He who knows thus become well fixed in Supreme Bless Brahman. He becomes the possessor and eater of Food. He becomes rich in progeny, cattle, and gains the splendour of true Brahmana hood. Indeed he becomes great Spiritual and material prosperity. 

The Tapas ends at Absolute Bliss:

This Knowledge learnt by Bhrigu and taught by his father Varuna, established in the ” Supreme cavity of the Heart”.

The journey that began with food now ends in Supreme Bliss in the ” Supreme cavity of the Heart”. Here the disciple, the seeker becomes One with Brahman. The concept of teaching through conversation emphasize that anyone who follows the same method as Bhrigu, can have same realization what Bhrigu achieved. It is known as famous ” Bhargavi- Varuni Vidya” in Taittiriya Upanishad.

Introduction to Anuvaka 7 to 10:

The path of Self-Realization followed by Bhrigu is considered to be the most direct path, suited for meditation practitioners. But for the aspirants unable to follow are given alternate (indirect) method as described in Anuvaka-7,8,9 and first verse of 10. To prepare the lessor qualified students, for the same attainment of Bhrigu, a practice ” Annam-Annadanam Upasana is prescribed. This is meditation on Food and eater of food. If followed as described, seeker will reach to the same state of bliss, the absolute Bliss. Each Anuvaka is structured in a logical manner. 1. The Vrata (Vow), 2. The Upasana (Meditation) and 3. The Phala (merit gained).

Anuvaka-7: Prana and Body as Food.

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7.1:  Vow-1: Respect Food:

“annam na nindyaat; tat Vratam;” 
The vow here is not to insult food. What that means? That means, rejecting, refusing, criticizing, placing no value on Food. Food ties in well with the Upasana on Prana and Body. Food must be respected and taken in pleasant frame of mind. As such Pranic system works well.

7.2: Upasana-1: Prana and Body- Food for each other:

Prana is food (annam). Body is the eater of the food(annadam). The Body is Prana; Prana is Body. They are food to one another.

7.3: The Merit: Spiritual and material prosperity:

He who knows thus become well fixed in Brahman. He becomes the possessor and eater of Food. He becomes rich, Commands everything, enjoys everything; founds a family, gathers flocks and herds. Gains the splendour of true Brahmana hood.

Anuvaka–8:

8.1: Vow-2  ” Do not reject Food”

“annam na parichaksheet; tat vratam”  Do not reject food.
The Vow here is for not abandoning or wasting food served. In addition, too much fasting in the name of Austerity should also be avoided to fulfil body’s requirement.

8.2: Upasana-2:Water and Light- Food for each other.

Water and Fire–Food for Each Other. Water is food; Light lives on Water. Water is light; Light is Water; they are food for one another.

[Sun and Solar system works for sustaining life in Earth.]

8.3: The Merit: Spiritual and material prosperity:

He who knows thus become well fixed in Brahman. He becomes the possessor and eater of Food. He becomes rich, Commands everything, enjoys everything; founds a family, gathers flocks and herds. Gains the splendour of true Brahmana hood.

Anuvaka-9: Earth and Space- Food for each other.

9.1: Vow-3  “Store Food”

“annam bahu kurvita; tat vratam” : Prepare plenty of Food. Let that be your vow.

Photo by Tom Fisk on Pexels.com

Here the Vow is for arranging plenty of food in store such that one can feed guests, unexpected guests and the needy without any difficulty. This practice is normally followed in most of the homes in India.

9.2: Upasana-3: Earth and Space- Food for each other.

The Earth is Food; Space is eater of Food. Earth is established in Space. Space is established Earth. They are food for one another. [Consider Ecosystem, Water cycles etc.]

9.3: The Merit: Spiritual and material prosperity:

He who knows thus become well fixed in Brahman. He becomes the possessor and eater of Food. He becomes rich, Commands everything, enjoys everything; founds a family, gathers flocks and herds. Gains the splendor of true Brahmana hood.

Interpretation of Anuvaka-7 to 9:

Before proceeding to Anuvaka -10, let us understand the essence from Anuvaka-7 to 9.

The teaching is hidden and something beyond the words. The teaching here is alternate to the model of Five Sheaths, where we have to reach to Brahman after negating all the koshas. Maharshi Bhrigu was a great sage. There are three primary stages of Sadhana covered in Anuvaka-7 to 9.

1.Abiding by the Law of Dharma:

First stage of Sadhana is Vow to eradicate undesirable practices to desirable noble practices. This means replacing unrighteous with righteous qualities. The aspirant has to align with the Laws of Dharma. An attitude must be developed, to respect the food, preserve the food and serve the food to the needy. The main idea is to develop a selflessness combined with benevolent quality.

2.Abiding by the Law of Karma:

There is an action and reaction suggested in this Upasana. It is to be understood that we are eating food and food is eating us. At one moment we are eaters; at another we are eaten! In this mystic manner, the Upasanas draw our attention to the Law of Karma.

Anuvaka--10: The Path of “Dharma & Karma”

10.1: Vow-4 : “Hospitality towards guests.”

न कञ्चन वसतौ प्रत्याचक्षीत । तद्व्रतम् । Do not turn anyone who seeks shelter and lodging. Gather enough food.

10.2-5: Upasana-4: Entertain and honour your guest.

Say to the stranger; “Sir, Food is ready for you”. The food is prepared and served in well manner. He who serves with purity, gets purity in return. He who serves with ignorance, gets ignorance in return.

Upasana upon Body.

He who knows, meditate upon Brahman as the blessedness in speech; as Prana and Apana as acquirer and preserver; as the activity of hands, as the movement of feet, as evacuation of bowels. All these are meditation upon Body. 

Upasana on Nature.

Worship Brahman as nourishment in rain, as power in lightning, as abundance in cattle, as light in stars, offspring, immortality and joy in organs of procreation, as all-filling in space, all containing nature in air. These are meditations on Nature.

Upasana on Supreme. As one thinks, so does one become.

Worship Brahman as the support, be supported. Worship Brahman as the Great and become Great, as mind and become mind. Surrender to Brahman as the sole object of desire, be the goal of all desire. Worship Brahman as the master of all and become master of all. Worship Brahman as the destroyer, your enemies whether in public or in home shall be destroyed. 

“The Reality in the core of man and the Reality in the Sun is one and the same”  

He who knows this, says goodbye to the world, goes beyond AnnaMaya Kosha (Elemental Self), Pranamaya Kosha (Living Self) , ManoMaya Kosha(Thinking Self), VijnaMaya Kosha (Knowing Self )and  AnandaMaya Kosha(Joyous Self).

10.6 Song of Bhrigu:

तत् साम गा॑यन्ना॒स्ते । हा ३ वु॒ हा ३ वु॒ हा ३ वु॑ ॥ ५॥

अ॒हमन्नम॒हमन्नम॒हमन्नम् ।
अ॒हमन्ना॒दोऽ॒३हमन्ना॒दोऽ॒३अहमन्ना॒दः ।
अ॒हꣳश्लोक॒कृद॒हꣳश्लोक॒कृद॒हꣳश्लोक॒कृत् ।
अ॒हमस्मि प्रथमजा ऋता३स्य॒ ।
पूर्वं देवेभ्योऽमृतस्य ना३भा॒इ॒ ।
यो मा ददाति स इदेव मा३अऽवाः॒ ।
अ॒हमन्न॒मन्न॑म॒दन्त॒मा३द्मि॒ ।
अ॒हं विश्वं॒ भुव॑न॒मभ्य॑भ॒वा३म् ।
सुव॒र्न ज्योतीः᳚ । य ए॒वं वेद॑ । इत्यु॑प॒निष॑त् ॥ ६॥
He remains, continuously singing the following song of Joy…… Oh! Oh! Oh!
He moves at will throughout the world, enjoying whatever he will, creating whatever shape he will, praising the Unity of Brahman-miraculous, miraculous, miraculous. I am the food, I am the food, I am the food; I am the eater, I am the eater, I am the eater. I am the link between, I am the link between, I am the link between. I am the first among the eternal and the immortal. I existed before the gods. I am the navel of immortality. Who gives me, protects me. I am food; who refuses to give me, I eat as food. I am this world and I eat this world.  I am self- luminous like the Sun.

Who knows this, knows Brahman.

॥ इति भृगुवल्ली समाप्ता ॥ The End of Bhrigu Valli

Peace invocation from Krishna Yajur Veda:

ॐ स॒ह ना॑ववतु । स॒ह नौ॑ भुनक्तु । स॒ह वी॒र्यं॑ करवावहै ।
ते॒ज॒स्वि ना॒वधी॑तमस्तु॒ मा वि॑द्विषा॒वहै᳚ ।
॥ ॐ शान्तिः॒ शान्तिः॒ शान्तिः॑ ॥

॥ हरिः ॐ ॥

Conclusion:

Above Text reminds the Text in Brahmananda Valli, the second part of Taittiriya Upanishad. In Brahmananda Valli we gain knowledge to cross over the five Koshas (sheathes) during this life and it is Jivanmukti while still living. Also in the above Text, Kramamukti is projected as actions for the Self and for the Mankind through services with purity and selflessness to achieve the desired fruits of actions. He who follows the teaching of Bhrigu, masters the highest Knowledge. After gaining Knowledge he realizes Brahman which is the ultimate Goal.

Recommended readings:

  1. Back to the Truth: 5000 years of ADVAITA by Dennis Waite.**
  2. THE TEN PRINCIPAL UPANISHADS: Translated by Shree Purohit** Swami and W.B.Yeats
  3. Brahma Sutra Bhasya of Sankaracharya: Translated by Swami Gambhirananda.**
  4. Commentary of Taittiriya Upanishad: By Swami Krishnananda.
  5. Taittiriya Upanishad By Swami GuruBhaktananda.
  6. EIGHT UPANISADS -VOL-1 with commentary of Sankaracharya, Translated by SWAMI GAMBHIRANANDA.
  7. THE TAITTIRIYA UPANISHAD: SHIKSHAVALLI-ANANDAVALLI-BHRIGUVALLI with Sri Shankara’s Commentary By Sri Swami Satchidanandera Saraswati.
  8. A-U-M Awakening to Reality : By Dennis Waite***
  9. Information available on internet.

It is my sincere request to the esteemed readers to share their opinion or queries if any. Suggestions to make the site attractive will be highly helpful for me. Readers are requested to read all the posts to have continuation of the topic from the beginning. My mail ID is : arun7663@gmail.com

Essence of Aitareya Upanishad: Part-A

Disclaimer:

  • The article is based on my studies, my concept, my thoughts on the subject. It is further supplemented  with my experiences and self realization.
  • ☆I found some link between modern science(Quantum mechanics) and teachings of ancient sages as mentioned in Vedanta, regarding Universe, Supreme Consciousness or the Ultimate truth , the Ultimate Reality whatever we say.
  • ☆ The term “MAN” wherever used in this entire text is intended to consider as “HUMAN” irrespective of gender differences.
  • ♡ Having gone through the Vedanta/ancient texts, commentaries, translated by different writers, translators, publishers on the same topic, I have tried my best to share the subject matter as I understood and convinced too. My intention is to reach to you with the topic that I found very useful for human lives. I am not good in English literature. Please give your valuable suggestions for the improvement and valuable inputs to make the text beneficial for mankind.
  • ☆ The Spiritual context is purely based on ancient sacred texts. Sanskrit slokas are taken from books and websites. There may be little variation in the translations and commentaries. I have shared my own views and explanations according to my concept gathered in the subject through experience and intuitions. There is no discrimination against any religion, race, cast or creed.
  • Your feedback will be highly appreciated. I am sure that the subject matter is highly logical and does not bring any conflict. Hope you will enjoy reading. Regards. NAMASTE. I can be reached at : arun7663@gmail.com

Introduction:-

Aitareya Upanishad belongs to Aitareya Aranyaka**(Teachings in the forest), part of Rig-Veda, consists of  three Parts. First Part consists of three chapters. Remaining two Parts have one chapter each. according to scholars, Rishi Maheedasa Aitareya composed this Upanishad. The purpose of this Upanishad is to direct the mind towards oneness turning away from ritualistic actions. 

According to Aitareya Upanishad, in the beginning, Atman was the All and it has manifested all this Universe. This is to be understood as total effect which came out of the total Cause. The whole objective Universe is the Effect. Also this is to be understood that the Effect which has come out of Cause is not separated from the Cause.

Aitareya Upanishad emphasize the beliefs, practices of Procreation, sustenance of generations, Birth and rebirth. It teaches about the creation of Universe, creation of beings, the embodied Self, the importance of food, desire in the continuation of the worlds and beings. Upanishad gives idea on transmigration of souls, the nature of Self, the manifestation of Brahman and the path of liberation. My presentation here is on first Part. I have added some figures of creation of Universe according to modern science just to imagine and relate Aitareya Upanishad with physics and philosophy

Atman:

Atman includes everything and everyone. It is the Total of all created beings, and so it is called Brahman. The ultimate in us is Atman. The ultimate in the cosmos is Brahman. Atman is Brahman. There can not be anything other than this Universal Reality.

The first chapter describes the creation. It describes the creation of Universe from Consciousness. 

Story of creation in Aitareya Upanishad says ” When there was nothing other than Consciousness, called Atman, the One and Absolute Consciousness willed to create a world of multiplicity and diversity. Creation is believed to be outcome of Tapah (Fire)

ऐतरेयोपनिषत्

Peace Invocation: Shanti Path: 

वाङ् मे मनसि प्रतिष्ठिता मनो मे वाचि प्रतिष्ठितमाविरावीर्म एधि ॥

वेदस्य म आणीस्थः श्रुतं मे मा प्रहासीरनेनाधीतेनाहोरात्रान्
संदधाम्यृतं वदिष्यामि सत्यं वदिष्यामि ॥ तन्मामवतु
तद्वक्तारमवत्ववतु मामवतु वक्तारमवतु वक्तारम् ॥

॥ ॐ शान्तिः शान्तिः शान्तिः॥

May Self-luminous Brahman be revealed, Speech merge in Mind; Mind merge in Speech. May they bring me Vedas. May I ponder over the Knowledge day and night, may I never forget it. Truth shall be on my lips, and Truth in my thoughts. May truth protect me; protect my teacher; protect us both.

May peace and peace and peace be everywhere.

॥ अथ ऐतरेयोपनिषदि प्रथमाध्याये प्रथमः खण्डः ॥

Verse: 1.1 Before Creation began.

ॐ आत्मा वा इदमेक एवाग्र आसीन्नान्यत्किंचन मिषत्।स ईक्षत लोकान्नु सृजा इति ॥ १॥
" Atma va idam eka evagra as it, nanyat kin cana misat" is the beginning sentence of Aitareya Upanishad.

“In the beginning all this verily was Atman (Absolute Self) only, one and without a second. There was nothing else that winked. He (Atman) willed Himself: “Let Me now create the worlds”.

The Space Time, The Universe(s), the Creatures, the People, everything is a product out of Pure Consciousness for a CAUSE. Pure Consciousness is Atman. 

Atman is identical to Brahman and exists alone as the sole Reality prior to the creation of all names and forms of this Universe(the Virat Form) and also exists after the dissolution as well. { Holographic Universe: Universe is really a hologram}.

The cosmic egg of Vedanta maybe imagined like a point and called as singularity in astrophysics from where this Universe has taken birth.

Astrophysics and Advaita Vedanta agree on certain points. Advaita Vedanta upholds the notion of the pulsating or oscillating Universe. Creation is followed by dissolution and this process will continue infinitely. Science has given the terms as “Big Bang”  for the Creation and “Big Crunch” for the Dissolution of the Universe.

Verse: 1.2 : Creation of World:

He created all these worlds: Ambhah, Mareecheeh, Marah and Aapah. Far beyond is Ambhah, just above the Heaven (Svah) with Heaven acting as it’s support. That of the first is water bearing cloud, that of light, that of earth, that of water. Heaven and beyond Heaven is that of the first water; sky[Mareecheeh] is that of light; this mortal territory is that of Earth(Marah~ plane of death). Under Earth is that of water[Aapah] (representing the nether worlds).

Verse: 1.3: Hiranyagarbha, The Chief Deity:

Brahman thought again: “Here are the worlds just created. Let me create protectors for these worlds.” Then He took a lump of water and gave it form of Purusha( Hiranyagarbha ~Chief Deity of the whole subtle manifestation).

Note: Hiranyagarbha:

Hiranyagarbha Sukta of the Rig Veda(10.121) states that God manifested Himself in the beginning as the Creator of the Universe, encompassing all things, including everything within Himself, the collective totality, as it were, of the whole of creation, animating it as the Supreme Intelligence. Deities fall under Hiranyagarbha. The Deities are in subtle form. The gross creation has not begun yet.

Verse: 1.4: Eight Chief Deities are created.

तमभ्यतपत्तस्याभितप्तस्य मुखं निरभिद्यत यथाऽण्डं
मुखाद्वाग्वाचोऽग्निर्नासिके निरभिद्येतं नासिकाभ्यां प्राणः ॥

प्राणाद्वायुरक्षिणी निरभिद्येतमक्षीभ्यां चक्षुश्चक्षुष
आदित्यः कर्णौ निरभिद्येतां कर्णाभ्यां श्रोत्रं
श्रोत्रद्दिशस्त्वङ्निरभिद्यत त्वचो लोमानि लोमभ्य ओषधिवनस्पतयो
हृदयं निरभिद्यत हृदयान्मनो मनसश्चन्द्रमा नाभिर्निरभिद्यत
नाभ्या अपानोऽपानान्मृत्युः
शिश्नं निरभिद्यत शिश्नाद्रेतो रेतस आपः ॥ ४॥

Eight Chief Deities are: 

1) The Agni Devata: ” A Mouth burst forth from it as cleft, just as an egg cracks; from the mouth proceeded Speech, from Speech emerged Agni, the Fire Deity.

2) The Vayu Devata: Then Hiranyagarbha’s nostrils burst forth; from the nostrils emerged the sense of smell; and from the smell emerged Vayu, the Air Deity.

3) The Aditya Devata: Then the Eye burst open on the lump; from the Eyes, sight merged; and from sight Aditya, the Sun Deity.

 4) The Disha Devata: Then the Ears burst forth; from the Ears proceeded hearing; from hearing Dishah; the Deity of Directions/Space.

5) The Vanaspataya Devata: Then the Skin suddenly appeared; from the Skin came out hair; and from hair, Vanaspatayah, the Deity of “Herbs and Trees”

6) The Chandramaa Devata: Then the Heart sprung up; from the Heart proceeded the mind; from the mind, Chandramaah, the Moon Deity.

7) The Mrityu Devata: Then a Navel burst forth; from the Navel, the Apana or power of excretion; from Apana came Mrityuh, the Lord of Death.

8) The Aapah Devata: Then the Generative Organ burst out; from this Organ the semen or seed; from semen came Aapah, the Water Deity.

Note: We know the five element (five Deities) model of Creation. Here also we see the same five elements, each of which has it’s own Deity. The three additional Deities mentioned are the Sun, the Moon and the Death. All the eight Deities play important role in the Operation of the Universe.

॥ इत्यैतरेयोपनिषदि प्रथमाध्याये प्रथमः खण्डः ॥

End of Chapter 1 of Part-1


॥ अथ ऐतरेयोपनिषदि प्रथमाध्याये द्वितीयः खण्डः ॥

In the previous chapter we have known the Creation of the Organs and their Deities at subtle and macrocosmic (Samasthi) level. In this second chapter, we will discuss the gross and microcosmic level( Vyashti) of the creation. When it was subtle, we called it Hiranyagarbha. Now we will call it Virat with multiple forms. To understand the creation we may refer the Text in “Panchadasi” : Four stages of creation. A conceptual picture is projected below. I have written separate blog on this topic. The link is here: “The Divine Art”

The divine art!!(A concept according to the Text ” “Panchadasi: Sixth Chapter: “Chitra Deepa Prakarana”)

The stages of creation are as below: 4 stages of divine art!

FOUR STAGES OF CREATION IS COMPARED WITH FOUR STAGES OF PAINTING!

Chapter-2:   Abodes for the Deities.

Verse: 2.1-3

When these Deities were created, they went back to water. Then He endowed that being with hunger and thirst. Deities then said ” Please find for us some place where we can live and eat.  He then created a Bull out of the waters. They said: indeed, this is not sufficient.” He then created a horse. They said: No; it is not sufficient.” He then created a man. They said : ” Oh! Well done” Deities were happy since Man is the chief of creatures. He said to the Deities: “Take your places.

Verse: 2.4-5

The Deity of Fire in the character of speech entered in the mouth; The Deity of Air in the character of Scent entered the nose; The Sun-Deity in the character of sight entered the eyes; The Deity of four quarters in the character of hearing entered the ears; vegetation in the character of hair entered the skin; The Moon Deity, in the character of mind entered the Heart; The Deity of death in the character of Apana entered the navel; he Deity of water in the character of seed entered the loins. Hunger and thirst said:” Where is our place?” He said:” Take your place beside all the Deities, for I have made you the partner of all. To whatever Deities man makes oblation, hunger and thirst shall partake.”

॥ इत्यैतरेयोपनिषदि प्रथमाध्याये द्वितीयः खण्डः ॥

End of Chapter 2 of Part-1


॥ अथ ऐतरेयोपनिषदि प्रथमाध्याये तृतीयः खण्डः ॥

Chapter 3 of Part-1:

Verse 3.1-2: Creation of Food

The Creator Said:” Here are the territories and their guardians. I need to create food.

Verse 3.3-10: How to grasp the food?:-

Lord meditated on waters and from waters emerged food. The food so created fled from Man. He tried to grasp with speech but failed. Indeed, were he be able to catch it by speech, then merely by saying food, we would have been satisfied. Then he tried to grasp food with the breath, but he could not. Indeed, were he be able to grasp it merely by smelling food we would have been satisfied. Lord sought to grasp it with the eye. Man was not able to grasp with eye. If indeed, man had grasped with the eye, one would then have been satisfied by merely seeing food. He tried to grasp it with his ears but failed. Had he been succeeded, to to hear it had become satisfaction enough. he then tried to grasp it with his skin but failed. Had he succeeded, to touch it would have been satisfaction enough. He tried to grasp it with mind but failed, had he succeeded, thinking of it had been satisfaction enough. He then tried to grasp it with the downward breath Apana and succeeded. Apana alone receives food. Apana lives on food. 

Since Apana grasps food, retains, consumes, assimilates, rejects, it is called Annayu and therefore Apana is known as Vayu. 

[EACH SYSTEM HAS IT'S OWN GRIP. DIGESTIVE IS BY STOMACH ONLY. SIMILARLY OTHERS. SUCH IS ONE OF THE FUNCTIONS OF HUMAN BODY]

Verse 3.11 Lord’s Regal Entry:

The Creator thought Himself: ” How could all these remain without Me?” Then He said to Himself: “Which way shall I enter into it?” He said to Himself further: ” If Speaking is done by Speech, Smelling is done by nose, seeing is done by eyes, hearing by the ears, touching by the skin, thinking by the mind, eating by the Apana and the emission of semen by the sex organ, then what is there for Me to do?

Verse 3.12: Creator’s Entry into the Body:

Then He split open the suture of the Skull, entered through the gate which is gate of Joy , called ” Vidriti” This is Naandana. He found three place to dwell and three conditions to move: i) Waking, ii) Dreaming and iii) Sleeping.

Important Note:-

Sacchidanand Brahman associated with power of Maya is termed as Ishwara.

Two important verses from Panchadasi, Chapter-6 is given below to understand Ishwara and Jiva in brief. For details, interested readers may read Swami Vidyaranya’s Panchadasi. Also readers may read my Blog : “The Divine Art” which is comprehensive presentation of Chapter Six- ” Chitra Deepa” of Panchadasi.

Maya has created Ishwara and Jiva, represented by the sheath of Bliss and the sheath of Intellect respectively. The whole perceptible world is a creation of Ishwara. [ Panchadasi: Chapter6-Verse212]

From the determination of Ishwara to create, down to His entrance into the created objects, is the creation of Ishwara. From the waking state to ultimate release, the cause of all pleasure and pains, is the creation of Jiva.    [ Panchadasi: Chapter6-Verse213]

Verse 3.13 : “Oh! I have seen this earlier”.

He entered the Body, named it’s various parts, wondered if there could be anything there not Himself. He saw Purusha, the Supreme Brahman; Rejoiced to find there was nothing but Himself.

Verse 3.14: From Idandra to Indra- Knowledge to Ignorance!

Hence He is known by Idandra. He- that sees. This Idandra has since been called Indra (short name-nick name). Even Deities(Devas) are fond of this name ” Indra”  

॥ इत्यैतरेयोपनिषदि प्रथमाध्याये तृतीयः खण्डः ॥

End of Chapter 3 of Part-1

Conclusion:

How did the Creation came up? Creator thought I shall indeed create the worlds. At the end of each Cycle, the totality of living beings at that point of time remains in the form of Vasana in the form of mental impressions. In the beginning of the next cycle, these Vasanas are projected by Isvara according to the quality of their past actions to seek out their fulfilment in the objective world to appear. Although the creation happens by the will of Brahman, Supreme Consciousness, but the resultant product is based on the nature of past actions by the created persons.

References:-

The Purusha Sukta of Rig Veda describes the creation of Universe.

The Purusha Sukta of Rig Veda paints picture of the ideal Primeval Being existing before any phenomenal existence. According to Sukta, that cosmic person is conceived with thousand heads, eyes and feet and filled the Universe and extended beyond it.

The Nasadiya Sukta of Rig Veda:

It is recommended to read the article ” Cosmology in Vedanta” by Swami Tathagatananda.

BIOCENTRISM:-

Interested readers may read the new subject Biocentrism. Name of the book is BIOCENTRISM : How life and Consciousness are the keys to understanding the True nature of the Universe: By Robert Lanza MD with BOB BERMAN. One excerpt from the book is this: “Some of the thrill that came with the announcement that the human genome had been mapped or the idea that we are close to understanding the first second of time after the Big Bang rests in our innate human desire for completeness and totality.                  Page-13 BIOCENTRISM

First Principle of Biocentrism: What we perceive as reality is a process that involves our consciousness.

Recommended readings:

  1. Back to the Truth: 5000 years of ADVAITA by Dennis Waite.**
  2. THE TEN PRINCIPAL UPANISHADS: Translated by Shree Purohit** Swami and W.B.Yeats
  3. Brahma Sutra Bhasya of Sankaracharya: Translated by Swami Gambhirananda.**
  4. Commentary of Aitareya Upanishad: By Swami Krishnananda.
  5. Aitareya Upanishad By Swami GuruBhaktananda.
  6. EIGHT UPANISADS -VOL-1 with commentary of Sankaracharya, Translated by SWAMI GAMBHIRANANDA.
  7. THE TAITTIRIYA UPANISHAD: SHIKSHAVALLI-ANANDAVALLI-BHRIGUVALLI with Sri Shankara’s Commentary By Sri Swami Satchidanandera Saraswati.
  8. A-U-M Awakening to Reality : By Dennis Waite***
  9. Panchadasi: Swami Vidyaranya: 
  10. Information available on internet.

It is my sincere request to the esteemed readers to share their opinion or queries if any. Suggestions to make the site attractive will be highly helpful for me. Readers are requested to read all the posts to have continuation of the topic from the beginning. My mail ID is : arun7663@gmail.com

 

My journey through Books: Part-1

Introduction:

This journey through books started on December-2016 and it was specific and you can say something predetermined in the perspective of Spirituality.

So far I have published about 27 Blogs on Vedanta (Upanishad). In this blog series, I am going to let you know, how I entered into the world of Vedanta.

Certain odd events in my life made me very low during the mid 2016. Indeed I was very happy with my professional life, due to my promotion to the post of Dy. General Manager (CNS) , Ahmedabad Airport in the month of June-2016 with independent charge of AERODROME OPERATION CONTROL CENTER (AOCC) ), AUTOMATIC SWITCHING SYSTEM (Important system for for flight movements), All types of communication system  for inter and intra Airports, along with additional responsibilities of Surveillance Systems (Primary Radar, Secondary Radar,  Automatic Dependant Surveillance system[ADS] and to impart Training. I was doing good with Jeal and enthusiasm with my team, yet I was highly unhappy which was purely personal. As I was committed to my job which was directly related to passenger safety and security, so I had to be on my toe for that. I had to care the systems 24/7. That was a tough situation but without much difficulties I was managing well as far as my responsibilities towards my organization( AIRPORTS AUTHORITY OF INDIA) was concerned.

At certain moment I started thinking like this ” Who will cry when I will die”. Within a day or two,  I found a book named ” Who will cry when you die : By Robin Sharma” in the Airport Book shop. I decided to buy that book anytime soon. But I missed the chance to buy that one from the Airport Book Shop.  I was so busy with my job that it was not possible to find even time to search the book in other stores. That time, I never thought of buying it online. I went to Bangalore to visit my daughter and son in law. I stayed for some time there. I searched the book in book stores like ” Cross World”. It was out of stock. My daughter suggested me buy it online from Amazon or flipkart. I did that and bought one from Amazon. Finally the book was in my hand. Finally books became my mentor and saved me from going into depression and get lost. 

  • The first book came in my mind was: Who will cry when you die : By Robin Sharma:

  • The Second book: The Monk Who sold his Ferrari: By Robin Sharma:

  • The Third book: The Power of your Subconscious Mind: By Joseph Murphy

Above mentioned three books changed my life to a new direction and thereby a new journey started in my life. These three books along with others worked as saviour in my life. These three books were the pioneer to build an interest in the field of Vedanta and Modern Science[ Quantum Physics and Quantum Biology]. I will share everything with you my dear readers. What magical events happened in my life, that I will share in the next part. In this part I have listed few books that initially helped me. I will write in details about the contents of the books in short.

After reading these three, I got the following books miraculously.

Next appeared in my life are the books shown above These books are like life saving drugs, even more than that. 

PART-A: List of the books I have gone through initially:

  1. Who will cry when you die : By Robin Sharma: 21-12-2016
  2. The Monk Who sold his Ferrari: By Robin Sharma: 21-12-2016
  3. The Power of your Subconscious Mind: By Joseph Murphy: 21-3-2017
  4. Subconscious Mind Power: How to use the Hidden Power of your Subconscious mind: By Thompson James: 24-10-2017
  5. Master your Mind, Master your Life:15 Mind set hacks That will unleash your full potential Today: By Magnus Steele:05-12-2017
  6. The Shift: Taking your life from your Ambition to Meaning: By Wayne W. Dyer: 08-01-2018
  7. Evolve your Brain: The Science of Changing your Mind: By Joe Dispenja: 31-12-2017
  8. I am The Mind: By Deep Trivedi: April:2017
  9. I AM: The Power of Discovering Who you Really are: By FALCO HOWARD: 15-6-2017
  10. THE BIOLOGY OF BELIEF: 10th Anniversary Edition: Unleashing the Power of Consciousness, Matter & Miracles: Lipton Bruce H.
  11. MINDSET : How Positive thinking will set you Free & Help you achieve massive success in your life. By Benjamin smith.
  12. How to Eliminate Negative Thoughts and Emotions. By beau Norton, the CEO & Founder of ” Perfectly at Peace”.
  13. How to Transform your life: A blissful journey : Geshe Kelsang Gyasto
  14. Raise your Vibration: 111 Practices to increase your Spiritual connection: By Kyle Gray.
  15. Raise your Vibration: By Sabrina Reber
  16. Death by Black Hole and other COSMIC QUANDARIES: By Neil De Grasse Tyson
  17. The power of Truth: by William George Jordan
  18. Back to the Truth: 500 years of ADVAITA
  19. The Secret of Infinite Intelligence: By Antar
  20. THE DIVINE MATRIX: Bridging Time, Space, Miracles and Belief. By GREGG BRADEN
  21. THE TEN PRINCIPAL UPANISHADS.****** Translated By: Shree Purohit Swami and W.B.YEATS.
  22. BLACK HOLES: The BBC Reith Lectures : Stephen Hawking.
  23. Taking the Quantum Leap: The new Physics for Non scientists: By Fred Alan Wolf
  24. You are the Universe by Deepak Chopra and Menas Kafatos.
  25. BIOCENTRISM : How life and Consciousness are the keys to understanding the True nature of the Universe: By Robert Lanza MD with BOB BERMAN
  26. The Self Aware Universe: How Consciousness creates the material world: By Amit Goswami, Ph.D.
  27. THE HOLOGRAPHIC UNIVERSE: By Michael Talbot.

In the next part I will write about the life changing events that happened after reading the books with full attention. It will be about Miracles that happened in my life:” THE POWER OF SUBCONSCIOUS MIND” Yes! That is it.

It is my sincere request to the esteemed readers to share their opinion or queries if any. Suggestions to make the site attractive will be highly helpful for me. Readers are requested to read all the posts to have continuation of the topic from the beginning. My mail ID is : arun7663@gmail.com

 

Essence of Taittiriya Upanishad- Brahmananda Valli-Part-1A

Disclaimer: 

  • The article is purely based on my studies, my thoughts, my concept, my beliefs, my experiences and self realization.
  • ☆I found some link between modern science(Quantum mechanics) and teachings of ancient sages as mentioned in Vedanta, regarding Universe, Supreme Consciousness or the Ultimate truth , the Ultimate Reality whatever we say.
  • ☆ The term “MAN” wherever used in this entire text is intended to consider as “HUMAN” irrespective of gender differences.
  • ♡ Having gone through the Vedanta/ancient texts, commentaries, translated by different writers, translators, publishers on the same topic, I have tried my best to share the subject matter as I understood and convinced too. My intention is to reach to you with the topic that I found very useful for human lives. I am not good in English literature. Please give your valuable suggestions for the improvement and valuable inputs to make the text beneficial for mankind.
  • ☆ The Spiritual context is purely based on ancient sacred texts. Sanskrit slokas are taken from books and websites. There may be little variation in the translations and commentaries. I have shared my own views and explanations according to my concept gathered in the subject through experience and intuitions. There is no discrimination against any religion, race, cast or creed.
  • Your feedback will be highly appreciated. I am sure that the subject matter is highly logical and does not bring any conflict. Hope you will enjoy reading. Regards. NAMASTE.

Please read with patience to get the essence !!!

Introduction: 

This Part is known as Brahmananda Valli, second chapter of Taittiriya Upanishad. It has nine Anuvaka ( 9 sections)

The Taittiriya Upanishad is a part of the Krishna Yajur Veda and placed in the seventh position in the list of Ten Principal Upanishad. The Upanishad has three Chapters. First chapter of the Upanishad is Sheeksha Valli which gives the essence of the Karma Kanda of the Veda in terms of disciplines, rituals, meditations, values, code of conduct for daily life has been published in two parts. Sheeksha Valli: part-1A and Sheeksha Valli: part-1B.  

Our true nature is covered by the sheaths~[SHEATHE means KOSHA in Sanskrit ] known as “panchakosha” The Five Sheaths.

In this section we will discuss in details 1) about the five sheaths that surround our true essence, our true nature as described in the traditional Advaita Vedanta which uses a model to illustrate the successive layers of identification which obscure our real nature. and 2) ” What is Bliss”(True Joy)

Key Words:
panchakosha, Five sheathes, Brahmananda Valli, “Satyam jnanam anantam Brahman” AnnaMaya Kosha, PranaMaya Kosha, ManoMaya Kosha, VijnaMaya Kosha, AnandaMaya Kosha

” Brahmananda Valli-  “ब्रह्मानन्दवल्ली” : The Bliss that is Brahman”

Peace Mantra

ॐ स॒ह ना॑ववतु । स॒ह नौ॑ भुनक्तु । स॒ह वी॒र्यं॑ करवावहै । ते॒ज॒स्विना॒वधी॑तमस्तु॒ मा वि॑द्विषा॒वहै᳚ । ॐ शान्तिः॒ शान्तिः॒ शान्तिः॑ ॥

Anuvaka 1-2: 

The opening sentence of Taittiriya Upanishad , in “Brahmananda Valli” is “Satyam jnanam anantam Brahman” which literarily means the knower of Brahman attains the Supreme.

From this very Self (Brahman), sprang space, from space the wind, from the wind 🌬️ the fire, from the fire 🔥, the water 💦, from the water the earth 🌎, from the earth the herbs, from the herbs food, from food man. Thus man indeed is made up of the sap of food. From food arise the creatures, which so ever live on earth. Through food do they live and to food they return. Of all elements, indeed food is the best. Therefore food is known as best medicine also. He who has no form assumed many forms; He who is infinite appeared finite; He who is everywhere assumed a place; He who is wisdom, caused ignorance; He who is real, caused unreality. It is HE ,who has become everything. It is HE who gives reality to all. Before the universe was created, Brahman existed as unmanifest.

Anuvaka-2-5: Five sheathes (“panchakosha“)

According to Taittiriya Upanishad, our true essence is covered by these sheathes in the same way that a scabbard encloses the blade of sword. Self is hidden behind the mask of the personality. The second chapter of Taittiriya Upanishad “BrahmanandaValli” describes five sheathes (“panchakosha“). Concept of whole of this Five Sheaths model is highly symbolic and metaphorical. Five sheaths are as follows:- 1) AnnaMaya Kosha 2) PranaMaya Kosha 3) ManoMaya Kosha 4) VijnaMaya Kosha 5) AnandaMaya Kosha

The First Layer:  “AnnaMaya Kosha” :

From food (food= anna) arise all the creatures, which live on earth, and through food alone do they live, and finally they return to the food in the end. The first layer, the grossest one with which we first identify ourselves as the body, is made up of food and known as AnnaMaya Kosha” (অন্নময়কোষ). The body takes birth, grows old, dies and decays back into the food from which it was produced. This has nothing to do with the real “Self”. This body alone is not the “Self”.

The Second layer: “PranaMaya Kosha” :

This is vital life force for which the body is animated and actions are performed. This layer is made of “Prana” the breathe which known as “PranaMaya Kosha”(প্রানময়কোষ). We are multi-layered being, composed of physical body, subtle body and causal body . The first mentioned sheath, the AnnaMaya Kosha is permeated by four Koshas. The next layer the Second layer is “PranaMaya Kosha”. The AnnaMaya Kosha is the effect of Prana. PranaMaya Kosha controls AnnaMaya Kosha. But this is not the real Self.

"Prana" is vital energy and invisible to us. It is like Electric Power ,which gives life to the machines and machines run, animates.  Same way this vital energy "Prana" animates us, the live bodies.  It runs the 1st layer the Physical body. This prana is external to further subtler energy which is Mind. The mind is so subtle and transparent, that  mind can reflect consciousness. 

Prana (Breath) is verily the life of beings and hence it is called the Universal life. It is matter of common knowledge that life becomes possible only so long as the vital energy keeps the different organs of the organism alive. ” Though this vital life force makes the body animated and actions are performed but this is not the Real Self. This Prana Maya Kosha separates life from death once the “Prana” leaves the body. This sheath is composed of five Pranas (prana, Udana, vyana, samana, apana). These pranas have their own importance to operate The Body perfectly. Through practice of Pranayama (pranayama is breathing exercise, part of Yoga as described in the ancient texts) , we can transcend to the next layer “ManoMaya Kosha”(মনোময়কোষ). But this is not the real Self.

The Third layer: – “ManoMaya Kosha”(মনোময়কোষ):

This Self is embodied in the previous one (Prana) which is the mental sheath consisting of the thinking mind.  This MIND (Manas” মন”) and the organs of perception is known as “ManoMaya Kosha”(মনোময়কোষ). This is the sheath which limits us and blocks us to go beyond. This Kosha is powerful, because bondage and liberation depends on the mind. It pervades the PranaMaya Kosha. Basically, this body is consisting of Mind through which we perceive the world via five agents (sense organs).Mind functions in three levels. 1. Conscious mind 2. Subconscious mind 3. Unconscious mind. All the above three minds are subsets of Universal mind. Human being is stuck in this sheath as always people are abducted by the mind (monkey mind). In the Patanjali yoga sutras 1.2 ” yoga is the stilling of modifications of mind’~” “yogas chitta Vritti nirodaha”. When the fluctuations of mind are stilled, our true nature is revealed.  We have then enough clarity to perceive the Self beyond the mind. Through pranayama and pratyahara (mental withdrawal of senses) we can pervade to the next layer. But this is not the real Self.

The Fourth layer:- VijnaMaya Kosha (বিজ্ঞানময় কোষ):

Beyond Mind there are higher levels of mind responsible for discriminations, recognizing the truth and the false, real or unreal. In silence it knows without needing to think. This is intellect (buddhi). This intellectual sheath is known as “VijnaMaya Kosha”.

VijnaMaya Kosha (~Buddhi) Sheath of WISDOM. This is also a part of subtle body. When subtle body is disciplined, the physical body also becomes very healthy and strong. The mind which is ruler of the subtle body gets flattened by worldly affections, attachments, desires etc. Through practice mind comes under control by this sheath. This self is embodied in the previous one that is ManoMaya Kosha. But this is not the real Self.

I AM (the Real Self) the witness of this sheath. Mind is mostly engaged with the first layer which is nothing but the body, the false identity with ego. It has a shape, size, name, fame everything.  Very much visible to Self, to inner Self, outer Self and to others of this samsara (সংসার). • The unwavering peace we seek is realized by experiencing the unlimited and eternal Peace that is our True Identity. Though obscured by ignorance, it exists within us, waiting to be revealed. This experience is enlightenment—Self-realization.{Experience to be gained with the help of 4th layer } • Self-realization can be attained by mastering the mind. Just as only a clean, undistorted mirror can reflect our face as it truly is, only a one-pointed and tranquil mind can part the veils of ignorance to reveal and reflect the Self. The effort to free the mind from the limitations of ignorance is a drama that has been repeated since time immemorial. But if the mind leads one towards the VijnaMaya Kosha by pervading itself, then what will happen?  In silence it knows without needing to think which is intellect (Buddhi~বুদ্ধি).  According to Vedanta, the study of scriptures helps in realization of truth, when one is equipped with necessary fourfold discipline:- 1. Discrimination between real (nitya নিত্য~ eternal) and unreal (anitya অনিত্য~transitory). 2. Renunciation of the unreal (Viraga~বৈরাগ্য) 3. Six fold qualities. 4. Longing for liberation (Moksha ~মোক্ষ প্রাপ্তি to escape from the cycle of births and deaths) The word “Self” is generally meant to “Atman” (soul). But the Sanskrit word is “Atman”, which cannot be translated.  This Atman is Deathless, Birthless, Eternal and Real for every individual.  It is the unchanging reality (sat ~সৎ) behind the changing body, sense organs, mind and ego. It is Spirit, which is pure Consciousness (চিত্) and is unaffected by time-space causality. It is infinite and it is ONE without the second. As the unchanging reality in the individual is known as Atman, same way the unchanging reality in the Universe is known as “BRAHMAN”. Vedanta says This BRAHMAN and ATMAN are one and the same. VijnaMaya Kosha consists of the intellect in conjunction with the five organs of knowledge (জ্ঞানেন্দ্রিয়).

The Fifth layer:-  “AnandaMaya Kosha” :-

This Self is embodied in the previous one. The self-consisting of Bliss and is filled by it. Here is the presence of most profound peace and silence when mind becomes no mind.  This is State of Bliss Let us recall the first sloka (1ST verse) of “Taittiriya Upanishad” second chapter which is known as “Brahmananda Valli”. Quoting the sentence again: —

“Satyam jnanam anantam Brahman” which means “The knower of “BRAHMAN” attains the Supreme”.  BRAHMAN is Truth, knowledge and Infinity, which is our own very Self, the Atman.  Brahman is not an object of knowledge.  It is always witnessing subject. (দ্রষ্টা~The Seer). In the second chapter of Taittiriya Upanishad, there is the definition of “Human JOY”. One unit of Human Joy. Will write that in my next blog very shortly. The Self is infinite. There is in fact no multiplicity or plurality in that ONE, Homogeneous Being, the Supreme Being and the Ultimate. Because of superimposition and our ignorance, we have forgotten our true nature.  It alone exists as the illuminator. This “Atman” the Real “Self” in its glorious existence, reveals its own Sat-Chit nature which is AnandaMaya. That is why this Sheath is referred to “AnandaMaya Kosha”. Actually, this Five Sheath model as mentioned in Taittiriya Upanishad is just an idea for understanding the different levels of the Self. The eternal nature of Self is Bliss only.

 Anuvaka-6: Who goes There- the Ignorant or the Knower?

Now the question arise in the mind of seeker ( ” atha atah anuprashnaah”):  Does the ignorant after living this world reach There or does the knower reach There? There means the AnandaMaya Kosha. The answer is : The Knower reach there. Knower reach Brahman. He who denies Brahman, denies Himself. He who affirms it, affirms Himself.  

Brahman is the very cause of creation:

Brahman thought: I would be many; I will procreate. And in the Heat of His meditation created everything; creating everything He entered into everything; entering into everything He took shape yet remained shapeless; took limits yet remained limitless; made His home, yet remained homeless; created knowledge and ignorance; reality, unreality; became everything; therefore everything is reality. In the beginning there was no creation; then creation came. He created Himself out of Himself. Hence He is called Self-Creator. 

Conclusion:

The Five sheaths model: Pancha Kosha Tatwa has been used to simplify the Advaita Vedanta to reach the Goal The Self Realization.

At the end we find Brahman which Rishi is driving us to reach through the process of negation. By negating the koshas from AnnaMaya to AnandaMaya, we enter into limitless realm of Brahman, the ultimate Goal. As each Kosha is Transcended we enter into subtler than the previous one. Finally we get back to beginning of Taittiriya Upanishad book II, sloka 1The knower of Brahman reaches the Supreme”.

According to Vedanta, Brahman is the Truth, the Knowledge and the endless Being. He who knows what is hidden in the cave in the highest heaven, realizes all his desires along with the Omniscient Brahman.

Recommended readings:

  1. Back to the Truth: 5000 years of ADVAITA by Dennis Waite.**
  2. THE TEN PRINCIPAL UPANISHADS: Translated by Shree Purohit** Swami and W.B.Yeats
  3. Brahma Sutra Bhasya of Sankaracharya: Translated by Swami Gambhirananda.**
  4. Commentary of Taittiriya Upanishad: By Swami Krishnananda.
  5. Taittiriya Upanishad By Swami GuruBhaktananda.
  6. EIGHT UPANISADS -VOL-1 with commentary of Sankaracharya, Translated by SWAMI GAMBHIRANANDA.
  7. THE TAITTIRIYA UPANISHAD: SHIKSHAVALLI-ANANDAVALLI-BHRIGUVALLI with Sri Shankara’s Commentary By Sri Swami Satchidanandera Saraswati.
  8. A-U-M Awakening to Reality : By Dennis Waite***
  9. Information available on internet.

It is my sincere request to the esteemed readers to share their opinion or queries if any. Suggestions to make the site attractive will be highly helpful for me. Readers are requested to read all the posts to have continuation of the topic from the beginning. My mail ID is : arun7663@gmail.com

Essence of Taittiriya Upanishad – Sheeksha Valli : Part-1A

GURUKUL

Disclaimer:

  • The article is purely based on my studies, my thoughts, my concept, my beliefs, my experiences and self realization.
  • ☆I found some link between modern science(Quantum mechanics) and teachings of ancient sages as mentioned in Vedanta, regarding Universe, Supreme Consciousness or the Ultimate truth , the Ultimate Reality whatever we say.
  • ☆ The term “MAN” wherever used in this entire text is intended to consider as “HUMAN” irrespective of gender differences.
  • ♡ Having gone through the Vedanta/ancient texts, commentaries, translated by different writers, translators, publishers on the same topic, I have tried my best to share the subject matter as I understood and convinced too. My intention is to reach to you with the topic that I found very useful for human lives. I am not good in English literature. Please give your valuable suggestions for the improvement and valuable inputs to make the text beneficial for mankind.
  • ☆ The Spiritual context is purely based on ancient sacred texts. Sanskrit slokas are taken from books and websites. There may be little variation in the translations and commentaries. I have shared my own views and explanations according to my concept gathered in the subject through experience and intuitions. There is no discrimination against any religion, race, cast or creed.
  • Your feedback will be highly appreciated. I am sure that the subject matter is highly logical and does not bring any conflict. Hope you will enjoy reading. Regards. NAMASTE.

Introduction:

The Taittiriya Upanishad is a part of the Krishna Yajur Veda and placed in the seventh position in the list of Ten Principal Upanishad. The Upanishad has three Chapters. First chapter of the Upanishad is Sheeksha Valli which gives the essence of the Karma Kanda of the Veda in terms of disciplines, rituals, meditations, values, code of conduct for daily life. Consists of 12 sections, of which the first and the last contain prayers to the deities for the removing of obstacles’ while pursuing spiritual wisdom. In this blog we will discuss Sheeksha Valli. This Upanishad deals with the rituals part(Karma kanda~ Lower Knowledge) and Higher Knowledge part(Gyan Kanda~ Brahma Vidya). Hence it is considered to be a complete Upanishad. In this part we will learn Karma Kanda, the Rituals part.

Sheeksha Valli: Science of Vedic Chanting:

शीक्षावल्ली:

Section-1: Peace Invocation from The Yajur Veda:

May the Sun bless us! May the Night bless us! May the Eye bless us! May Might bless us! May speech bless us! May the All-prevalent bless us! Welcome Spirit! Welcome Life, Face of Spirit! Truth shall be on my lips and truth in my thoughts. May Truth protect me; protect my teacher; protect us both. May peace and peace and peace be everywhere.

Section-2: Sheeksha –Vedic Phonetics

We explain what constitutes pronunciation. It comprises letters, accent, quantity, articulation, rhythm and lastly sequence of letters.

Section-3:Third Section : Significance of Combinations

Teaches how to meditate on combination of words. Mere recitation of the Text may focus the mind only on letters. But, through meditation pupil will understand the symbolic significance which will make the mind pure and one pointed.

Prayer by Teacher and Student

May we both attain Fame together. May we both obtain Spiritual pre-eminence.(स॒ह नौ॒ यशः । स॒ह नौ ब्र॑ह्मव॒र्चसम् ।)

Now therefore Meditation (Upasana) on Sandhees:

This chapter deals with the Universe, Light(Luminosity), Vidya(Knowledge of Upanishad), progeny (maintaining family line) , language. (अधिलोकमधिज्यौतिषमधिविद्यमधिप्रज॑मध्या॒त्मम् ।) Adhilokam, Adhijyotisham, Adhividyam, Adhiprajam, Adhyaatmam. These are Maha-Samhitas**, the ” Great Word Junctions (Sandhees)” ***Samhita means conjunction or union.

Meditation-1 :What is this Universe?

Earth below, Heaven above, air between, wind joining them.

Meditation-2 :What is Light(Luminosity)?

Fire on one side, Sun on the other side, water between, lightning joining them.

Meditation-3 :What is Vidya( Knowledge of Upanishad)?

The Teacher on one side, pupil on the other side, knowledge between, discourse joining them.

Meditation-4 :What is progeny (maintaining family line)?

Mother on one side, father on other side, child between, procreation joining them.

Meditation-5 :What is language?

The lower jaw on one side, the upper jaw on the other side, words between, tongue joining them.

Summary of Third Section:

Upon these, anyone who meditates as explained, shall have children, cattle**(wealth), food, knowledge and Heavens. [** In the ancient time cattle was treated as wealth.]

Section-4: Teacher’s Prayer for wisdom and fortune:

Fourth section: For the attainment of knowledge of Brahman, one needs good memory, good health, adequate food and clothing which are basic needs. This section describes the process for attainment.

OM! , Whose form is manifold and Essence of Vedas, revealed in Vedas, revealed in the world, sprung from immortality! Lord, fill me with intelligence, that I may grasp immortality!

Make my body strong, my tongue sweet, my ears keen. You are the Spirit’s armor, hidden by sensuality. Keep me from forgetting.

May spiritual riches come of their own will. May they increase, then send me Spirit itself. May I never lack clothes. cows, food, drink, that I may serve you the better. May pupils come, may pupils gather round, may pupils listen, that I may serve you the better.

May they in peace, control mind and sense, that they may serve you the better. may I become famous, may I become richer than the richest, that I may serve you the better.

Lord! may I enter into you, may you enter into me! May I merge into your thousands of shapes, for my purification.

As water flows downward, as months mingle with the year, Guardian! may pupils come from everywhere, that I may serve you the better. You are the Fold. Take me, Enlighten me.

Summary of the Fourth Section:

This is a need for the teacher to have a sufficient number of students, not only to expand teaching venture, but also to spread the Vedic culture to the world. This Upanishad teaches about Ethical and Moral life with Self control (BrahmaCharya) without which a person can not progress towards Enlightenment.

&& Original Sanskrit sloka is available in the following link: Sanskrit Document

Conclusion:

The first chapter of the Taittiriya Upanishad has 12 sections comprising of different meditation(UPASANA) and ethical rules which a disciple should practice in order to purify his or her mind. Meditation is required to focus mind towards the cosmic power or the Supreme Being. This chapter deals with discipline of Sheeksha (academics) which comprises the study of phonetics and pronunciation. It deals with sound, pitch, quantity, force, modulation and combination. Ethical and Moral life with Self control (BrahmaCharya) is very important, without which a person as well as society can not progress towards Enlightenment.

Recommended readings:

  1. Back to the Truth: 5000 years of ADVAITA by Dennis Waite.**
  2. THE TEN PRINCIPAL UPANISHADS: Translated by Shree Purohit** Swami and W.B.Yeats
  3. Brahma Sutra Bhasya of Sankaracharya: Translated by Swami Gambhirananda.**
  4. Commentary of Taittiriya Upanishad: By Swami Krishnananda.
  5. Taittiriya Upanishad By Swami GuruBhaktananda.
  6. EIGHT UPANISADS -VOL-1 with commentary of Sankaracharya, Translated by SWAMI GAMBHIRANANDA.
  7. THE TAITTIRIYA UPANISHAD: SHIKSHAVALLI-ANANDAVALLI-BHRIGUVALLI with Sri Shankara’s Commentary By Sri Swami Satchidanandera Saraswati.
  8. A-U-M Awakening to Reality : By Dennis Waite***
  9. Information available on internet.

It is my sincere request to the esteemed readers to share their opinion or queries if any. Suggestions to make the site attractive will be highly helpful for me. Readers are requested to read all the posts to have continuation of the topic from the beginning. My mail ID is : arun7663@gmail.com

MaNDukya Upanishad- The Nature of OM: – Part-1

Introduction:

The Mandukya Upanishad, belongs to Atharva Veda. It is the shortest of all the Upanishads with 12 verses and placed in the 6th position in the list of Ten Principal Upanishads. This Upanishad teaches the significance of the sacred syllable ~AUM (OM) and it correlates with four states of Consciousness. It describes the Turiya state, the state of transcendental Consciousness in which all the divisions and Duality disappears. The SELF alone exists in its pure state. Upon meditating on the Mystic Syllable , OM , mind can be trained to achieve freedom gradually to attain ultimate Reality.

माण्डूक्योपनिषत्

॥ अथ माण्डूक्योपनिषत् ॥

ॐ भद्रं कर्णेभिः श‍ृणुयाम देवा
भद्रं पश्येमाक्षभिर्यजत्राः ।
स्थिरैरङ्गैस्तुष्तुवाꣳसस्तनूभिर्व्यशेम देवहितं यदायुः ॥

स्वस्ति न इन्द्रो वृद्धश्रवाः
      स्वस्ति नः पूषा विश्ववेदाः ।
स्वस्ति नस्तार्क्ष्यो अरिष्टनेमिः
      स्वस्ति नो बृहस्पतिर्दधातु ॥

ॐ शान्तिः शान्तिः शान्तिः ॥

Om! Shining Ones! May our ears hear the good. May our eyes see the good. May we serve HIM with the whole strength of our body. May we, all our life, carry out HIS will. Peace, peace and peace be everywhere.

Everything is OM

 ॐ इत्येतदक्षरमिदꣳ सर्वं तस्योपव्याख्यानं
भूतं भवद् भविष्यदिति सर्वमोङ्कार एव
यच्चान्यत् त्रिकालातीतं तदप्योङ्कार एव  ॥ १॥
First Mantra: Hari OM! OM ityetadakSharamidaM sarvam tasyopavyAkhyAnaM bhutaM bhavadH bhaviShyaditi sarvamoMkAra eva. yachchaanyatH trikAlAtitaM tadapyoMkaAra eva.(1) 

OM + ity + etad + akSharam => means This syllable is OM.                idaM sarvam => means This (OM) is all. tasya + upavyAkhyAnaM =>  Explanation begins with this Omkar.  bhutaM ( past) bhavadH ( present) bhaviShyat (future)  sarvam oMkAra eva. => Past , present future; everything is OM. yachchaanyatH trikAlA (three time periods) titaM tadapy + oMkaAra eva. ( even that too is OM which transcends three division of time).

Mantra 1. Hari OM! The Word OM is Imperishable. All this it’s manifestation. Past , present future; everything is OM. Whatever transcends the three divisions of time , that too is OM.

सर्वं ह्येतद् ब्रह्मायमात्मा ब्रह्म सोऽयमात्मा चतुष्पात् ॥ २॥
Second MantrasarvaM hyetad brahmAyamAtmA brahma so ayamAtma chatuShpAt (2) 

Mantra 2: All this is verily Brahman. (ब्रह्मायमात्मा ब्रह्म) ” Ayam atma Brahma” There is nothing that is not Brahman. The Personal Self is the impersonal Brahman. (सोऽयमात्मा चतुष्पात् ) It has four aspects (states), also known as four quarters.

” Ayam atma Brahma” is one of the four mahaVakyas from four Vedas. It signifies the realization that who I am really is that same Brahman. The word “chatuShpad” (चतुष्पात् )refers to the four aspects of Consciousness. Three states of Consciousness: 1) Waking[GROSS], 2) Dreaming [SUBTLE] and 3) Deep Sleep [CAUSAL]. Fourth is the Reality which is the Background of all states. Details to be known from the following verses.

The first pada: Waking state Consciousness.

जागरितस्थानो बहिष्प्रज्ञः सप्ताङ्ग एकोनविंशतिमुखः
स्थूलभुग्वैश्वानरः प्रथमः पादः ॥ ३॥
Third Mantra : jAgaritasthAno bahiShpraj~naH saptA~Nga ekonaviMshatimukhaH sthUlabhugvaishvAnaraH prathamaH pAdaH (3)

Mantra 3: First comes the material condition-common to all. Perception turned outward. Seven limbs*( सप्ताङ्ग = 7 limbs), Nineteen mouths**( एकोनविंशतिमुखः = 19 mouths), wherein the Self enjoys course matter. This is known as waking condition. Waking State~ jAgrat.  The individual is known here as vaishvAnara (Virat) who is in the waking state of consciousness(the gross world). Bahih PrajNa: (बहिष्प्रज्ञः) means the outward tendencies which is predominant in this state. The Seven Limbs: the macrocosm and microcosm are paired up and through 19 mouths, one enjoys the gross objects( स्थूलभुग्वैश्वानरः ) of this world.

*Seven limbs are: Heavens(he ad), Sun(eye) air(breath), fire(heart), water(belly), earth(feet) and space(body).

**Nineteen mouths are: 1) Five organs of senses- Hearing, Touching, Seeing, Tasting and Smelling. 2) Five organs of action- Speaking, Handling, Walking, Generating and Excreting. 3) Five living fires- Prana, Apana, Samana,Vayana, and Udana. 4) Four states of mind:  Discursive mind (Manas), Discriminative mind(Buddhi), Mind-Material(Chitta) and Personality(Ahangkara).  { 3×5+4 = 19}

The Second Pada – Dream state Consciousness.

स्वप्नस्थानोऽन्तःप्रज्ञः सप्ताङ्ग एकोनविंशतिमुखः
प्रविविक्तभुक्तैजसो द्वितीयः पादः ॥ ४॥
Fourth Mantra: svapnasthAno.antaHpraj~naH saptA~Nga
ekonaviMshatiMukhaHpraviviktabhuk taijaso dvitIyaH pAdaH (4)

Mantra 4: Dream State:  Taijasa~  the dreamer creates dream world out of his or her own mind. In the dream state, entire dream world seems to be as real as is experienced in waking condition, whatever be the time duration of the dream.
In dream, the person experience the subtle world  (pain or pleasure,  joy or fear) through dream sense organs, not the physical sense organs. In dream, mind reflects the impression left by waking state like a piece of canvas with the pictures painted on it. Dream state experience that as if it were like waking. Like in waking state, here the sphere of activity is inward. It enjoys the subtle objects (प्रविविक्तभुक्तैजसो ) of the mental world. Seven limbs and nineteen mouths also work here but INWARD. Here Anta prajNa is predominant. 

 

According to BRRihadAraNyaka Upanishad IV.3,9:
When he dreams, he takes away a little of the impression of this all embracing world (the waking state), himself puts the body aside and himself creates a dream body in it’s place, revealing his own lustre by his own light and dreams. In this state, the man himself becomes the light.

The Third Pada -Deep Sleep Consciousness      (Vyashti)

यत्र सुप्तो न कञ्चन कामं कामयते न कञ्चन स्वप्नं
पश्यति तत् सुषुप्तम् । सुषुप्तस्थान एकीभूतः प्रज्ञानघन
एवानन्दमयो ह्यानन्दभुक् चेतोमुखः प्राज्ञस्तृतीयः पादः ॥ ५॥
Fifth Mantra: yatro supto na ka~nchana kAmaM kAmayate na ka~nchana svapnaMpashyati tat suShuptam. suSuptasthAna ekibhUtaH praj~nAnaghana evAnandamayo hyAnandabhukchetomukhaH prAj~nastRRitIyaH pAdaH. (5)

Mantra 5:The Deep Sleep state (SuShupta~SU=Sundar/excellent +sUpta=Sleep) ~ prajNa and antaryAmin.
In this state, waking world and dreaming world temporarily ceases. We exist here in non dual state. Most refreshing state. A state of Bliss(with ignorance). In the waking and dreaming state, we are diverted from this state of bliss, though knowledge of our true nature is absent here. All the perceived limitations are removed in this temporary state but ready to spring forth as soon as we move to waking world.

In that sleep state, not for anything desirable does one have any desire.(यत्र सुप्तो न कञ्चन कामं कामयते).  Not the slightest trace of dream does it see in that state of deep sleep.(न कञ्चन स्वप्नं पश्यति तत् सुषुप्तम् ). In the sphere of deep sleep, there is just one ” homogenous mass of consciousness” alone (सुषुप्तस्थान एकीभूतः प्रज्ञानघन).  Because of his union with the Self and his unbroken knowledge of it, he is filled with joy, he knows his joy, his mind is illuminated (एवानन्दमयो ह्यानन्दभुक् चेतोमुखः). Such is the called third quarter called prajNa (चेतोमुखः प्राज्ञस्तृतीयः पादः).

The Ishwara State of Consciousness.

एष सर्वेश्वरः एष सर्वज्ञ एषोऽन्तर्याम्येष योनिः सर्वस्य
प्रभवाप्ययौ हि भूतानाम् ॥ ६॥
Sixth Mantra: eSha sarveshvaraH eSha sarvaj~na eSho.antaryAmyeSha yoniH sarvasyaprabhavApyau hi bhUtAnAm. (6)

Mantra 6: The Self is Lord of all. He is inner controller and inhabitant of the hearts of all. He is Omniscient, the source of all; creator and dissolver of  all beings. there is nothing He does not know.

The fruit of the process of “Negation”:

नान्तःप्रज्ञं न बहिष्प्रज्ञं नोभयतःप्रज्ञं न प्रज्ञानघनं
न प्रज्ञं नाप्रज्ञम् । अदृष्टमव्यवहार्यमग्राह्यमलक्षणं
अचिन्त्यमव्यपदेश्यमेकात्मप्रत्ययसारं प्रपञ्चोपशमं
शान्तं शिवमद्वैतं चतुर्थं मन्यन्ते स आत्मा स विज्ञेयः ॥  ७॥
Seventh Mantra: nAntaHpraj~naM na bahiShpraj~naM  nobhayataHpraj~nam  napraj~nAnaghanaM  na praj~nam nApraj~nam.
adRRiShTamavyavahAryamagrAhyamalakShaNamachintyamavyap adeshyamekAtmapratyayasAraM manyante sa AtmA sa vij~neyaH.(7)

 

Mantra 7: Negation Phase: He is not knowable by perception, turned inward or outward, nor by both combined. He is neither that which is known, nor that which is not known, nor is He the sum of all that might be known. He can not be seen, grasped, bargained with. He is undefinable, unthinkable, indescribable.

nAntaHpraj~naM = not the knower of the internal (subtle)

na bahiShpraj~naM = not the knower of the external (gross)

na bahiShpraj~naM = not the knower of both

napraj~nAnaghanaM = not the knower of deep sleep

na praj~nam = nor consciousness

nApraj~naM = nor unconsciousness.

Assertion Phase: The only proof of His existence is union with Him. The world disappears in Him. He is the peaceful, the good, the ONE without a second. This is the fourth condition of the Self- The most worthy of all. This is the Atman

This 7th mantra is most important among the Vedic scriptures. This mantra describes the nature of Absolute reality~ Brahman. 

Conclusion:

According to the Mandukya Upanishad, four conditions of  The Self (“Atman”) can be described as below :-
1) Waking condition: Perception turned outward.
2) Mental condition : Perception turned inward, known as dreaming condition. Self enjoys subtle
matter.
3)Deep sleep condition: No desire, no dream. This is intellectual condition. Because of union with Self
and his unbroken knowledge, one feels joy. He knows joy. His mind is illuminated.
ॐ~AUM
A~ Waking
U~ Dreaming
M~ Deep Sleep
The Fourth condition of the Self  can be achieved through deep meditation that corresponds to “OM” as ONE. Self is Whole and beyond bargain. The world disappears in HIM. SELF is one without a second. This condition is known as #Turiya#

Recommended readings:

  1. Back to the Truth: 5000 years of ADVAITA by Dennis Waite.**
  2. THE TEN PRINCIPAL UPANISHADS: Translated by Shree Purohit** Swami and W.B.Yeats
  3. Brahma Sutra Bhasya of Sankaracharya: Translated by Swami Gambhirananda.**
  4. Commentary of Mandukya Upanishad: By Swami Krishnananda.
  5. MANDUKYA Upanishad By Swami GuruBhaktananda.
  6. EIGHT UPANISADS -VOL-1 with commentary of Sankaracharya, Translated by SWAMI GAMBHIRANANDA.
  7. THE TAITTIRIYA UPANISHAD: SHIKSHAVALLI-ANANDAVALLI-BHRIGUVALLI with Sri Shankara’s Commentary By Sri Swami Satchidanandera Saraswati.
  8. A-U-M Awakening to Reality : By Dennis Waite***
  9. Information available on internet.

             It is my sincere request to the esteemed readers to share their opinion or queries if any. Suggestions to make the site attractive will be highly helpful for me. Readers are requested to read all the posts to have continuation of the topic from the beginning. My mail ID is :   arun7663@gmail.com 

Essence of MUNDAKA Upanishad: Part-2-A

Disclaimer:

  • The article is purely based on my studies, my thoughts, my concept, my beliefs, my experiences and self realization.
  • ☆I found some link between modern science(Quantum mechanics) and teachings of ancient sages as mentioned in Vedanta, regarding Universe, Supreme Consciousness or the Ultimate truth , the Ultimate Reality whatever we say.
  • ☆ The term “MAN” wherever used in this entire text is intended to consider as “HUMAN” irrespective of gender differences.
  • ♡ Having gone through the Vedanta/ancient texts, commentaries, translated by different writers, translators, publishers on the same topic, I have tried my best to share the subject matter as I understood and convinced too. My intention is to reach to you with the topic that I found very useful for human lives. I am not good in English literature. Please give your valuable suggestions for the improvement and valuable inputs to make the text beneficial for mankind.
  • ☆ The Spiritual context is purely based on ancient sacred texts. Sanskrit slokas are taken from books and websites. There may be little variation in the translations and commentaries. I have shared my own views and explanations according to my concept gathered in the subject through experience and intuitions. There is no discrimination against any religion, race, cast or creed.
  • Your feedback will be highly appreciated. I am sure that the subject matter is highly logical and does not bring any conflict. Hope you will enjoy reading. Regards. NAMASTE.

Introduction:

Higher Knowledge: Para Vidya: To be discussed in this Khanda:

The Vedas clearly Speak of two distinct fields of Knowledge: i) The Lower ( Apara Vidya ) and ii) The Higher ( Para Vidya ). In the first Mundaka(Khanda-1 & Khanda-2), we have seen that discussion on the Apara Vidya begins with the Karma Kanda. Those who follow the Karma Kanda Rituals (Agnihotra) are desirous of obtaining pleasures through actions. But this is not our goal. Sage Angria said to Sage Saunaka : ” The Sages studied the Rituals described in the Vedas, went beyond them to the Truth. You may find it better to stay with them; if you seek the reward of your actions, stay with them”

According to First Mundaka, Agnihotra ( fire sacrifice) is considered to be null and void if even one of the eight given conditions is not full filled.

Also it is said that better than Karma Kanda is Upasana Kanda which is the middle path and it prepares for the Gyan Kanda which we will study in the next part, The Second Mundaka, second Khanda and The Third Mundaka. There the spiritual teaching will be taken up in greater depth.

॥ मुण्डकोपनिषत् ॥

Peace Mantra:

ॐ भद्रं कर्णेभिः श्रुणुयाम देवा भद्रं पश्येमाक्षभिर्यजत्राः ।     स्थिरैरङ्गैस्तुष्टुवाꣳसस्तनूभिर्व्यशेम देवहितं यदायुः । 
स्वस्ति न इन्द्रो वृद्धश्रवाः स्वस्ति नः पूषा विश्ववेदाः । 
स्वस्ति नस्तार्क्ष्यो अरिष्टनेमिः स्वस्ति नो बृहस्पतिर्दधातु। 

॥ ॐ शान्तिः शान्तिः शान्तिः ॥

॥ ॐ ब्रह्मणे नमः ॥

॥ द्वितीय मुण्डके प्रथमः खण्डः ॥

Thus Begins the First Section of the Second Canto

Sparks from the Flaming FIRE :

तदेतत् सत्यं
यथा सुदीप्तात् पावकाद्विस्फुलिङ्गाः
      सहस्रशः प्रभवन्ते सरूपाः ।
तथाऽक्षराद्विविधाः सोम्य भावाः
      प्रजायन्ते तत्र चैवापि यन्ति ॥ १॥

दिव्यो ह्यमूर्तः पुरुषः स बाह्याभ्यन्तरो ह्यजः ।
अप्राणो ह्यमनाः शुभ्रो ह्यक्षरात् परतः परः ॥ २॥

Spark of the Flaming Fire

2.1.1 तदेतत् सत्यं = Know this Truth from the higher standpoint:

The fire sparks , though of one nature with the fire, leap from it; uncounted beings leap from the Everlasting, but these, my son, merge into it again.

2.1.2 Absolute Nature of Brahman:

The Divine is Shapeless (दिव्यो ह्यमूर्तः ~ Divine formless), Birthless, (ह्यजः ~ ajah), Breathless, Mindless,(अप्राणो ह्यमनाः) above everything, (बाह्याभ्यन्तरो) Outside everything, inside everything. ( शुभ्रो ) Absolutely Pure, verily even from the Indestructible (Causal), higher than Highest means (ह्यक्षरात् परतः परः) transcending even the transcendent Ishwara” means beyond the Causal state.

2.1.3 :Brahman as “Hiranyagarbha” –the Subtle Macrocosm:

 एतस्माज्जायते प्राणो मनः सर्वेन्द्रियाणि च । 
खं वायुर्ज्योतिरापः पृथिवी विश्वस्य धारिणी ॥ ३॥ 

From Him (Brahman) are born the Prana, the Mind, and all the sense organs, the elements, sky, wind, fire, water, and earth which support all creation.

According to Bhasya, the creation of the Subtle Body at Samasthi or microcosmic level is emphasized here. Aim is to show that Prana, mind and all other elements can not co-exist with Brahman. From Brahman, in association with Maya, arises Ishwara, the Creator. From Ishwara, arises the five subtle elements known as Tanmatras. From Tanmatras arise the mind and the pranas, from their Sattvic and Rajasic portions respectively.

2.1.4: Brahman as Virat- the Gross Macrocosmic.

अग्नीर्मूर्धा चक्षुषी चन्द्रसूर्यौ
दिशः श्रोत्रे वाग् विवृताश्च वेदाः ।
वायुः प्राणो हृदयं विश्वमस्य पद्भ्यां
पृथिवी ह्येष सर्वभूतान्तरात्मा ॥ ४॥

HE is the inmost Self of all. Fire His head; Sun and moon, His eyes; the four quarters, His ears; The Vedas when uttered are His voice; Wind, His Breath; The Universe, His Heart; Earth, His Feet. He is indeed the inner Self of all beings. This is the macrocosmic picture of Virat that is Total Gross Universe.

2.1.5: The ” Panchagni” – The Five Fires in the Cosmos:

तस्मादग्निः समिधो यस्य सूर्यः 
    सोमात् पर्जन्य ओषधयः पृथिव्याम् । 
पुमान् रेतः सिञ्चति योषितायां 
    बह्वीः प्रजाः पुरुषात् सम्प्रसूताः ॥ ५॥

Fire is from Him, its fuel Sun, moon from Sun, rain from moon, food from rain, man from food, seed from man; thus all descends from Purusha( Supreme).

From HIM are produced the 1st Fire, whose fuel is SUN. From the MOON comes the Rain Clouds (2nd Fire), from Clouds, the Herbs(3rd Fire) on Earth. From Herbs comes Man(the 4th Fire). His semen is Shed into the Woman (the 5th Fire). In this sequential process , Many living beings from the PURUSHA are produced. This is the “Cycle of Five Fires.” “The Panchagni- Five Cosmic Fires.”

2.1.6: Origin of Karma Kanda Rituals:

तस्मादृचः साम यजूंषि दीक्षा
यज्ञाश्च सर्वे क्रतवो दक्षिणाश्च ।
संवत्सरश्च यजमानश्च लोकाः
सोमो यत्र पवते यत्र सूर्यः ॥ ६॥

From Him come the Hymns of the Rig & Sama Vedas and the Sacrificial formula of the Yajur Veda, used in the preliminary rites. Then come the sacrifice, the sacrificial post, the sacrificial gifts etc, the time of sacrifice, the sponsor of the sacrifice , and the worlds (to be gained by the sacrifice); purified by the Lunar and Solar paths.

2.1.7: Origin of Upasana Kanda Rituals

तस्माच्च देवा बहुधा सम्प्रसूताः 
साध्या मनुष्याः पशवो वयांसि ।
 प्राणापानौ व्रीहियवौ तपश्च 
श्रद्धा सत्यं ब्रह्मचर्यं विधिश्च ॥ ७॥

From Him also Gods of various hierarchies are born. There are the celestials, the men, the animals and the birds. There are the in-breath and out-breath, the corn and barley, and austerity(तपश्च ); there are faith (devotion), truthfulness, sexual abstinence, and all the values of life (श्रद्धा सत्यं ब्रह्मचर्यं विधिश्च ).

2.1.8: “The Secret of Groups of Seven”

सप्त प्राणाः प्रभवन्ति तस्मात्
सप्तार्चिषः समिधः सप्त होमाः ।
सप्त इमे लोका येषु चरन्ति प्राणा
गुहाशया निहिताः सप्त सप्त ॥ ८॥

The Seven Pranas are born from HIM alone. The Seven flames [The Seven Tongues of Fire explained in First Mundaka, 2nd Khanda, Mantra no: 4], the Seven fold fuel, the Seven fold oblations; as also the Seven ” nodal points” or Chakras, where the Pranas are seated (distribution in the Body) in the “cave of the heart” (of all beings) lie all these in groups of Sevens.

2.1.9: Our Physical World:

अतः समुद्रा गिरयश्च सर्वेऽस्मात् 
स्यन्दन्ते सिन्धवः सर्वरूपाः । 
अतश्च सर्वा ओषधयो रसश्च 
येनैष भूतैस्तिष्ठते ह्यन्तरात्मा ॥ ९॥

From HIM arise oceans, rivers, mountains, herbs and their properties. And in the middle of the elements is the innermost Self.

2.1.10: Brahman and Universe is ONE.

पुरुष एवेदं विश्वं कर्म तपो ब्रह्म परामृतम् ।
एतद्यो वेद निहितं गुहायां
सोऽविद्याग्रन्थिं विकिरतीह सोम्य ॥ १०॥

The Purusha alone is this entire Universe– the sacrificial works and austerities. He is The Supreme Consciousness. This highest and immortal Brahman. He who knows this as seated in the cavity of the heart, unties the knot of ignorance even here in this very life, O good-looking son.

॥ इति मुण्डकोपनिषदि द्वितीयमुण्डके प्रथमः खण्डः ॥

Conclusion:

This Universe, including all subjects and all objects, is only a condition supported by the Supreme Consciousness, on the basis of which appearances are experienced by the cognizing individual and without which the Universe has no Reality. In fact, what is real in the Universe is nothing more and nothing less than the Existence-Consciousness-Bliss( Sat-Chit-Ananda). The names and the forms are not existent substances. When the Purusha is known, all is known. In fact there is no such thing as all, except this One Purusha. The Knowledge of the Purusha, therefore, means the absence of Duality which is the same as the destruction of Ignorance and attainment of Immortality and Absoluteness.

Recommended readings:

  1. Back to the Truth: 5000 years of ADVAITA by Dennis Waite.**
  2. THE TEN PRINCIPAL UPANISHADS: Translated by Shree Purohit** Swami and W.B.Yeats
  3. Brahma Sutra Bhasya of Sankaracharya: Translated by Swami Gambhirananda.**
  4. Commentary of MundakaUpanishad: By Swami Krishnananda.
  5. MUNDAKA Upanishad By Swami GuruBhaktananda.
  6. EIGHT UPANISADS -VOL-1 with commentary of Sankaracharya, Translated by SWAMI GAMBHIRANANDA.
  7. THE TAITTIRIYA UPANISHAD: SHIKSHAVALLI-ANANDAVALLI-BHRIGUVALLI with Sri Shankara’s Commentary By Sri Swami Satchidanandera Saraswati.
  8. Information available on internet.

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