In the House of Death: Story of a Boy-Nachiketas: Part-2

Introduction: Death is a Teacher:

Please read the first part of this story: The link is here: In the House of Death: Story of a Boy-Nachiketas: Part-1

This is the second part of the legendary story of a little boy Nachiketa, barely ten years old, son of Sage Vajasravasa , who meets Yama (The Death God in Hindu philosophy). Through conversation, Yama reveals Supreme Knowledge to Nachiketa, the knowledge of the nature of Self (Atman) and the path to gain Wisdom, for Moksha (liberation from the cycle of birth and death).

Text is lengthy, since all the dialogs are covered to get the Essence of Katha Upanishad. Readers are requested to read with patience. My efforts will be successful, if you like the content.

Yama: Lord of Death!  In short, I address here as Death!

Death said: ” This question has been discussed by the gods, it is deep and difficult. Choose another gift, Nachiketa! Do not be hard. Do not be hard. Do not compel me to explain.

Nachiketa said: ” Death! you say that the gods have discussed it, that it is deep and difficult; what explanation can be good as yours?

Death tempts Nachiketa a bit more: 

Death said: ” Take sons and grandsons, all long lived, cattle and horses, elephants and gold, take a great kingdom. Anything but this; wealth, long life, Nachiketa! Empire, anything whatever; satisfy the heart’s desire. Pleasure beyond reach, fine women with carriages, their musical instruments; mount beyond dreams; enjoy! But do not ask what lies beyond death”

Nachiketa said: “Destroyer of man! these things pass. Joy ends enjoyment, the longest life is short. keep those horses, keep singing and dancing, keep it all for yourself. Wealth cannot satisfy a man. If he but pleases you, master of all, he can live as long as he likes, get all he likes; but I will not change my gift. What man, subject to death and decay, getting the chance of Un decaying life, would still enjoy mere long life, thinking of copulation and beauty. Say where man goes after death; end all that discussion. This, which you have made so mysterious, is the only gift I will take.”

Two Paths in Human Life: ” The Good and the Pleasant” # SREYAS & PREYAS Sreyas is Vidya(wisdom), and Preyas is Avidya (ignorance).

Death said: ” The good is one, the pleasant another; both command the Soul. Who follows the good, attains sanctity, who follows the pleasant, drops out of the race. Every man faces both. The mind of the wise man draws him to the good, the flesh of the fool drives him to the pleasant.

Lord Yama praises Nachiketas’s discrimination:

Death Continues: Nachiketa! Having examined the pleasures, you have rejected them; turned from the vortex of life and death. Diverging roads: One called ignorance, the other Wisdom. Fools brag of their knowledge; proud, ignorant, dissolving, blind led by the blind, staggering to and fro. What can the money-maddened simpleton know of the future? ” This is the only world” cries he thinks there is no other, I kill him again and again. Some have never heard of the Self, some have heard of the Self, some have heard but cannot find Him. Who finds Him is a world’s wonder, who expounds Himis world’s wonder, who inherits Him from his Master is a world’s wonder. No man of common mind can teach Him; such men dispute one against another. But when the uncommon man speaks, dispute is over. Because the Self is a fine substance, He slips from the mind and deludes imagination. Beloved! logic brings no man to the Self. Yet when a wise man shows Him, He is found. Your longing eyes are turned towards reality.

Lord Yama’s attainment, when He was young:

Lord Yama continues: Would that I had always such a pupil. because man cannot find the Eternal through passing pleasure, I have sought the Fire in these pleasures and, worshipping that alone, found the Eternal. Nachiketa! The fulfilment of all desire, the conquest of the world, freedom from fear, unlimited pleasure, magical power, all were yours, but you renounced them all, brave and wise man. ” The wise, meditating on God, concentrating their thought, discovering in the mouth of the cavern, deeper in the cavern, that Self, that ancient Self, difficult to imagine, more difficult to understand, pass beyond joy and sorrow. The man that, hearing from the Teacher and comprehending, distinguishes nature from the Self, goes to the source; that man attains joy, lives for ever in that joy. I think, Nachiketa! your gate of joy stands open.”

Nachiketa asked: ” what lies beyond right and wrong, beyond cause and effect, beyond past and future?”

The Goal of all Spiritual efforts- “OM”

Death said: “The word the Vedas extol, austerities proclaim, sanctities approach- that word is OM! ” That word is eternal Spirit, eternal distance, who knows it attains to his desire. ” That word is the ultimate foundation. who finds it is adored among the saints. “The Self knows all, is not born, does not die, is not the effect of any cause; is Eternal, self-existent, spelt AUM, perishable, ancient. How can the killing of the body kill Him? He who thinks that He kills, he who thinks that He is killed, is ignorant. He does not kill nor is He killed. ” The Self is lesser than the least, greater than the greatest. He lives in all hearts. When senses are at rest, free from desire, man finds him and mounts beyond sorrow. though sitting, he travels, though sleeping is everywhere. Who but I Death can understand that God is beyond joy and sorrow. Who knows the Self, bodiless among the embodied, unchanging among the changing, prevalent everywhere, goes beyond sorrow. “The Self is not known through discourse, splitting of hairs, learning however great; He comes to man He loves; takes that man’s body for His own. “The wicked man is restless, without concentration, without peace; how can he find Him, whatever his learning? He has made mere preachers and soldiers His food, death its condiment; how can a common man find Him?”

Let us put it mathematically: “smaller than the smallest, greater than the greatest”. Suppose n is a number, and we consider two loops. n=n+1 and n=n-1 in two different cases.
case 1. n+1> n; in the loop n=n+1, n approaches to ∞ (infinity)
case 2. n-1 < n; in the loop n=n-1, n approaches to zero; ε (epsilon) but ≠ 0. This example will just help to imagine the vastness of Brahman.
Planck length, the smallest in size = 1.6 x 1035 meters. Planck time, the smallest time = 1044seconds. Volume of the observable Universe is 3.566×1080 m3

Conclusion:

एतद्ध्येवाक्षरं ब्रह्म : = This word alone is verily “Saguna Brahman”. एतद्ध्येवाक्षरं परम्: = This word alone is verily the “Nirguna Brahman”. This syllable AUM(ॐ) is indeed Brahman. This syllable is the Highest, Eternal. Whosoever knows this syllable obtains all that he desires. एतदालम्बनं ज्ञात्वा ब्रह्मलोके महीयते : = This word is the ultimate foundation. Who finds it is adored among saints.

ब्रह्म` ~ “Brahman” : The Principal word in Upanishad: What is That?

Brahman: IT is That which is Absolute, fills all space, is complete in Itself, to which there is no second and which is continuously present in everything, in every being and everywhere. It is homogeneous in nature.

 

Important Reads related to this article

  1. The Four Great Sayings of Vedas:
  2. The Divine Art!!!
  3. THE WISDOM OF THE FIVE SHEATHS:

Conclusion:

Failure to comprehend the Essential Unity of Being is the Cause of Rebirth.

Why do we take rebirth or otherwise we can say we move from death to death. Why? It is due to wish of fulfilling desires that remain till death. But if we can realize the True Reality of the Self, the Eternal Self, from whom everything manifests, the desires get vanished, get dried up. All desires melt is the light of the Self. This is Nirvana. Nachiketas wanted to know, what happens to the Souls after death. Lord of Death ” Yama ” explained the reality through conversations between them. That is the Essence of Katha Upanishad.

Recommended readings:

  1. Back to the Truth: 5000 years of ADVAITA by Dennis Waite. **
  2. THE TEN PRINCIPAL UPANISHADS: Translated by Shree Purohit** Swami and W.B.Yeats
  3. Brahma Sutra Bhasya of Sankaracharya: Translated by Swami Gambhirananda.**
  4. Commentary of Katha Upanishad: By Swami Krishnananda.
  5. Katha Upanishad: By Swami GuruBhaktananda.
  6. EIGHT UPANISADS -VOL-1 with commentary of Sankaracharya, Translated by SWAMI GAMBHIRANANDA.
  7. THE TAITTIRIYA UPANISHAD: SHIKSHAVALLI-ANANDAVALLI-BHRIGUVALLI with Sri Shankara’s Commentary By Sri Swami Satchidanandera Saraswati.
  8. Commentary of Mandukya Upanishad: By Swami Krishnananda.
  9. MANDUKYA Upanishad By Swami GuruBhaktananda.
  10. A-U-M Awakening to Reality: By Dennis Waite***
  11. Panchadasi: Swami Vidyaranya: 
  12. Information available on internet.

It is my sincere request to the esteemed readers to share their opinion or queries if any. Suggestions to make the site attractive will be highly helpful for me. Readers are requested to read all the posts to have continuation of the topic from the beginning. My mail ID is:   arun7663@gmail.com 

 

In the House of Death: Story of a Boy-Nachiketas: Part-1

Introduction:-

This is a legendary story of a little boy Nachiketas, barely ten years old, son of Sage Vajasravasa. Nachiketa meets Yama (The Death God in Hindu philosophy) and get answers of his question: ‘What is Death?”

Through conversation, Lord Yama reveals “Supreme Knowledge” to Nachiketa, the knowledge of the nature Atman and the path to gain Wisdom,  Moksha (liberation from the cycle of birth and death).

Sage Vajasravasa wished to perform a sacrifice called Vishwajit (Sarva Dakshina), meaning victory over the whole universe. Through such sacrifice, the performer aims to gain the fruit of gaining a higher world and enjoy the pleasures there. (Vajasrava means a Giver). The boy faced wrath of his father after completion of sacrificial fire , when he found there was fault in the part of his father. As such the boy was offered to Yama, by his father in anger.

Finally he got the desired knowledge from Yama when he exhibited “Mumukshautva” (intense desire to seek Wisdom) and Vairagya(dispassion for all worldly pleasures).

The Story in details:-

Sage Vajasravasa, desiring Heaven, rewards, performed the Visvajit sacrifice, in which he gave away all his property as gift[Dakshina]. He had a son by name Nachiketa.

Gifts not worth the name:

When the gifts were being distributed, Nachiketa, who was still a boy said to himself: Joyless, surely, are the worlds to which he goes who gives away cows no longer able to drink, to eat. to give milk, or to calve. He went to his father and said: Father! To whom will you give me? Nachiketa repeated this question second and a third time. At last his father got angry and replied: ‘Unto death I offer you’.

Nachiketa then proceeded to meet the king of Death: “Yama”

Nachiketas at the door of Death

Nachiketa thought: whether I die now or later matters a little. What purpose of the King of Death will my father serve today by thus giving me away to Death? Nachiketa said: Think of those who went before, those that will come after. Man dies and born again like a blade of grass. A mortal ripens like a corn and corn springs up again.

"Man dies and is born again like a blade of grass. This means seed grows only to fall and fall only to grow. This is the cycle of human life because birth and death are correlatives."

Lord Yama’s Instructions on Hospitality: 

Nachiketa went into the forest and sat in meditation within the house of Death. Death king Yama was out of his kingdom on his job. When Death appeared his servant said: Lord! when a holy man enters a house as guest it is as if fire has entered. The wise man cools him down. So bring him water O king of Death!

If a holy man comes into fool’s house and is given nothing, the fool’s family, public and private life, ambitions, reputation, property, hopes alliances, all suffer. Thereupon Lord Yama said to Nachiketa: ‘A guest should be respected. You have dwelt in my house three nights without eating; I bow to you O holy Boy! Take from me three boons[gifts]. Choose now three boons, one for each night, O Brahmin! may all be well with me’!

The First Boon: 

Nachiketa said: ‘O Death! may Gautama, my father, be calm, cheerful and free from anger toward me! may he recognise me and greet me when I shall have been sent home by you! This I choose as the first of three boons’.

Death grants the first boon!

King of Death said:  ‘I will so arrange things, that your father, will recognise and love you as before and he will sleep peacefully at night and his grudge against you will vanish’.

The Second Boon: 

Nachiketa said: ‘ There is no fear in the kingdom of Heaven, because you are not there, nobody there is afraid of old age. man is beyond hunger, thirst and sorrow. You know, O Death! Please explain me what Fire leads to Heaven, show it, I am full of faith. I ask this as my second boon.’

Death said: ‘ I will explain it, listen! find the rock and conquer unmeasured worlds. Listen, for this came out of cavern.’

Death grants the second boon! 

Yama told him that out of Fire comes this world, what bricks and how many go to the alter, how best to build it. Nachiketa repeated all. Death encouraged ran on. I give you another gift. This fire shall be called by your name. Count the links of the chain: 

*Worship the triple  Fire: 1) Knowledge, 2) Meditation, and 3) practice.

*The triple process: 1) Evidence, 2) Inference, and 3) Experience.

* The triple duty: 1) Study, 2) Concentration, and 3) Renunciation.

Understand that everything comes from Brahman. That Brahman alone is sought and found, attain everlasting peace; mount beyond Birth and Death.

***Here, Fire means Energy-

King of Death continued: ‘ When man understands himself, understands Universal self, the union of the two, kindles the triple Fire, offers the sacrifice; then shall he, though still on Earth, break the bonds of Death, beyond sorrow, mount into Heaven.[ **This is liberation, while living on Earth]

The Nachiketa Agni[Fire]:

The perfect sacrifice is explained by Yama.

 Out of fire arises all that exists in the Universe. Mastering this, one gains mastery over any field of human activity, and acquires whatever one desires in terms of worldly prosperity and power. However, it is all within the transitory realm; all gains here are impermanent. Nachiketas very attentively listened and was able to follow what was said. He repeated all that Yama explained. Being happy with Nachiketas, Yama encouraged and said " I will give you another gift. This fire shall be called by your name." And it is known as "Nachiketas Fire". 

‘The Fire that leads to heaven is your second gift, Nachiketa! It shall be named after you. Now choose the third gift.’

The Third Boon: 

The secret of Death!!!

Nachiketa said: ‘Some say that when man dies he continues to exist, others say that he does not. Explain, and that shall be my third gift.’

It is too difficult for you Nachiketa!

Death said: ‘ This question has been discussed by the gods, it is deep and difficult. choose another gift, Nachiketa! Do not be so hard. Do not compel me to explain.

Nachiketa said: ‘Indeed on this matter, even by the gods doubts have been entertained. You also say, O Death, that this principle is not truly comprehendible easily. But a teacher like you can explain this. Another such teacher I shall never find. therefore, I have no option before me but this. No other boon equal to this there be for me to choose!

To continue in the next part….

Third gift was indeed granted and it is a great part of the story, where the words of wisdom are the main essence. To be published in the second part, or else it will be a very lengthy blog.

Interested readers may go through the following post

Essence of Katha Upanishad :Part 4C of 4: -The Concluding Part-

*** This story is from Katha Upanishad. Kathopanishad is part of Krishna Yajurveda and consists of two Chapters. Each Chapter has three sections. This Upanishad is a favourite one in all ages and it is placed in third position in the list of Ten Principal Upanishads.

Conclusion:-

Through this dialogue between Nachiketa and Lord of Death, the response of Death has to be observed minutely! Every one is interested to know the secret of Death! But what are the conditions that an aspirant should posses to know the secret. That discussion proceeds from here onwards.

NEXT PART !!..COMING SOON…😊🙏❤️

Brain Waves & Meditation on OM[AUM]: An insight

Introduction:-

Please go through this simple content which is nothing but my experience only. Just as it is: Thought of sharing my experience. Please spare few minutes. 🙏😊❤️

IMPORTANCE OF MEDITATION:

Since ancient time function of brain and meditation have been linked.

We can understand the relationship between brain activity and meditation by the use of modern  technology such as EEG. Basically we are all vibrational beings living in the vibrational universe.

Frequency of vibration determines our experience of reality. The fundamental elements of our physical vibrations are known as brainwave frequencies. Frequencies are measured in Hertz. In brain mapping the frequencies are measured in Hertz which are typically in the range between 0.5 to 60Hertz. According to studies, published in different websites, during meditation a discernible brainwave patterns seen  on EEG.

In neuroscience, there are five distinct brain wave frequencies, known as Alpha, Beta, Theta , Delta and Gamma.

To  understand the function of brainwave frequencies, which affect our daily life following vibrational patterns are described in brief.

Delta(0.5-3.0 Hz): The deep sleep Wave.

The Delta frequency is the slowest of the frequencies and it is experienced in deep, dreamless sleep and in very deep, transcendental ,  meditation where awareness is completely detached. Delta is the realm of unconscious mind. It is the Gateway to the Universal mind.

Alpha(7.5-14 Hz): The Deep Relaxation wave:

Alpha brain waves are present in deep relaxation with the eyes usually closed and while day dreaming or during light meditation. It is an optimal time to program the mind for success. It is the Gateway to the Subconscious mind. It heightens imagination, visualization, memory, learning and concentration. It lies at the base of consciousness of human mind.

Theta (4-7.5 Hz): The Light Meditation and Sleeping Wave.

Theta brain waves are present during deep meditation and light sleep including REM dream state. It is the realm of Subconscious mind. It is also known as twilight state as it is normally experienced between Alpha (drift off to sleep)and Delta(arise from deep sleep).A sense of deep spiritual connection and with the Universe can be experienced at Theta. Voice of Theta is silence.

Beta(14-40Hz): The waking Consciousness and Reasoning wave.

Beta brain waves are associated with normal waking consciousness and a heightened state of alertness, logic and critical reasoning. Daily activities are performed in this state. Too much Beta can translate into stress, anxiety and restlessness. The voice of Beta is the little nagging chatterbox of inner critic.

Gamma(40-80Hz): The Insight Wave.

This range is recently discovered. Little is known about this state of mind. Gamma waves with the highest frequency can have a frequency of anywhere between 25 and 100 Hz. Initial research shows that Gamma waves are associated with bursts of insight and high level information processing. Gamma brain waves are fastest brainwave frequency with smallest amplitude. Feelings of Blessings with peak concentration has been reported by experienced meditators.

Neuroscientists believe that gamma waves are able to link information from all parts of the brain-the gamma wave originates in the thalamus and moves back of the brain to the front and back again @ 40Hz.This is the brainwave state of that feeling that any thing can be done.

Now we may draw analogy of the above topic with Mandukya Upanishads, which is shortest among all Upanishads. According to the Mandukya Upanishad, four conditions of Spirit can be described as below.

1)Waking condition: Perception turned outward.

2)Mental condition : Perception turned inward, known as dreaming condition. Self enjoys subtle matter.

3)Deep sleep condition: No desire, no dream. This is intellectual condition. Because of union with Self and his unbroken knowledge, one feels joy. He knows joy. His mind is illuminated.

ॐ~AUM

A~ Waking

U~ Dreaming

M~ Deep Sleep

Turiya: The Fourth condition of the Self which can be achieved through deep meditation that corresponds to “OM” as ONE , invisible Word. Self is Whole and beyond bargain.

The world disappears in HIM. SELF is one without a second.

This condition is known as #Turiya#

Please read Mandukya Upanishad in two parts to understand the topic which you will find inline with Brain waves pattern. Links are here:

1:MaNDukya Upanishad- The Nature of OM: – Part-1

2:MaNDukya Upanishad- The Nature of OM: – Part-2

Any decrease in mind clutter is an increase in our vibrational connection to higher Consciousness.

MaNDukya Upanishad- The Nature of OM: – Part-2

Introduction:

Mandukya Upanishad belongs to Atharva Veda. It is the shortest of all the Upanishads with only 12 verses and placed in the 6th position in the list of Ten Principal Upanishads.

This Upanishad teaches the significance of the sacred syllable ॐ~AUM (OM) and it correlates with four states of Consciousness. It describes the Turiya state, the state of transcendental Consciousness in which all the divisions and Duality disappears. The SELF alone exists in its pure state.

Among the Upanishads, the “Mandukya” may be regarded as the most important. It is said : ” mandukyam ekam eva alam mumukshunam vimuktaye”. For the liberation from bondage, for a seeker, the maNDukya alone is sufficient.

Upon meditating on the Mystic Syllable OM [AUM], mind can be trained to achieve freedom gradually to attain ultimate Reality.

Please read my previous post on Mandukya Upanishad, Part-1, where I have discussed up to 7th mantra out of total twelve mantras. 7th mantra is most important among the Vedic scriptures. This mantra describes the nature of Absolute reality~ Brahman. Please read first part of the post. Link is here:-

In this post, I will discuss the last five Mantras [from 8th mantra to 12th mantra].

माण्डूक्योपनिषत्

॥ अथ माण्डूक्योपनिषत् ॥

Mantra-8:- ॐ~AUM (OM) with four quarters:

“सोऽयमात्माऽध्यक्षरमोंकारोऽधिमात्रं पादा मात्रा मात्राश्च पादा अकार उकारो मकार इति “॥ ८॥

“so.ayamAtma.sdhyakSharamo~NkAro-adhimAtram pAdA mAtramAtrAshcha pAdA akAra ukAro makAra iti” – [8]

“The same Atman, (which has been described in 7th Mantra as having four quarters) is again, AUM, from the point of view of the syllables. The “AUM “with parts is viewed from the stand point of sound. The quarters the letters and the letters are the quarters. The letters here are A, U and M”.

According to Shankara, 7th mantra have concentrated on the abhidheya meaning ‘that which is being spoken of’, i.e. the thing named or denoted. OM [AUM], therefore, is effectively the abhidhAna-name or appellation. This means that Atman is equated to OM in the linguistic sense. The letters constituting OM are A, U and M.
Mantra-9:- The first mAtra of OM-akAraH: the letter “A” : vaishvAnara- the waking state.

“जागरितस्थानो वैश्वानरोऽकारः प्रथमा मात्राऽऽप्तेरादिमत्त्वाद् वाऽऽप्नोति ह वै सर्वान् कामानादिश्च भवति य एवं वेद “॥ ९॥

“jAgaritasthAno vaishvAnaro-akArah prathamAmAtra-a-apteraadimattvaadvA-a-apnoti ha vai sarvAnkAmAnAdishcha bhavati ya evaM veda”.-[9]

“He who is VaishvAnara, having for its sphere of activity the waking state is A, the first letter of AUM, on account of its all-pervasiveness or on account of being the first. One who knows this attains the fulfilment of all desires and becomes the first of all”.

prathamA mAtra: – The first mAtra of OM-akAraH: the letter “A” vaishvAnara- the waking state. AdimatvatvAt: being the first. Pervasiveness-“A” which pervades all sounds. “A” is the fundamental sound. We can not speak any word without opening the mouth and the sound thus produced is “A”. We can regard this sound as pervading every other sound. Similarly we we regard the waking state as having primacy. We only know of the existence of the dream state and deep sleep states when we are at waking state. Obviously we have to be awake in order to pursue this enquiry and to attain enlightenment.

In the scripture VaishvAnara is said to pervade the whole of the Universe. In Bhagavad-Gita, Ch10.33, Lord Krishna says: ” I am the letter “A”, describing himself as Ishwara. This mantra is advocating Upasana on OM, with specific attention on the first letter “A”.

One who understands this, gets all he wants; becomes leader among men.

Mantra-10:- The letter “U”, the second mAtra of OM is “taijasa”, the dream state

“स्वप्नस्थानस्तैजस उकारो द्वितीया मात्रोत्कर्षाद् उभयत्वाद्वोत्कर्षति ह वै ज्ञानसन्ततिं समानश्च भवति नास्याब्रह्मवित्कुले भवति य एवं वेद” ॥ १०॥ 

“svapnasthAnastijasa ukAro dvitIyAmAtrotkarShAdubhayatvAdvotkarShati ha vai j~nAnasantati-nsamAnashcha bhavati nAsyaabrahmavitkule bhavAti va evaM veda” -[10]

“The dreaming condition [taijasa], called mental condition, corresponds to the second letter “U”. It upholds; stands between waking and sleeping. He who understands, upholds the tradition of Spiritual knowledge. looks upon everything with an impartial eye. No one ignorant of Brahman is born into his family”.

The letter “U”, the second mAtra of OM is “taijasa”, the dream state, because both are regarded as superior and also are in the middle of their respective series. Whosoever knows this will become superior in knowledge and accepted by all. All members of his family will be wise. As a matter of fact, A being the first of all sounds is superior to all letters. But “U” coming after “A” may be said superior to “A” in all indirect way. as such the subtle taijasa is regarded as superior to vishva because subtle is superior to gross. Gross can be considered as the effect of the subtle cause. Gross equates to matter, subtle to energy. Mind is superior to physical body. State of mind makes us superior to the animals. Gross body returns to earth on death, but the subtle and causal body remains present for rebirth. 

Note:- At the macrocosmic level, at the end of the Universe[Pralaya], the entire gross creation [Virat] is subsumed into Hiranyagarbha. 

Mantra-11:- Deep sleep, the intellectual condition, called “Prajna” corresponds to the third letter “M”.

“सुषुप्तस्थानः प्राज्ञो मकारस्तृतीया मात्रा मितेरपीतेर्वा मिनोति ह वा इदꣳ सर्वमपीतिश्च भवति य एवं वेद” ॥ ११॥

“suShuptassthAnaH prAj~no makArastRRitIyA mAtra meterapItervA minoti havA idaM sarvamapItishcha bhavati ya evaM veda”-[11]

“Undreaming sleep, called the intellectual condition [prAj~no], corresponds to the third letter “M”. It weighs and unites. he who understands, weighs the world; rejects; unites himself with the cause”.-[11]

Sankara Explains:-

One who is prAj~no associated with deep sleep is “M” , the third letter{sound) of AUM. The key word “miti” in the mantra needs to be understood. “miti” means measure. As food grains are measured in utensils before use and that is filled again when it is reused on regular basis, which means grains reappear again. similarly, at individual level, the waking and dream states as though disappear in deep sleep, emerge again sometime later. Similarly, at the macrocosmic level, the gross[Virat] and subtle[Hiranyagarbha] worlds disappear at the end of creation into the causal state(Ishwara~antaryamin) and reappear at the next creation. This is analogous to the scientific theory of “Big-Bang & Big-Crunch”. In the same manner, while chanting OM (AUM), the sound “A” and “U” disappear when we close mouth and only sound “M” remains. And the sound “A” and “U” reappear again when the mouth is opened for chanting AUM. waking and dream states are merged in deep sleep. As we have seen in mantra-4 of this Upanishad, that they[ A= Vishva & U= Taijasa] become “mass of consciousness” (prajnanaghana)  in M (deep sleep state).

In deep sleep, all perceptions and cognitions converge into a single mode of the mind: It becomes mass of Consciousness[ ekibhutah]. There is no modifications of the mind[ due to absence of Vrittis].

The happiness of deep sleep is greater than all other forms of happiness. 

Therefore one who knows this, comprehends the real nature of the Universe. He realises himself as Atman and the cause of the Universe i.e. Ishwara.

Mantra-12:- “Amaatra”- The fourth letter: “Turiya”

“अमात्रश्चतुर्थोऽव्यवहार्यः प्रपञ्चोपशमः शिवोऽद्वैत एवमोंकार आत्मैव संविशत्यात्मनाऽऽत्मानं य एवं वेद “॥ १२॥

“amAtrashchaturtho-avyavahAryaH prapa~nchopashamaHshivo-Advaitaevamo~NkAra-atmaiva saMvishatyAtmanA-a-AtmaM ya evaM veda ya evaMveda”-[12]

“The fourth conditioned of the Self corresponds to OM as one, indivisible word. He is whole; beyond bargain. The world disappears in Him. He is the good; the one without a second. Thus OM is nothing but Self. He who understands, with the help of personal self, merges himself into the impersonal Self.”

The part less “OM” is the fourth quarter; It is beyond all conventional dealings; It is the limit of the negation of the phenomenal world. It is all- Auspicious, all-Blissful; It is One without a second; the Non-Dual Reality; This OM is verily the same as the Atman or Self within. The Self realises Itself through the Self; He who knows thus, merges himself  into the impersonal Self.

Conclusion:-

A) Individually( for Jiva), the waking consciousness is called Vishva. It is called Taijasa in dream and Prajna in deep sleep state. Correspondingly, from the view of Cosmic level, these are: Virat in waking, Hiranyagarbha in dreaming and Ishwara in deep sleep. 

B) The relationship between individual and the cosmic, between Vishva & Virat, Taijasa & Hiranyagarbha, Prajna & Ishwara is integral part of ONE [ Non-Dual Consciousness]. This realisation will put Jiva in Ishwratwa and make it  Omnipresent, Omniscient and Omnipotent.

C) The knower of Brahman, who has realised the highest Truth, will enter into the Self by burning away the Third state of latency[ the dormant Vasanas~ (causal) are burnt]. Henceforth, he is not born again, as there are no Karmas to cause a further birth.

D) AUM is realised when the illusion of DUALITY vanishes.

Recommended readings:

  1. Back to the Truth: 5000 years of ADVAITA by Dennis Waite.**
  2. THE TEN PRINCIPAL UPANISHADS: Translated by Shree Purohit** Swami and W.B.Yeats
  3. Brahma Sutra Bhasya of Sankaracharya: Translated by Swami Gambhirananda.**
  4. Commentary of Mandukya Upanishad: By Swami Krishnananda.
  5. MANDUKYA Upanishad By Swami GuruBhaktananda.
  6. The Mandukya Upanishad: with Gaudapada’s Karika and Sankara’s commentary: By swami Nikhilananda
  7. EIGHT UPANISADS -VOL-1 with commentary of Sankaracharya, Translated by SWAMI GAMBHIRANANDA.
  8. THE TAITTIRIYA UPANISHAD: SHIKSHAVALLI-ANANDAVALLI-BHRIGUVALLI with Sri Shankara’s Commentary By Sri Swami Satchidanandera Saraswati.
  9. A-U-M Awakening to Reality : By Dennis Waite***
  10. Information available on internet.

             It is my sincere request to the esteemed readers to share their opinion or queries if any. Suggestions to make the site attractive will be highly helpful for me. Readers are requested to read all the posts to have continuation of the topic from the beginning. My mail ID is :   arun7663@gmail.com 

A special note On International Yoga Day-2022:

Introduction: 

The word “YOGA” has been derived from the Sanskrit word “YUJ”. This means “to Connect or to Combine”. In very simple word it is “UNION”. 

∪ ⇒ Union: Union with Source(Brahman/ Purusha)

∑ ⇒ Summation{Of All that we perceive or do not perceive }

∫ ⇒ Integral[ Non-Dual]

+ ⇒ Add [ All good qualities]

There are multiple paths for Union. After deep studies of Vedanta (ten Principle Upanishads) and Patanjali Yoga Sutras, I have found and adopted two easy paths to achieve my goals.

1) Vedantic Approach( Advaita- Non-Dualism)

2) Yogic Approach ( Patanjali Yoga sutras)

Vedantic Approach:

What should be my (our) goal?

Answer: To be United with Supreme[ The absolute “Brahman”] : Complete cessation of sufferings and attainment of Bliss is the goal of everyone.

” Attyantika Dukshya Nivritti, Paramananda praptyachya”

Most important condition to remove sufferings is “fearlessness”.

A vision of Oneness is the sole condition that brings fearlessness.

There is nothing to fear. Everything is Self-created. HE( The Absolute) is that Essence, by drinking which, man rejoices. That Self is the sole giver of Joy (Bliss). When man finds invisible, nameless, homeless, shapeless, he is no longer terrified. He becomes free from fear who attains such Oneness. But if the slightest ” Otherness” is allowed to enter then he is smitten with fear. That man, thinking himself wise, becomes terrified. ” 

The knower of Brahman reaches the Supreme”.

How to Know Brahman?

Knowledge of Brahman can not be gathered by mere reasoning. Knowledge can be attained through intuition or revelation. Intuition is the final result of the enquiry into Brahman. There are three stages which are very essential for progressing in this path. Three stages are as below:

Following are the steps: 

1.Sravana :  Listening to the teachings of the sages on Vedanta. Now instead of Sravana, we can use the word Study of Vedanta, because Sravana was the practice during early Vedic period as no method of writing existed.

2.Manana : This stage is the reflection on the teachings. This means thinking about what has been heard and subjecting that into a reason based on experience gained.

3.Nididhyasana : Stage of meditation on the truth [MahaVakyas]. It is the culmination of the practice of Sravana and Manana. BRRihadAraNyaka Upanishad says  on Nididhyasana. ” The Self , my dear Maitreyi, should be realized-should be heard of , reflected on and meditated upon; by the realization of the self, my dear”.

Sravana, Manana, Nididhyasana leads us to intuition (aparoksha anubhuti). In this way, “Brahma Kara Vritti ” is generated from ” Sattvic anta Karana ”  This ” Brahma Kara Vritti” destroys the mula-Avidya or primitive ignorance which is the root cause of all bondage, births and deaths.

When this ignorance or veil is removed, Brahman which is Self effulgent reveals itself in its pristine glory and splendour. 

Now the Text is for whom?

 The Vedanta is for the person who is competent to understand and study sastras(Scriptures) ,has tranquil mind, with required attributes as described in Vedanta.

After attainment of certain preliminary qualifications which are known as four salvations(Sadhana Chatustaya) ,one can progress towards the direction of knowing Brahman.

Four salvations are:

  1. “Nitya-anitya-vastuveveka” which means discrimination between the eternal and non eternal.
  2. ” IhamutrarthaphalabhogaViraga” : Indifference to the joys in this life or in in Heaven, and of the fruits of one’s action.
  3. ” Shatsampat” : Six fold virtues that are : i) Sama (Control of mind), ii) Dama ( Control of senses),iii) Uparati (Cessation from worldly enjoyments), iv) Titiksha ( Endurance of pleasure and pain, heat and cold), v) Sraddha (Faith), vi) Samadhana (Deep concentration).
  4. “Mumukshautva” (Desire for liberation).

Why one should enquire Brahman? Why?

Most of the religions believe that life in earth or life in heaven are attained on the basis of one’s virtuous deeds(“KARMA”) which is transient. But once you know Brahman, you will enjoy everlasting bliss and immortality.

Knowledge of Brahman destroys ignorance which is the root cause of all sufferings. 

” Sastrayonitvadhikaranam” : Brahman is realisable only through the scriptures. The scripter is the source of right knowledge.  Through scripture only we get a comprehensive understanding of the nature of Brahman. Brahman is formless, colourless, attribute less. Hence it can not be grasped by the senses alone. Brahman is ONE, infinite and without second.

THE FOUR GREAT VEDIC STATEMENTS

Yogic Approach: Ashtanga Yoga: Patanjali Yoga sutras:

Photo by Pixabay on Pexels.com

According to Maharshi Patanjali , Ashtanga Yoga is  not limited to any class, place, time and circumstances.

This path of Yoga is Universal. 

The essence of Patanjali’s Yoga sutra is in the second sutra(1.2):

” yogashchittavrittinirodhah” [sutra-1.2] : Yoga is for the control of thought-waves in the mind. To still the fluctuating mind.

Yogas citta-vritti-nirodah” which literary means “Yoga is the stilling of the modifications of the mind”.

Principal Teachings of Yoga Sutras: 

“Ashtanga Yoga” : Eight limbs of Yoga are as follows.[8 steps]

All the steps are scientifically designed. That is the specialty of Ashtanga Yoga. If one has followed all the steps properly, then only Dhyana is possible

1. Yama – Restraints.

2. Niyama – Observances.

3. Asana -Physical postures.

4. Pranayama – Control of Prana (Breathing control).

5. Pratyahara – Withdrawal of the senses.

6. Dharana – Concentration

7. Dhyana – Meditation.

8. Samadhi – Absorption.  

Details of Each of the Limbs of Yoga:

Yama: The first “anga” 

This consists of prohibitions against unethical deeds. These are basically restraints. Following are to be noted: 

  • Ahimsa-Non violence:  Non-violence truly  meant here as  to refrain from causing harm , showing anger , being harsh to others including self. Love  must be unconditional and universal. At the same time we must love ourselves equally.                                                                             
  • Satya-Truthfulness: : This means, on being firmly established in truthfulness ,the Yogi gets the power of attaining for himself  the fruits of work without the work . 
  • Asteya-Non-stealing: With the establishment of virtues like honesty, aspirant develops an intuitive awareness.                                      
    Brahmacharya- celibacy:  Right use of energy: sutra 2.38 says Brahmacharya pratisthayam viryalabhah”. It is about controlled and disciplined sex. 
  • Aparigraha- non possessing, non accumulation: sutra 2.37: ” Aparigraha sthairye janmakathamta sambodhah”  which means : On becoming steady in non-possessiveness, there arises the knowledge of how and from where is it generated. 

Niyama: Second  limb (“anga” )

It is composed of some injunctions to develop various ethical virtues. Following are the components of Niyama.

  • Saucha (cleanliness) :  Purity of body and mind.
  • Santosha ( Contentment): To keep mind away from dwelling in the past or future. One should not  regret on missed opportunities and also need not worry about future. Contentment is  the way to live in present moment, NOW.    
  • Tapas (discipline, austerity etc.) : Mandates spiritual disciplines.  A state of spiritual maturity.  With the practice of austerity, all kinds of impurities are removed from body and mind. 
  • Svadhyaya ( study of self and sacred texts): This sutra teaches for self-observation, study of scriptures, recitation of mantras and union  with the desired deity ( Ishta devata).                                                                     
  • Isvara Pranidhana (Total surrender to the Supreme being):   Dedicated services for the welfare of others including mankind, animal kind, plants and nature.               

The third anga ” Asana”

It is important part of Ashtanga Yoga. The importance is to make spine held erect and relaxed with the three upper parts of the body, the chest, the neck and the head in a straight line. This is required for nerve currents to channelize for further improvement in concentration.

The object of  Yoga is to make a man rise above body consciousness. In Patanjali Yoga sutra, it is simply stated that asanas should be stable and comfortable for meditation.

The fourth anga “pranayama” 

Commonly believed as control of breath but scholars says this is actually control of Universal Energy. The Prana  moves the whole Universe. Prana is believed to be a cosmic energy. It is prana vibrating at the beginning of cosmic cycle that shapes akasha (space) out of which all energies are evolved. Biological functions of all kinds are performed by this vital energy. The knowledge and control of this prana is known as pranayama.

Practice of pranayama is done after mastering asana. When pranayama is practiced under the guidance of right “Guru” (Teacher), one can have control over prana and it becomes possible to feel the vibrations which helps attaining higher insight. Thereby ,the power generated will help the nerves in getting optimum functions. It is believed that Pranic healing, faith healing etc. are  the results of doing pranayama. 

Pratyahara” : the fifth anga.

“Pratyahara”  : Withdrawals of senses:  It helps in attaining a mind without fluctuations, since withdrawals of senses bind the mind to a fixed point. It is impossible to concentrate unless the mind is purified.  Pratyahara gives our mind a moment to not evaluate and teaches us to be free from any reactions developed by senses. 

Sixth anga: Dharana- Concentration: 

“deshabandhashchittasya”  => this suggests to confine mind in a territory, a very limited space, which disallows movements of mind. That is called “Dharana”.

One pointed attention: Dharana is the process of fixing the attention of mind to a certain point. That may be any object of concentration (internal or external), sound, deity or  noble idea for the benefit of creation. After successful practices of first five limbs, one becomes ready for Dharana

Dharana, Dhyana & Samadhi: These three limbs together lead aspirants to the ultimate goal. 

If the fourfold qualities are dealt with right actions, then the practitioner of Yoga will overcome the distractions of mind. These are : 1. friendliness towards happiness, 2. compassion towards misery,  3. rejoicing for virtues and 4. indifference to vices.  With such preparation and practice, “Dharana” comes much more easily and naturally. 

 Seventh Anga: Dhyana- meditation: 

Definition : DhyanaThe extension and lengthening of Dharana is Dhyana. Dharana continued without interruption is Dhyana. One has to change his or her way of life to reach unto this stage of Dhyana (concentration). Let us look into sutra 3.2 again for further analysis.  “tatra pratyayaikatanata dhyanam” :  If we now split the sloka like this =>>  tatra + pratyaya +ekatanata, then  tatra => means ” in that place” which refers to “desha” as mentioned in sutra 3.1. pratyaya=> means total content of mind which occupies the field of consciousness at a particular time.  Mind remains in continuous contact in Dharana.                        Ekatanata=> means extending continuously without interruption. Before practicing Samadhi, this kind of un interrupted continuous Dhyana is essential for the aspirant. 

Therefore let us keep in mind that when Dharana is stretched for a long period it becomes Dhyana. In other words elongated condition of Dharana is Dhyana. 

SamadhiThe state of Cosmic Consciousness- the 8th anga: 

sutra 3.3: "tad evarthamatranirbhasan svaroopashoonyam iva samadhih" means=> In that absolute state, then there is no meditator or the thing that is meditating upon. What remains only is the meditation, that is called samadhi. 

When Dhyana enters into Samadhi , the Gate which leads into the world of realities opens. Samadhi means a state of mind which through the practice of Dharana and Dhyana has become so  completely tranquil and the person meditating  is so absorbed that the he or she even forgets own existence.

Let us analyse the word “svaroopashoonyam”  of sutra 3.3. ” svaroopa” + shoonyam”  means that ” svaroopa” which is the residual consciousness of its own action disappears completely i.e. becomes “shoonyam” .

When you are fully absorbed with the vastness of the Supreme being and even the sense that I am meditating is not there and the ego “I” goes then, only the true Self, higher Self ,the Big I” remains.  This is possible when there are no Vrittis in chitta. In other words mind does not fluctuate. In Samadhi, Mind  surrenders all its resistances to the union with the object of meditation. In this state, field of observation and the observing intelligence merge and total intelligence shines as the sole substance of reality. 

sutra 3.4 "trayamekarta samyamah" means => The three practices Dharana, Dhyana and Samadhi together on same object is called samyamah.

If we analyse the word samyamah”  we will find it has two parts. Sama + Yama. Sama means perfection and Yama means control. 

Conclusion:

Eight limbs as a whole constitute one complete path which leads the aspirant upwards.

If followed properly, the person will definitely feel joy and peace of mind which will accompany to the bed at the end of the day. 

When the mind is set into a pattern, automatically one connection will be established with higher Self. That is individual’s experience which can be considered as Self-Realization

 

HAPPY FATHER’S DAY [2022]: TO ALL FATHERS

Introduction: (Conceptual):

Generation and procreation is an autonomous system. That is what the essence of this part.

KHANDA-II of AITAREY UPANISHAD

The creation of human body is described in order to inculcate a sense of dispassion by showing the impermanence of the body. Creation continues through procreation. A man is born, he gives birth to a son and he takes rebirth after death. This signifies that a person has really three births. The procreative fluid of a father is said to be the essence of his Self. The mother looks after it during pregnancy as her own Self. After birth, the parents nourish the child so that he can be their substitute for performance of pious deeds.

The importance of natal care and oneness of the father and the son are emphasized.

KHANDA-II (Chapter-4)

Three Births of the Self [ Three incarnations]:

Sloka: 4.1- First Birth :”The Pregnant Father”

This Jiva in the male body of his father first becomes semen. This semen is the vigour extracted and transformed from all the limbs. First the father holds and nourishes it in his own body and rears it which is not different from him. When he injects this in mother’s body he procreates himself in the form of a foetus. This is his first birth.

Sloka: 4.2- :”The Development of the Foetus”

That semen becomes one with the woman-just like a limb of her own. That is why it does not hurt her. She nourishes this self of his that has come into her.

Sloka: 4.3- Second Birth :”The Pregnant Mother”

She, being the nourisher of the child , should be nourished. The woman nourishes the embryo. Immediately after its birth the father nourishes the child. Nourishing the child from birth onward, he thus nourishes himself for the continuation of these worlds. For thus alone are these worlds perpetuated. This is one’s second birth.

Sloka: 4.4- Third Birth :”The Pregnant Son”

Father himself becomes son. When son comes of age, father entrusts him with all the family duties and responsibilities and frees himself from parental debt. As life span of father shortens, father departs from this world and takes birth in another womb according to his Karma. This is his third birth. Thus the cycle of birth and death continues and become a bondage till he does not realize the truth, the reality.

Sloka: 4.5- “Breaking Through Iron Fetters”

 Rishi Vamadeva realized the truth while he was in mother’s womb.

Rishi said ” While yet in embryo, I knew all the births of these Deities!, i.e. the inner senses and Indriyas are subjected to birth and death and not the Atman. Before I realized  this secret I had to pass through several Births which are compared with cages made of Iron. I was so attached with them that it was very difficult for me to get rid of those iron gates. Now by applying full strength of knowledge I broke all the fetters, became detached. Like a hawk, I escaped, being free and now I have no relation with the body. I am not the Body.”

Sloka: 4.6- ” The Jivanmukti and Videhamukti of Vamadeva”

Having gained the knowledge of Atman, and freedom from Body Consciousness, Vamadeva took his Upward path. He attained the heavenly world of Bliss and fulfilled all his desires. He became immortal, yes He became immortal !!!

” Freedom from Body” : We can understand this in two ways:

  1. Death: This is applicable to a mortal
  2. Freedom from Body-Consciousness: Upward path towards Nirvikalpa Samadhi.

For a man, once the highest state of True realization is reached, the attainment of the Heavenly worlds of Bliss accompanies him, while still in the Body. While still in the body, the realized state experiences the Supreme Bliss. He enjoys all he desires.

Self Realization is the only way to come out of the bondage of repetitive cycle of Birth and Death. For that one should have Vairagya.

The three “Aavasthas”(states) and “Swapnas”(Dreams): in relation to Three Births:

Three Aavasthas are three dwelling places occupied by the Supreme Being after HE enters the body. The three Swapna state (Swapna Aavasthas) because of ignorance.

Until man realize the Supreme truth and awakens to his spiritual destiny, he is considered to be in the state of Dream(Swapna).

The Essence of IshaVasya Upanishad- Part-2

Introduction:

 IshaVasya Upanishad appears in the Samhita portion of  Shukla Yajur Veda. It is one of the Ten principal Upanishads. Isha Upanishad has Eighteen Mantras. Among Ten Principal Upanishads, this comes in the beginning of the list. Isha means the Lord of the Universe. In my previous post on this Upanishad I have discussed Mantra no-01 to Mantra no -07.

Link of the previous post : The Essence of IshaVasya Upanishad- Part-1

In this part we will discuss Isha Upanishad Mantra no-08 to Mantra no-13 .

§ Eighth Mantra: The Path of Renunciation:

1) Sah paryagat shukramakaayam avarnam; asnaaviragm shuddhamapaapa-viddham; 2) kavih maneeshee paribhooh, swayambhoo yaathaa-tathyatah; arthaanvyadadhaatshwateebhyah samaabhyah.

The Self [ the atman] is everywhere, without a Body, without a shape, whole, pure, unpierced by evils, wise, all knowing, far shining, self depending, all transcending, functions and duties are allotted by HIM alone to the Creator for eternity.

Analysis: 

There is no place where He is not there. He is everywhere. He is in everything. He is not limited by Time and Space. There is nothing that He needs to possess and nothing that He needs to achieve. He is the seed, the substratum, the cause of all. He has no physical body. As long as there is body, there is happiness and misery. He is immortal. He is beyond all the three gunas: Tamas, Rajas, and Sattwa. He is His own father and mother. None conceived Him. No one is the cause of His being. He is Self-existent.

§ Ninth mantra: Avidya & Vidya:

1) Andham tamah pravishanti ; ye avidyaam upaasate; 2) tatah bhooyah ive te tamah; ye u vidyaayaam rataah.

Pin your faith to natural knowledge, stumble through the darkness of the blind, pin your faith to supernatural knowledge, stumble through a darkness deeper still.

§ Tenth mantra: The fruits of Avidya & Vidya:

Anyat eve aanuh vidyayaa, anyat aahuh avidyayaa; iti shushruma dheeraanaam, ye nah tat vicha-chakshire.

They enter into blinding darkness who are worshippers of Avidya alone; but they enter even greater darkness, who verily are worshippers of Vidya alone. One thing, they say, is obtained from Vidya, and another thing, they say, from Avidya; Thus we have heard from wise, who have explained it to us.

§ Eleventh mantra: Combination of Avidya & Vidya:

Vidyaam cha avidyaam yah, tatvedaubhayam saha; avidya mrityumteettvaa, mashnute vidyayaamrita.

They that know and distinguish between natural knowledge and supernatural knowledge shall by the first cross the perishable in safety; shall, passing beyond the second, attain immortal life. 

Vidya (Knowledge) and Avidya(Ignorance: he who knows them both together, overcomes death [darkness] through Avidya and obtains immortality through Vidya.

Above three mantras are very important. We must understand the essence of the mantras. The essence is that we should equalise jnana (vidya) and ajnana (avidya) and should not adhere to either the one or the other alone. According to the scholars, knowledge of Ishwara can not be obtained by Karma alone nor by knowledge alone. Avidya = Karma and Vidya = Knowledge. Avidya yields fruits of karma, which has time bound existence. Hence attainment of Moksha [ liberation] is not possible, since several births are required to enjoy the fruits of Karma. This is called falling into utter Darkness which is nothing but SAMSARA. The mantra further says that if Upasana of Vidya means devotion is offered alone , it is still worse, because it will lead to greater Darkness. He who understands the correct meaning of this avidya and vidya and maintains balance between them and does Upasana, accordingly, can cross the world of Death and attains mortality.

Different scholars of different darshanas has given different opinion on vidya and avidya. Let us look into Shankaracharya’s commentary. His method of analysis is on the basis of subtle meaning of both the words. He always considered Advaita Philosophy to explain these two words: avidya and vidya. The knowledge of the world is Avidya and the knowledge of Ishwara is Vidya. The world of objects is presented to us by our senses and we see the world [jagat] as real. We are ignorant about the thread of Consciousness running through each and every object. There is certainly connection between the visible world and unseen Ishwara. In general we believe that we the jivas are separate entity and Ishwara is separate entity. The cause of existence and experience of the world is due to the presence of Ishwara. So long as we are in the world with a sense of separate existence as the Jiva, the world has to be accepted as though it is real.

§ Twelfth mantra: Worshipping Unmanifest and Manifest:

1) andham tamah pravishanti; ye asambhootim-upaasate; 2) tato bhooya iva te tamo; ya u sambhootyaagm ratah.

Pin your faith to the seed of nature, stumble through the darkness of the blind; pin your faith to the shapes of  nature, stumble through a darkness deeper still.

They enter into blinding darkness who aim to conquer the Unmanifest cause of creation; but they enter into even greater darkness.

§ Thirteenth mantra: Fruits of Unmanifest and Manifest:

1) anyat evaaahuh sambhavaat, anyat aahuh asambhavaat; 2) iti shushruma dheeraanaam, ye nah tatvicha-chakshire.

The seed of nature brings one result; the shapes of nature another. We have heard it from the wise, who have clearly explained it.

Readers are requested to read the Sanskrit version of this Upanishad from the site whose link is here:

Conclusion:

Action: Karma: Duty

Karma is to be performed without expecting the fruits of Karma: Niskama Karma.

Jnana: Knowledge: The Truth

The nature of the  Oneness : One Unity is the Ultimate Jnana: True knowledge.

Oneness: It is that, when: 

  • A person does not see as mine or not-mine.
  • No more love and hate for objects
  • No more likes and dislikes.
  • One transcends all pleasure and pain.
  • There is no more Duality of subject and object.
  • The waves and ocean are both seen as water alone.
  • The blazing sparks are not different from the fire producing them.

Rebirth continues until Realization.

Katha Upanishad Mantra-2.3.4 says: If one does not succeed in realizing Him (The Self), before the fall of the Body, then in the worlds of created things, a rebirth for the Body is ordained.

Recommended readings:

  1. Back to the Truth: 5000 years of ADVAITA by Dennis Waite. **
  2. THE TEN PRINCIPAL UPANISHADS: Translated by Shree Purohit** Swami and W.B.Yeats
  3. Isavasya Upanishad for Beginners: By Swami Krishnananda.
  4. Brahma Sutra Bhasya of Sankaracharya: Translated by Swami Gambhirananda.**
  5. Commentary of ChAndogya Upanishad: By Swami Krishnananda.
  6. IshaVasya Upanishad: By Swami GuruBhaktananda.
  7. EIGHT UPANISADS -VOL-1 with commentary of Sankaracharya, Translated by SWAMI GAMBHIRANANDA.
  8. THE TAITTIRIYA UPANISHAD: SHIKSHAVALLI-ANANDAVALLI-BHRIGUVALLI with Sri Shankara’s Commentary By Sri Swami Satchidanandera Saraswati.
  9. A-U-M Awakening to Reality: By Dennis Waite***
  10. Panchadasi: Swami Vidyaranya:
  11. Information available on internet.

∝ζ::  Concluding part will consist Mantra-14 to Mantra-18: Will be published soon!😊🙏🙏❤️

It is my sincere request to the esteemed readers to share their opinion or queries if any. Suggestions to make the site attractive will be incredibly helpful for me. Readers are requested to read all the posts to have continuation of the topic from the beginning. My mail ID is: arun7663@gmail.com

Spark of the Flaming Fire

 

The Essence of IshaVasya Upanishad- Part-1

Introduction: ईशोपनिषत्

§ The IshaVasya Upanishad is the only one which occurs in the Samhita portion of  Shukla Yajur Veda. It is one of the Ten principal Upanishads. Though,  one of the shortest Upanishads, yet it is loaded with profound thoughts.

§ Isha Upanishad is a smaller one with 18 Mantras. This appears in the final chapter of Shukla Yajurveda. Among Ten Principal Upanishads, this comes in the beginning of the list. Isha means the Lord of the Universe. 

What is Upanishad?

Upanishad is Brahmavidya:

Upanishads are ancient Texts which do not construct any complex system of ideas and beliefs. They are plain and straightforward, yet very difficult to grasp. Require repeated reading and thinking on the context [SRAVANA, MANANA & NIDIDHYASYANA]. This is the science of Mind. Upanishads are instructions of Teachers to disciples through dialog between the two.

Upanishad literally means ” To learn the teachings, sitting rear the Teacher,( or sitting near the feet of Teacher). Upanishad is Brahmavidya [ sacred knowledge]which leads the aspirant towards Brahman who are desirous of liberation. There are 108 Upanishads. Out of 108, Upanishads, Ten Upanishads are regarded as Ten Principal Upanishads. They are: 

  1. IshaVasya Upanishad
  2. Kena Upanishad
  3. Katha Upanishad
  4. Prashna Upanishad
  5. Mundaka Upanishad
  6. Mandukya Upanishad
  7. Taittiriya Upanishad
  8. Aitareya Upanishad
  9. ChAndogya Upanishad
  10. BRRihadAraNyaka Upanishad

In this part we will discuss Isha Upanishad.

Study of this Upanishad will deliver teachings on both ” Jnana Yoga” and  “Karma Yoga”. Aspirants who seek freedom from the bondage of this World will go for ” Jnana Yoga”, where renunciation is the most appropriate path to achieve goal. And ” Karma Yoga” is for the aspirants who are very desirous of attaining highest degree of closeness with GOD, such as achieving “Brahma Loka”.

This Upanishad starts with the Shanti Mantra as below:
ॐ पूर्णमदः पूर्णमिदं पूर्णात् पूर्णमुदच्यते । पूर्णस्य पूर्णमादाय पूर्णमेवावशिष्यते ॥ 
ॐ शांतिः शांतिः शांतिः ॥
Om poornamadah poornamidam poornaat- poornam-Udachayate; Poornasya Poorna-maadaaya Poorna-mevaa-vasishyate. Om Shanti! Shanti! Shanti!

Meaning of this mantra is :   ∞ + ∞  = ∞ 

” That is Whole, this is Whole; from the Whole, the Whole becomes manifest; from the Whole, when the Whole is negated, the Whole alone is what remains”

॥ अथ ईशोपनिषत् ॥

First mantra: The Path of Renunciation:

1) Ishavasyam idam sarvam yat kim ca jagatyam jagat; 2) tena tyaktena bhunjitha, ma gridhah kasyasvid dhanam.

Analysis: The Lord Pervades the World(s)

  1. Whatever exists in this changing Universe is full of the Lord. All this is enveloped by the Supreme being. That supreme reality pervades everything here and there. There is no such place where It is not there. It exists in everything.
  2. Protect the Self by renunciation. Claim nothing; enjoy, do not covet anybody’s property. Let go and rejoice. Be practical. It does not mean giving up.

Though it is believed that possession and acquisition lead to happiness, but possessiveness creates attachment. Attachment brings unhappiness. Renunciation is the path for true happiness. An aspirant who devotes himself or herself entirely to contemplation of the Self as the Lord, has no further need of worldly duties. This renunciation leads to the knowledge of the Self and finds immortality.

Second mantra: “Niskama Karmayoga” is the concept we get from the second mantra.

1) Kurvanneveha karmani jijivisecchatam samah; 
2) evam tvayi nanyatheto'sti na karma lipyate nare.  

Kurvanneveha karmani” means only by doing Karma [ karma means duties]( here karma means all rituals like Agnihotra etc). “jijivisecchatam samah”  means like to live for 100 years. By doing such karma , bad karma will not touch you. It is recommended that such karma should be done with constant selfless attitude. Performing duties without any motive, one will not be bounded to the actions. This path of action is known as ” Pravritti Marga”

Second mantra emphasize on doing our duty as an act for Ishwara ( means His creation) as His agent and not to act for own self, to benefit self. Doing so, live as long as you wish. 100 years of living is just symbolic here.

 All we know that , when we reach at the core of the Consciousness, the Awareness, we find there a stillness in mind which has no conflicts, no disruption in mind. We can then think of a state of ” NO MIND” what we say as ” Chitta Vritti Nirodah” the beginning of Patanjali Yoga Sutras. Here mind is calm, quite and still. In reality that is our true nature. “YOU ARE THAT’ according to ChAndagyo Upanishad. If we can live this way, karmic law can not bind us. “na karma lipyate” Therefore let go and be pleased with what you have and enjoy.

Third Mantra: 

§ The Sunless World: The path of sufferings:

1) Asurya nama te loka andhena tamasavrtah; 2) tamste pretyabhigacchanti ye ke cat mahano janah.

They that deny the Self, return after death to a godless birth, blind, enveloped in darkness. [ These births partake of the nature of Asuras, the demons”)

The third Mantra says about the darkness which has to be understood in depth. This is the world of demons filled with demoniac wealth. Asurya = a + surya: means where Sun is not there. This literally means that there is only darkness in that world. There is no light there. This darkness is meant for ignorance. Light of Wisdom shines this darkness. 

The Upanishad says this world of  darkness [ Asurya loka] as world of a) Spiritual Blindness, b) Spiritual darkness, c) Spiritual ignorance and engaging in the deeds that kill the awareness. Such darkness keeps away from the freedom of the Eternal, Immortal, Divine Self.

Here lokas are referred to those dimensions, also known as astral planes, where births takes place according to fruits of karma which are enjoyed “lokyante”. Ignorance which block the realization of one’s true nature of Self, thereby becomes the cause for repeated births according to the deeds. ” ye ke catmahano janah” : This means that those who do not know atman due to ignorance are slayers of atman(atmahanah). And for this fault of slaying atman they return to Samsara( this world).

Q) What causes rebirth? 

Answer: So long you are away from knowing your true self, you yourself is the cause of your rebirth.

 Fourth Mantra: Nature of the Self(Atman)

 1) anejadekam manaso javiyo nainaddeva apnuvanpurvamarsat ; 2) tad dhavatah anyan-atyeti tisthat tasminnapah matarisva dadhaati.

§ Unmoving, it moves swifter than thought. Remaining still, It outstrips all that run.

The Self is One. Unmoving, it moves faster than mind. The senses (Devas) lag, but Self runs ahead. Unmoving, it outruns pursuit. Out of Self comes the breath, that is the life of all things. In It, as Water by the Air, all action of all living beings are supported.

Analysis:-

This Self, the Absolute Truth, the Awareness, Infinite, Immortal, Omnipresent, indescribable, known as Brahman in Vedas is without attributes and beyond Space and Time. This Self is truly ONE, the WHOLE and therefore all-embracing.

This is to be understood that there is a centre which is not fixed in one place but it moves. Everything moves, such as this Universe is expanding. Galaxies are going far away from one another. Subatomic particles, electrons move. Mind moves. Everything moves but One remain unmoving and that is Awareness.

This Self is beyond the senses, beyond the understanding, beyond all expression. It is pure Awareness[ NIRGUNA BRAHMAN]. It is BLISS. It is ONE without SECOND. Know it Alone!

The Devas represent the mind and senses. The ignorant mind, not aware of who the Self is, tries to catch It, through different paths, different knowledge, but never succeeds. The Self, as it were, is always ahead of the mind. 

All the objects are perceived through five senses. We have limitations of perceptions. These five senses are five instruments. The Brain system processes data inputs received through these five instruments. There are creatures, whose instruments are different from us. Whether it be vision or hearing or sensing through skin etc. As like in case of snakes, which can sense 0.02 degree of difference in temperature. Similarly there are examples in case of audible sound frequencies. For vision too there are different creatures with different abilities. Therefore different impressions, and different perceptions work. Nothing is impossible. so, the interpretation of existence is quite relative according to difference in perceptions.

Essence of existence (SAT) is that It is all pervading. If we can activate the core of everything, that is Consciousness, then we can perceive some extra, more than what is ordinary. For that we must remove avidya (ignorance). We have to search for extra which can not be perceived through sense organs. That is known as “seeking the truth”. 

So nearer yet far away. For that we have to realize that : I am not separate from the Truth, the Existence(sat), the Consciousness(chit). I am the Consciousness. I am aware that I am pure Consciousness. Pure Consciousness is that Consciousness, where there is no thought.

Fifth Mantra:

§ The Self appears to move-yet It moves not. It is far distant-yet It is near. It is within all, and It is without all.

1) tat ejati tat na ejati tat doore tat u antike, 2) tat antarasya sarvasya tat u sarvasyasya bahyatah.

1) The meaning of the mantra in this part is that: the Atman moves and yet It moves not; It is far away and yet is near. 2) The second part of the mantra says: It is within all of this; and yet It is also outside of all this.

Analysis:

The Self is beyond all mental concepts. far and near, within and outside, moving and unmoving – all these are concepts of mind with respect to space and time. Mind tells us that we can not catch the Self. The mind and the Self are in two different realms of reality. But let us look into the pictures given below: 

This is how ONE became many.

 Sixth Mantra: The Jnani- Seer of the Self:

1) yas tu sarvani bhutani aatmani eva anupashyati 2) sarva bhutesu ca aatmanam tatah na vijugupsate.

1) He who sees all beings and forms in the Self, he alone really sees. 2) He also sees the Self in all beings and forms, there after he feels no hatred towards anyone.

Analysis: Everything in the creation is Atman:

The sixth mantra says that seeing all beings in the Lord, means as being superimposed on the Lord and seeing the Lord in all beings means as the substratum of all beings. God- realization ceases the existence of individuality and creates Universality. Sarvatma Bhava must be the feelings for equality. This is the true essence of God-realization. This will ensure the absence of all ill feelings in human. We should see the Virat [jagat] as our own Atman. There should be neither Raga nor Dvesa, nor the feelings of exhilaration nor grieving. When one has such an integrated vision of life, it becomes impossible to hate any being. Dislike and hatred only come when we see others as different from us.

Seventh Mantra: Freedom from Delusion and sorrow:

1) yasmin sarvani bhutany atmaivabhud vijanata 2) tatra ko mohah kahsoka hekatvam anupasyatah.

1) When all beings and forms have become one in his own Self-knowing thus; 2) how can he feel delusion and grief thereafter, who sees oneness (Non-Duality) alone everywhere.

Analysis:

When the feeling of Oneness will be permanent, the person will not consider any event or object as his or her. The thinking of mine or not mine will vanish. There will be equality in all spheres of life under all circumstances. One transcends all pain and pleasures. Then there will be no more duality of subject and object. No more experiencer, experiencing and experienced. As in an ocean, the waves are not separate from ocean. Arises in the ocean and merge there itself.

Conclusion:

Reward of Realisation: The Birth of Universal Love

When we realise the Text so far discussed above, we will be to establish an World free of Hate. The vision of Unity will prevail then. Universal Love will be seen everywhere. The experience of Oneness with all beings comes as a result of the highest knowledge by discovering the true nature of Self.

Readers are requested to read the Sanskrit version of this Upanishad from the site whose link is here:

Recommended readings:
  1. Back to the Truth: 5000 years of ADVAITA by Dennis Waite. **
  2. THE TEN PRINCIPAL UPANISHADS: Translated by Shree Purohit** Swami and W.B.Yeats
  3. Isavasya Upanishad for Beginners: By Swami Krishnananda.
  4. Brahma Sutra Bhasya of Sankaracharya: Translated by Swami Gambhirananda.**
  5. Commentary of ChAndogya Upanishad: By Swami Krishnananda.
  6. IshaVasya Upanishad: By Swami GuruBhaktananda.
  7. EIGHT UPANISADS -VOL-1 with commentary of Sankaracharya, Translated by SWAMI GAMBHIRANANDA.
  8. THE TAITTIRIYA UPANISHAD: SHIKSHAVALLI-ANANDAVALLI-BHRIGUVALLI with Sri Shankara’s Commentary By Sri Swami Satchidanandera Saraswati.
  9. A-U-M Awakening to Reality: By Dennis Waite***
  10. Panchadasi: Swami Vidyaranya:
  11. Information available on internet.

It is my sincere request to the esteemed readers to share their opinion or queries if any. Suggestions to make the site attractive will be incredibly helpful for me. Readers are requested to read all the posts to have continuation of the topic from the beginning. My mail ID is: arun7663@gmail.com

 

Awareness: The Ultimate Truth

Introduction:
Awareness: IT is That which is Absolute, fills all space, is complete in Itself, to which there is no second and which is continuously present in everything, in every being and everywhere. It is homogeneous in nature. It is known as “Brahman in Vedanta”

Awareness is pure Consciousness.

There is no full proof scientific definition of Awareness in general . However, according to Advaita Vedanta philosophy, Reality is identified as “Brahman” . Brahman is identified as singular in nature, identical to the Self and known as Pure Being (Sat) , Awareness (Chit) and Bliss (Ananda). The visible world(Matter) is considered to be illusory (Maya~ Mithya). Bhagavad Gita says: Awareness is one and undivided in all beings , but it appears to be divided, when shinning through many bodies and minds. [ Ch-13: 16-18.]

Awareness is that, in which all experiences appear. It is that with which all experiences are made.

The common name is “I ” or “Self”. According to Vedas (Sacred Texts of ancient India), Brahman is Infinite being. All these refer to “THAT” in which experience appears. With which it is known and out of which it is made. Conventional view is that our thoughts and feelings, perceptions appear in ourselves through awareness.

Please read the following Paragraph carefully:

If we observe carefully, we will see these thoughts appear in some kind of Field. They appear in that space. Consciousness is not though a space but say a field or space like. Now may we close our eyes and allow our thoughts to move freely wherever it goes according to previous experiences. Think for a moment. It can be observed minutely. Does my attention ever leave the field of Awareness? Thoughts inside “I AM” and sound outside “I AM” are not separate. They are linked. Allow our attention to go wherever it goes and have a single question. Does ever my attention leave the Awareness? Try to leave the field out. Imagine out of box now, such as that experience which you have not experienced earlier. or remember that you landed on the Mars. New sets of perceptions appear. Now, are these new perceptions inside Awareness or outside Awareness? Is there any feeling, perceptions outside Awareness? Can we leave our Awareness where there is no feeling?

Simply and clearly nobody has ever come in contact with any experience outside of Awareness. Strangely our entire world culture is founded on a single belief . According to Science, there is a substance which exists outside Awareness and that substance is Matter. Matter is the fundamental reality of all existence. Classical physics, reductionists and science at least believe this that Consciousness is derived from Matter. This is the primary assumption as a whole. Since the invention of matter, scientists are saying that Awareness is product of Matter.

Now question arises. Q-1) What is the nature of Universe? Q-2) How Awareness can be derived from matter? Both are contradictory. For question no. 1): Science do not ever acknowledge that we have answer. For question no. 2): How is Awareness derived from Matter (from brain arises consciousness…but brain is matter). We presumed that the stuff called matter is Universe and then we ask how Awareness derived from matter. Now, the question is how the Universe has come up?

Awareness is our experience.

Now therefore, Awareness is our subject to be known, the field of study. We are aware of what we have experienced. What is the nature of that knowing that is more important. Until we know the nature of knowing with which our experience is known, or until we know the nature of the Awareness where our experience appears we cannot know anything that is true about the body, mind and beyond.

We must first know what the nature of Awareness is?

Now if we ask ourselves ” Am I aware”? Then comes the answer “yes”. There is some gap between two thoughts. What happens is that after putting the first question “Am I aware” question makes some pause and ask the system to get the reply and there it collapses and reply the answer “yes”. During this gap of time, awareness tests itself momentarily. In the pause between the question, I am aware that I am aware. Awareness knows itself. That is the pause and it is Awareness itself who replies yes I am aware. I AM AWARE THAT I AM AWARE.

“No mind” : What is it?

Think of that which is not objective and see.

Awareness recognizes its own Being. Only awareness knows that it is awareness. No mind is the answer. Although thought is made of awareness only, yet it cannot know the stuff it is made of. Awareness is a field which is aware that it is a field adding a space like quality. It is empty from the point of view of objective. It is free from objective. It is like a screen of awareness where all the experiences appear. There is single Awareness (NON DUAL).

Awareness is fundamental:

We can say it is Universal Consciousness. It has no border, it has no shape, no form, not distinguishable, the single infinite, indivisible entity(The whole, the ONE).

Now, imagine a scene of dream. Dream breaks, then what remains in mind? What was in dream? Where is the scene seen? Seen by whom?

In the study of Awareness , there is a break through by Upanishads: NON-DUAL VEDANTA (ADVAITA VEDANTA). It is not about mystical experiences too. It is about daily experiences like awaking , dreaming and deep sleep. Now let us apply some logical thoughts and investigate.

Vedanta is an investigation to find out who or what we are? When we will realize that we are not limited to this body of flesh and blood, but we are immortal Awareness.

It is a journey from not knowing to knowing. There are methodologies to understand, to establish logics. We may refer the text “DIG DRISHYA VIVEKA which has been written some 700 years back.

  • We see the world through eyes. Eyes are distinct from what it sees. Here, eyes are the seer.
  • I am aware of the eyes , that eyes are object. Mind is seer and eyes are now object. Eyes and mind are separate.

Let us think deeply. Mind is the observer of the body , because it observes through all sense organs. it is seer here. Let us observe Mind now. Mind itself which constitutes our thoughts, feeling ,emotions , ideas are changing, which are never static. I am aware that whether,

  • I am happy or not.
  • I understand or do not understand.
  • I like or do not like.
  • I love or do not love.
  • I hate or do not hate.
  • I am angry or not angry.

All above are expressions of our mind. These are wave of thoughts. So, I am aware of all the changes in my mind. Therefore, I am the witness of the mind. Hence mind is seen by Me. Evidently , I am distinct from the MIND. I am not the mind, but witness of the mind. Seer and seen are different. I am that who illumines my MIND.

Now that I am distinct from this Body and Mind . So, Who Am I?

Answer is :– I Am the Awareness. I Am the Witness of the Body and Mind. This Self, this pure Subject, is not an object. It cannot be known. I AM always Awareness, not something else.

Conclusion:

The knowing of consciousness with which we experience, cannot be divided into parts. Trace the “I” to its origin after removing all experiences to the essence of nature of our minds, we will land into same Consciousness. Our finite minds overlap, and we call that the outside world and part of minds which do not overlap, we call it that thoughts and feelings. Our minds are the elements of the Universal consciousness. We do share the world of same Consciousness.

List of Books : Recommended For Interested Readers:

  1. Thought As a System: By DAVID BOHM
  2. BIOCENTRISM:– How life and consciousness are the keys to Understanding the True Nature of The Universe: By Robert Lanza, MD with BOB BERMAN
  3. Beyond Biocentrism- Rethinking Time, Space, Consciousness and the illusion of Death. By Robert Lanza, MD with BOB BERMAN
  4. Entangled Minds- Extra Sensory Experiences in A Quantum Reality. By DEAN RADIN.
  5. Expand Your Consciousness through DAVID K MILLER
  6. QUANTUM ENIGMA -Physics Encounter Consciousness: By Bruce Rosen Blum and Fred Kuttner.
  7. Back to the Truth: 5000 years of ADVAITA by Dennis Waite.**
  8. THE TEN PRINCIPAL UPANISHADS: Translated by Shree Purohit** Swami and W.B.Yeats
  9. Brahma Sutra Bhasya of Sankaracharya: Translated by Swami Gambhirananda.**
  10. EIGHT UPANISADS -VOL-1 with commentary of Sankaracharya, Translated by SWAMI GAMBHIRANANDA.
  11. A-U-M Awakening to Reality : By Dennis Waite***
  12. Panchadasi: Swami Vidyaranya:
  13. Information available on internet.

It is my sincere request to the esteemed readers to share their opinion or queries if any. Suggestions to make the site attractive will be highly helpful for me. Readers are requested to read all the posts to have continuation of the topic from the beginning. My mail ID is : arun7663@gmail.com

Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-8A

Introduction: Eighth Chapter:

The ChAndogya Upanishad is part of ChAndogya Brahmana of the Sama Veda which is one of the largest important Upanishads with Eight Chapters (Prapathakas) with many Mantras(verses )including some stories as themes to gain Upanishadic knowledge. This Upanishad is placed in the 9th position in the list of Ten Principal Upanishads. The name of the Upanishad is derived from the word “Chanda” (Rhythm~ poetic meter).

**This Upanishad directly deals with the true nature of Brahman, the Supreme Self, without a second.

ChAndogya Upanishad consists of Eight chapters. The first five chapters forms the part of Karma Kanda[ rituals] and Upasana Kanda [worship and meditation]. Chapter- 6, 7 and 8 form the part of Jnana Kanda[profound Self-knowledge].

The essence of the Teaching is: – “Brahma Vidya”

Brahma Vidya: It is the knowledge of the ultimate Truth which results in Self realisation. The knower of this Truth remains untouched by any situation in life.

This chapter is especially intended for those who are unable to grasp the vastness of “Absolute”, the subject like Bhooma Vidya (Infinity), taught in the previous chapter. Though this chapter confines itself to the Heart of an individual, but that does not limit itself to the body of an individual. The heart here mentioned is used as symbol as the center of the pure subjectivity in us and therefore heart refers to consciousness, which is apparently located within the walls of the body, but never limited to physical body.

A request to my readers: Please read my previous posts on ChAndogya Upanishad, especially 6th & 7th chapter. Links are given below:

  1. Chapter Six: Section-1 to Section-4(Khanda-1 to Khanda-4). The link is here: Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-6A of 6
  2. Chapter Six: Section-5 to Section-8(Khanda-5 to Khanda-8). The link is here: Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-6B of 6
  3. Chapter Six: Section-9 to Section-16(Khanda-9 to Khanda-16). The link is here: Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-6C of 6[END OF 6TH CHAPTER]
  4. Chapter-7 : Section-1 to Section-6 has been discussed. The link is here:- Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-7A
  5. Chapter-7 : Section-7 to Section-12 has been discussed. The link is here:- Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-7B
  6. Chapter-7 : Section-13 to Section-22: The link is here:- Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-7C
  7. Chapter-7 : Section-23 to Section-27: The link is here:- Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-7D[FINAL PART]

This post is part-1[8A] of Eighth Chapter of Chandagyo Upanishad. Section-1 to Section-3 discussed here.

Section-1: [Six Mantras]: The Universal Self within the Heart:

In this section we will learn that there is the City of Brahman ( Brahmapuram), the Absolute, in our own Self.

Mantra-1-2: The Chidaakaash Within:


“Within the City of Brahman, which is the Body, there is the Heart, and within the Heart there is a little house. The house has the shape of a Lotus, and within it dwells that which shines by its own light which is to be sought after, inquired about, and realized. What is there in that space? One should know what is there? Why it is so important? We will try to know that from the following Mantras.

** The Body is the abode of Brahman, the Self. In that Body, the core-centre is at Heart. Within heart is a “dahara”, the space, which is not akasha , one of the five basic elements, as we have seen earlier. This akasha is “Chidaakaash”, the space of Consciousness.

Mantra-3: Heart is emblem of the Cosmic Secret:

Teacher said: “You ask me what is inside this little space. I tell you that everything is inside there.” There is as much in that little space within the heart, as there is in the whole Universe outside. Heaven, Earth, Fire, Wind, Sun, Moon, Lightning, Stars, whatever is and whatever is not, everything is there.
[*** HOLOGRAPHIC UNIVERSE] It is an emblem of the cosmic secret. Whatever is the extent of this vast space that is outside, that is the extent of this little space in our heart also. The whole of the celestial sphere can be found inside this little space. The principles of the five elements, – earth, water, fire, air, and ether- and everything you see or do not see, all are present here in this little space.

Mantra-4-5: Teacher continues:-

What lies in that space, does not decay when the body decays, nor does it fall when the body falls. That space is the home of Brahman. Every desire is there. Self is there, beyond decay and death; sin and sorrow; hunger and thirst; His aim Truth, His will Truth. Man can live in the body as long as he obeys the law, as man may live in a certain farm, in a certain town, in a certain province, or wherever he wishes, if he obeys the law.

** Though old age comes to the body, the lotus of the heart does not grow old. When body dies, it does not die. Brahman exists there. He is untouched by any deed. Does not suffer ageing, free from hunger, grief, and thirst. His desires are right desires, and his desires are fulfilled.

Mantra-6: Swarajyam

As just in this world, the Region won by action perishes, so does perish in the other world, the Region won by righteous deeds. Earthly pleasers exhaust themselves; heavenly pleasures exhaust themselves. Wherever men go without attaining Self or knowing the Truth, they can not move at their pleasure; but after attaining Self and knowing Truth, wherever they go, they move at their pleasure.

** We know all the wealth accumulated by one exhausts or perishes with time. Likewise, heavenly enjoyments which are acquired by the good deeds( through sacrifices etc) also exhausts after certain time. Therefore, who dies without realising the Self, the Truth, can not find eternal happiness wherever he goes. But for those who know the Self can attain eternal happiness wherever he goes , means in whichever Loka he goes.

Section-2 [Ten Mantras]: Different higher worlds

Mantra-1. If a person wants to see someone, say a forefather in the other world, he can see him at once. There is no such thing as other world for a person who has Realised the “Atman”
Mantra-2. If a man wants the company of his fathers, all he need to do is to Will it. They will appear and make him happy.
Mantra-3. If he wants the company of his mothers, all he need to do is to Will it. They will appear and make him happy.
Mantra-4. If he wants the company of his brothers, all he need to do is to Will it. They will appear and make him happy.
Mantra-5. If he wants the company of his sisters, all he need to do is to Will it. They will appear and make him happy.
Mantra-6. If he wants the company of his friends, all he need to do is to Will it. They will appear and make him happy.
Mantra-7. If he wants women, all he need to do is to Will it. They will appear and make him happy.
Mantra-8. If he wants perfume or flowers, all he need to do is to Will it. It will appear and make him happy.
Mantra-9. If he wants food and drinks, all he need to do is to Will it. It will appear and make him happy.
Mantra-10. If he wants a thing or a place, all he need to do is to Will it. It will appear and make him happy.

The above 10 mantras in this section emphasize on the subject that everything we can think of, – relatives, friends, fathers, mothers, husbands, wives, good things, great things, pleasant things, objects of desire present in this world or in the other world -whatever they be, they do not take time to manifest themselves if the will is exercised in the proper manner. That means the will has to be in tune with the law of Atman. All such desires in our hearts are really distorted forms of the manifestation of Consciousness in some way or the other. There is some defect in the movement of Consciousness when it gets lodged in the body of an individual and imagines that it is somehow or other limited to the extent of that body alone. This type of imagination is falsehood which gets mixed-up with truth and then it becomes difficult for us to know the Reality, The Truth, the Infinite.

Section-3 [Five Mantras]: The Space within the Heart:

Desires are true but covered by falsehood:

त इमे सत्याः कामा अनृतापिधानास्तेषाꣳ सत्यानाꣳ
सतामनृतमपिधानं यो यो ह्यस्येतः प्रैति न तमिह
दर्शनाय लभते ॥ ८.३.१॥

Mantra-1. Those justified desires which are such, remain covered by falsehood. Falsehood is the cover for those existing true desires because whosoever of one’s relatives departs from here, is not available to be seen here again.

Unfailing desires are covered by falsehood. That means desires are indeed true, but they are covered by falsehood. Truth means vision for the things as they are in reality and falsehood means which opposes that reality. In reality things are not disconnected from one another. But for our wrong notions, we see the things different from one another in this Universe. Therefore, what we perceive as different worlds, is not different. It is for the varying consciousness of the limited self; we experience different worlds. What we consider as different “lokas”[realms of being] are actually one and present in our heart. When “jivatma” is imprisoned in a particular body, then due to finite and limited consciousness, it appears that jivatma is different from external world. But truly it is not!

अथ ये चास्येह जीवा ये च प्रेता यच्चान्यदिच्छन्न
लभते सर्वं तदत्र गत्वा विन्दतेऽत्र ह्यस्यैते सत्याः
कामा अनृतापिधानास्तद्यथापि हिरण्यनिधिं निहितमक्षेत्रज्ञा
उपर्युपरि सञ्चरन्तो न विन्देयुरेवमेवेमाः सर्वाः प्रजा
अहरहर्गच्छन्त्य एतं ब्रह्मलोकं न विन्दन्त्यनृतेन हि
प्रत्यूढाः ॥ ८.३.२॥

Wise man sees everything in Self:

Mantra-2. Again, those of his relatives who are still alive and those who are dead, and also those things a person cannot get even if he wishes for them-all these he gets by going within his heart. All true desires of a person are in his heart, though they are hidden. It is like when there is gold hidden some place underground and people who are ignorant of it walk over that spot again and again, knowing nothing about it. Similarly, all these beings go to Brahmaloka every day, and yet they know nothing about it because they are covered by ignorance.

Inside the heart is the whole Universe. When we have susupti, dreamless sleep, we are then one with Brahman and one with the whole world. We are not conscious of it, because of our ignorance.

In this section the Upanishad is teaching us to understand the truth that those people who have passed on from this world, those who are born and those who are not yet born, those who have come and those who have gone to other worlds are in our own hearts. They are not outside somewhere. We carry them in our own hearts, in the space of our Consciousness. It has been said earlier that whatever is outside is also inside.

Self stays in the heart:

Mantra-3. Self stays in the heart; heart, a word that seems to say here it is. Who knows this, daily enjoys the kingdom of Heaven.

Where the Self resides? It is within. Normally people think GOD is above in sky or in temple or somewhere beyond[ In English word, GOD is known as Supreme to the people who believes in GOD]. But the truth is this that in reality, GOD is in our own heart. The heart is the seat of Self-realization. One who knows that, goes daily to the heavenly world in the deep sleep (dreamless sleep). In deep sleep he is with Brahman. that means we go into our own Self. We become one with the Self. This we have seen in Mandukya Upanishad.

Mantra-4. A wise man, leaving his body, joins the flame; is one with His own nature. That nature is Self, fearless immortal Brahman.

Knowledge is associated with light. ” Tamasah ma jyotih gamaya- lead us from darkness to light. Means lead us from darkness of ignorance to the light of knowledge. Mandukya Upanishad has explained in details that during Awaking condition we are more attached to our body and try to enjoy through our sense organs. That becomes the cause of unhappiness. When we overcome our desires [which are active during awaking condition], we find our true nature. Our true nature is free from fear and full of Bliss.

Mantra-5. Whatever binds mortal and immortal, they call truth. Who knows this, daily enjoys the Kingdom of Heaven.

This Mantra says that Sa, ti, and yam – these are the three syllables which represent Brahman. Sa = Immortal, ti = mortal, yam = controls mortal and immortal. He who knows this enjoys divine bliss everyday in dreamless sleep.

Conclusion:

This chapter states that in this Body is “City of Brahman” and in that city there is a palace shaped like a lotus. In that palace there is a little space within the Heart. It is special because the entire Universe is contained within it. If everything is in man’s body, every being, every desire, what remains when old age comes, when decay begins, when the body falls? What lies in that space, does not decay when the body decays, nor does it fall when the body falls. That space is the home of Brahman, the Supreme. Every desire is there. Self is there, beyond decay and death; sin and sorrow; hunger and thirst. Self stays in heart. Heart, a word that seems to say, “here it is”. Who knows this, daily enjoys the kingdom of Heaven [DEEP SLEEP~ “susupti”].

The link for reading text in Sanskrit is here:- Chandgoya Upanishad

Recommended readings:

  1. Back to the Truth: 5000 years of ADVAITA by Dennis Waite. **
  2. THE TEN PRINCIPAL UPANISHADS: Translated by Shree Purohit** Swami and W.B.Yeats
  3. Brahma Sutra Bhasya of Sankaracharya: Translated by Swami Gambhirananda.**
  4. Commentary of ChAndogya Upanishad: By Swami Krishnananda.
  5. ChAndogya Upanishad: By Swami GuruBhaktananda.
  6. EIGHT UPANISADS -VOL-1 with commentary of Sankaracharya, Translated by SWAMI GAMBHIRANANDA.
  7. THE TAITTIRIYA UPANISHAD: SHIKSHAVALLI-ANANDAVALLI-BHRIGUVALLI with Sri Shankara’s Commentary By Sri Swami Satchidanandera Saraswati.
  8. A-U-M Awakening to Reality: By Dennis Waite***
  9. Panchadasi: Swami Vidyaranya:
  10. Information available on internet.

It is my sincere request to the esteemed readers to share their opinion or queries if any. Suggestions to make the site attractive will be incredibly helpful for me. Readers are requested to read all the posts to have continuation of the topic from the beginning. My mail ID is: arun7663@gmail.com

*THE CITY OF BRAHMAN*

Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-7D[FINAL PART]

Introduction: Seventh Chapter:

The ChAndogya Upanishad is part of ChAndogya Brahmana of the Sama Veda which is one of the largest important Upanishads with Eight Chapters (Prapathakas) with many verses including some stories as themes to gain Upanishadic knowledge. This Upanishad is placed in the 9th position in the list of Ten Principal Upanishads. The name of the Upanishad is derived from the word   “Chanda” (Rhythm~ poetic meter).

**This Upanishad directly deals with the true nature of Brahman, the Supreme Self, without a second.

ChAndogya Upanishad consists of Eight chapters. The first five chapters forms the part of Karma Kanda and Upasana Kanda. Chapter- 6, 7 and 8 form the part of Jnana Kanda.

The essence of the Teaching is: – The Infinite Bliss ~ “Bhumaiva Sukham”

This post is final part [7-D] of Chapter-7 of Chandagyo Upanishad. Section-23 to Section-27. 

*First part of Chapter-7 has been published in my blog, where Section-1 to Section-6 has been discussed. The link is here:- Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-7A

** Second part of Chapter-7 : From Section-7 to Section-12 has been discussed. The link is here:- Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-7B

*** Third part of Chapter-7 contains discussion on  Mantras from Section-13 to Section-22: The link is here:- Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-7C

A request to my readers: Please read my previous posts on ChAndogya Upanishad, especially 6th chapter. Links are given below:

  1. Chapter Six: Section-1 to Section-4(Khanda-1 to Khanda-4). The link is here:  Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-6A of 6
  2. Chapter Six: Section-5 to Section-8(Khanda-5 to Khanda-8). The link is here: Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-6B of 6
  3. Chapter Six: Section-9 to Section-16(Khanda-9 to Khanda-16). The link is here: Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-6C of 6[END OF 6TH CHAPTER]

॥ छान्दोग्योपनिषत्  –  सप्तमोऽध्यायः ॥

Structure of 7th Chapter!

Part-6: Section: 23-27 (Total 6 Mantras):        ” BHOOMA~ The Infinite

We are in the final part of 7th Chapter of Chandagyo Upanishad. In this section we will learn about the characteristics of The Infinite [ Bhooma]. First two mantras give us definition, next two mantras describe the qualities, and the final two mantras give the scriptural support on the Truth.

Section-23: “Bhoomaa”– The Infinite (1 mantra):

यो वै भूमा तत्सुखं नाल्पे सुखमस्ति भूमैव सुखं
भूमा त्वेव विजिज्ञासितव्य इति भूमानं भगवो
विजिज्ञास इति ॥ ७.२३.१॥

Mantra-23.1: The Infinite alone is happiness: [त्रयोविंशः खण्डः ]

Only that which is Infinite, is true Happiness, There is no happiness in anything finite. ” The Infinite alone is Happiness. But the “Infinite” one must desire to understand.

Narada: ” Revered Sir, the Infinite I do desire to understand.

भूमैव सुखं : “Bhumaiva Sukham”: 1) That which is Infinite is true Happiness. 2) There is no Happiness in anything finite. 3) The Infinite alone is Happiness. 

Section-24: “Moksha”– Liberation (2 mantras):

Mantra-24.1: The State of Liberation:

24.1.1: The Infinite and the finite Defined:

That in which one sees nothing else, hears nothing else, and understands nothing else- That is Infinite. But that in which one sees something else, hears something else, and understands something else- that is the Finite. That which is Infinite, is alone immortal; but that which is finite, is mortal.

24.1.2: The basis of Infinite:

Narada: ” Revered Sir, In what that Infinite is established”?

Sanatkumara:” In its greatness or even not in its greatness.”

Mantra-24.2: Mutual Dependence:

The cows and horses are called “greatness” here in this world, as also elephants and gold, servants and wives, fields, and buildings. I do not call this greatness, in fact, I call what has been described above as ” mutual dependence.”

[ The common, worldly type of greatness rests in one’s possessions. For worldly people, what one possesses determines their greatness. Greatness is a relative term. A thing can only be great in comparison to something else which is not great. Like a king is great relative to his countrymen. That is what is meant by Mutual Independence.]

Section-25: “Swaraat”– Independence (2 mantras):

Mantra-25.1: The Infinite, the ” I ” & the Self:

Mantra-25.1.1: The Infinite alone Exists:

That alone is below. That alone is above; That is behind, That is in front; That is to the south, and to the north; That Infinite alone is all this.

Mantra-25.1.2: The “I-Notion” alone Exists:

Next is the teaching with respect to the “I-Notion”. “I” alone am below, I am above; I am behind, I am in front; I am to the south, I am to the north; I alone am all this.

Mantra-25.1.3: The “Self” alone Exists:

Next is the teaching with respect to the “Self”. The Self alone is below and above, the Self is behind and in front; the Self is to the south and north; the Self alone is all this.

[ ** Infinite = "I" = Atman. 1. The Infinite Itself is all That there is. 2. The "I"- notion in the individual is Itself all That there is. 3. The Atman or Sef Itself all That there is.]

Mantra-25.2: The ” Sovereign and the Slave”:

Mantra-25.2.1: The Sovereign is free:

Verily, he who sees thus, who reflects and understands; thus, He revels and sports in the Self, he unites in and enjoy the Self. He becomes the Sovereign of all the worlds. He is free to act as he wishes.

Mantra-25.2.2: The Slave is ruled by others:

But who know other than this, they are ruled by others (the slaves), and live in perishable worlds. In all the worlds, they are not free to act as they wish.

[** Analysis:  Here sage Sanatkumara is pointing to the final state. Aatma- Ratih, Aatma- Kreedah, Aatma- Mithuna, Aatma-Anandah- this is the state he himself must be revelling in all the time. Now what is required to reach this state? It is very simple. Follow the meaning of the words: Evam Pashyan, Evam Manvaan, Evam Vijnaanan. All these means: – ” See nothing else”, “Reflect on nothing else”, and ” Understand nothing else”. Nothing other than Infinite. The state of freedom of one is then established in Infinity. All previous levels from Name to Hope, were limited to the worlds of finite. Upon reaching this state the Aspirants become ” Swaraat” – the all-powerful status of being a Self-Sovereign, independent ruler of himself.]

Section-26: The Vision of the “Ativadi”– (1 mantra):

Mantra-26.1: Greatness of the Realised Sage:

Mantra-26.1.1: The requisites for Sovereignty:

Verily, for him alone who sees thus, reflects thus, and understands thus. 

Mantra-26.1.2: The state of Sovereignty: “Atma-Svarajya”

  1. Prana Springs from the Self.
  2. Aspiration Springs from the Self.
  3. Memory Springs from the Self.
  4. Space Springs from the Self.
  5. Fire Springs from the Self.
  6. Water Springs from the Self.
  7. Appearance and disappearance Spring from the Self.
  8. Food Springs from the Self.
  9. Strength Springs from the Self.
  10. Understand Springs from the Self.
  11. Contemplation Springs from the Self.
  12. Intelligence Springs from the Self.
  13. Will Springs from the Self.
  14. Mind Springs from the Self.
  15. Speech Springs from the Self.
  16. Name Springs from the Self.
  17. Hymns (Upasana Kanda) Springs from the Self.
  18. Rites (Karma Kanda) Springs from the Self: All these Spring from the Self alone!!

Section-27: Supporting scriptural verses: “Slokas” (1 mantra):

तदेष श्लोको: On this there are scriptural verses as follows: –

तदेष श्लोको न पश्यो मृत्युं पश्यति न रोगं नोत दुःखताꣳ
सर्वꣳ ह पश्यः पश्यति सर्वमाप्नोति सर्वश इति
स एकधा भवति त्रिधा भवति पञ्चधा
सप्तधा नवधा चैव पुनश्चैकादशः स्मृतः
शतं च दश चैकश्च सहस्राणि च
विꣳशतिराहारशुद्धौ सत्त्वशुद्धौ ध्रुवा स्मृतिः
स्मृतिलम्भे सर्वग्रन्थीनां विप्रमोक्षस्तस्मै
मृदितकषायाय तमसस्पारं दर्शयति
भगवान्सनत्कुमारस्तꣳ स्कन्द इत्याचक्षते
तꣳ स्कन्द इत्याचक्षते ॥ ७.२६.२॥

Mantra-27.1: Three supporting Slokas:

Mantra-27.1.1: The Seer of the Infinite:

He who sees does not see death, nor illness, nor sorrow. he who sees this sees all things and obtains all things in all ways.

Mantra-27.1.2: One Becomes Many:

He who is One, becomes three-fold, five-fold, seven-fold and also nine-fold. Then again, he is called eleven-fold, and hundred-fold, then hundred-and-eleven-fold, twenty-thousand-fold.

** Analysis of One into Many:

One: Brahman

Three-fold: Causal, subtle, and Gross; Waking, dreaming, and Sleeping, Past, Present, and Future.

Five-fold: Five Elements, Five Koshas, Five Pranas.

Seven-fold: Sapta Dhatus, Sapta rishis, Sapta Divas, sapta Swara, sapta Lokas, Seven colors.

Nine-fold: Nava Durga, Nine doors in the Body.

Ten-fold: Disha, Avatara, Vidyas.

Eleven-fold: Rudras

And so on……

Mantra-27.1.3: Three major steps:

  • Pure food creates pure intellect.
  • Pure intellect creates strong memory.
  • Strong memory cuts all the knots of the Heart.

** Note: Cuts all the knots of the Heart means detaching Ego from Consciousness. This teaching has been seen in Katha Upanishad also [Mantra-2.3.15: Katha Upanishad: – “When the knot of the heart is cut, the mortal becomes Immortal. This alone is the Teaching”.]

THREE MAJOR STEPS

Mantra-27.1.4: The Final Stage: 

भगवान्सनत्कुमारस्तꣳ स्कन्द इत्याचक्षते
तꣳ स्कन्द इत्याचक्षते ॥ ७.२६.२॥

Sage Sanatkumara leads beyond the darkness those that have washed their impurities away. Hence men call him the Great commander, men call him the great Commander.

Conclusion:

Finally, the Great sage sanatkumara defined “Bhooma” the ABSOLUTE. This is Infinite. Here one sees nothing except one’s own Self, hears nothing except one’s own Self, understands nothing except one’s own Self, Bhooma alone is Immortal. This Eternal is Present Everywhere. It can not be that It is located in something else, and It is dependent on something else. Nor It has something else as It’s support. Neither It is not dependent on something else. This is all- being, support of all things. He who Realizes this enjoys ” Atma-Svarajya” [state of Sovereignty] means Universal Lordship. Every realm of being becomes a free passage to this great one who has acquired this knowledge. The person becomes possessed of Cosmic freedom.

End of Chapter-7 ” The Infinite Bliss”

The link for reading text in Sanskrit is here:-   Chandgoya Upanishad 

Recommended readings:

  1. Back to the Truth: 5000 years of ADVAITA by Dennis Waite. **
  2. THE TEN PRINCIPAL UPANISHADS: Translated by Shree Purohit** Swami and W.B.Yeats
  3. Brahma Sutra Bhasya of Sankaracharya: Translated by Swami Gambhirananda.**
  4. Commentary of ChAndogya Upanishad: By Swami Krishnananda.
  5. ChAndogya Upanishad: By Swami GuruBhaktananda.
  6. EIGHT UPANISADS -VOL-1 with commentary of Sankaracharya, Translated by SWAMI GAMBHIRANANDA.
  7. THE TAITTIRIYA UPANISHAD: SHIKSHAVALLI-ANANDAVALLI-BHRIGUVALLI with Sri Shankara’s Commentary By Sri Swami Satchidanandera Saraswati.
  8. A-U-M Awakening to Reality: By Dennis Waite***
  9. Panchadasi: Swami Vidyaranya:
  10. Information available on internet.

It is my sincere request to the esteemed readers to share their opinion or queries if any. Suggestions to make the site attractive will be incredibly helpful for me. Readers are requested to read all the posts to have continuation of the topic from the beginning. My mail ID is: arun7663@gmail.com

Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-7C

Introduction: Seventh Chapter:

The ChAndogya Upanishad is part of ChAndogya Brahmana of the Sama Veda which is one of the largest important Upanishads with Eight Chapters (Prapathakas) with many verses including some stories as themes to gain Upanishadic knowledge. This Upanishad is placed in the 9th position in the list of Ten Principal Upanishads. The name of the Upanishad is derived from the word   “Chanda” (Rhythm~ poetic meter).

**This Upanishad directly deals with the true nature of Brahman, the Supreme Self, without a second.

ChAndogya Upanishad consists of Eight chapters. The first five chapters forms the part of Karma Kanda and Upasana Kanda. Chapter- 6, 7 and 8 form the part of Jnana Kanda.

 There are 24 sections in Chapter Seven. Here we will discuss on Chapter-7, Section-13 to Section-22 to learn profound knowledge through a dialog between: Narada (the disciple) and Sage Sanatkumar.

The essence of the Teaching is: – The Infinite Bliss ~ “Bhumaiva Sukham”

* First part of Chapter-7 has been published in my blog, where Section-1 to Section-6 has been discussed. The link is here:- Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-7A

** Second part of Chapter-7 has been published. From Section-7 to Section-12 has been discussed. The link is here:- Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-7B

A request to my readers: Please read my previous posts on ChAndogya Upanishad, especially 6th chapter. Links are given below:

  1. Chapter Six: Section-1 to Section-4(Khanda-1 to Khanda-4). The link is here:  Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-6A of 6
  2. Chapter Six: Section-5 to Section-8(Khanda-5 to Khanda-8). The link is here: Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-6B of 6
  3. Chapter Six: Section-9 to Section-16(Khanda-9 to Khanda-16). The link is here: Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-6C of 6[END OF 6TH CHAPTER]

॥ छान्दोग्योपनिषत्  –  सप्तमोऽध्यायः ॥

Structure of 7th Chapter!

In this post we will start from Mantra-12.2.2: Is there anything above “Aakaashah”[Space]

Narada: ” Sir, Is there anything above Space”?

Sanatkumara:” Yes, there is something above”

Narada: ” Sir, then please elaborate.”

After completing section-12, we have reached to the higher level of knowledge which is beyond Space. Now let us think beyond Time. The cause and effect. If creation of Universe is an effect, then there must be some Cause. What is that? Let us try to find it out prom following sections.

Part-4: Section: 13-15 (Total 8 Mantras):        ” ISHWARA~ The Causal Being

Our existence is essential for the existence of Space. Therefore, Consciousness of Self-existence is fundamental for determining factor of the Consciousness of this vast expanse that we call Space. Hence, the word “smara” has to be understood differently. It does not merely mean a kind of memory only. Here, the essence of the section is to teach the aspirant for attaining higher levels. It is to be understood that a person should meditate on the supreme self-Consciousness, which is above Space.

Section-13: ” Smarah”- Memory[2 Verses]

Our Self-Consciousness, the self-Consciousness of every being is above Space, which determines the character of Space.

Mantra-13.1.1:  Memory is above Space.

Mantra-13.1.2 The greatness of Memory:

Take away memory from men, they no longer hear, think, or understand. Give back their memory, they hear, they think and understand. Through memory we recognise our children and cattle.

Mantra-13.1.3: Therefore, worship Memory.

Mantra-13.2: Beyond Memory:

Mantra-13.2.1: The Fruit gained by Worshiping Memory.

He, who worships Memory as brahman, attains the receptacles of light, free from sorrow, free from bondage, moves within the limits of Memory, as it may please him, provided he worships Memory as nothing but Brahman.

Mantra-13.2.2: Is there anything above “Smarah”[Memory]

Narada: ” Sir, Is there anything above Memory”?

Sanatkumara:” Yes, there is something above Memory”

Narada: ” Sir, then please elaborate.”

Section-14: ” Aashaa”- Aspiration [2 Verses]

Mantra-14.1.1:  Aspiration is above Memory.

Mantra-14.1.2 The greatness of Aspiration:

Indeed, kindled by aspiration, men recites the sacred words, does this or that, performs rites, desires children and property, longs for life here and thereafter.

Mantra-14.1.3: Therefore, worship Aspiration.

Mantra-14.2: Beyond Aspiration:

Mantra-14.2.1: The Fruit gained by Worshiping Aspiration.

He, who worships aspiration  as Brahman, gets all he wants, never goes a blessing in vain, moves within the limits of aspiration, as it may please him, provided he worships aspiration as nothing but Brahman.

Mantra-14.2.2: Is there anything above “Aashaa”[Aspiration]

Narada: ” Sir, Is there anything above Aspiration”?

Sanatkumara:” Yes, there is something above Aspiration”

Narada: ” Sir, then please elaborate.”

Section-15: ” Praanah”- Life Force[4 Verses]

Mantra-15.1.1: Life Force is above Aspiration

Mantra-15.1.2: Life Force-As spokes fastened to wheel.

Prana (Breath) is verily the life of beings and hence it is called the Universal life. It is matter of common knowledge that life becomes possible only so long as the vital energy keeps the different organs of the organism alive.
Though this vital life force makes the body animated and actions are performed but this is not the “Real Self”. 

Mantra-15.1.3: Praanah~ as Mover, Life, and Giver

Everything is fixed in praanah. Praanah lives by praanah. Praanah gives for praanah. Praanah gives power.

Praanah” is vital energy and invisible to us. It is like Electric Power ,which gives life to the machines and machines run, animates.  Same way this vital energy “Praanah” animates us, the live bodies.  It runs the 1st layer the Physical body. This praanah is external to further subtler energy which is Mind. The mind is so subtle and transparent, that  mind can reflect consciousness. 

Mantra-15.1.4: Praanah~ as Kith and kin

  • Praanah is the father.

  • Praanah is the mother.

  • Praanah is the bother.

  • Praanah is the sister.

  • Praanah is the Guru.

  • Praanah is the Acharya.

Mantra-15.2: Praanah~ Being cruel on living:

If a man speak cruel words to a father, mother, sister, brother, Guru, people say: “Shame upon you for such cruelty. You are indeed a slayer of your father; You are indeed a slayer of your brother; You are indeed a slayer of your sister; You are indeed a slayer of your Guru or Acharya!”

Mantra-15.3: Praanah~ Performing last Rites:

If, life once gone, somebody shoves them ( who are dead among kith and kin) back on to the funeral pyre with a poker, where is the cruelty? Surely no one would blame him: ” You are slayer of your father”; nor ” You are slayer of your brother”; nor ” You are slayer of your sister”; nor ” You are slayer of your Guru or Acharya”.

Mantra-15.4.1: “Ativaadi” the Realized Sage

Praanah, indeed, alone becomes all these. He indeed who sees thus (Sravana), reflects thus (Manana), and realizes thus (Nididhyasana) becomes an ” Ativaadi” the Realized Sage.

Mantra-15.4.2: “Ativaadi” The title becomes a complement:

If someone were to say to you: ” You are an Ativaadi, ” You should say, “yes, I am an Ativaadi” You should not deny it, It is a complement.

Part-5: Section: 16-23 (Total 8 Mantras):        ” Sadhana~ Spiritual Practice

Who is Ativaadi?

There are certainly some steps which are to be followed to become “Ativaadi”. The steps are to be considered as essential requirement (sadhana) to attend permanent happiness. The steps are listed below:

We will learn about the steps from the following sections:

Section-16: ” Satyam”- Truth[1 Verse]

Mantra-16.1: Who is an ativaadin?

Sanatkumara:” But he really is an ativaadin who speaks with Truth about the Truth “

Narada: ” Revered Sir, if that is so, I would speak with Truth about the Truth”

Sanatkumara:”But first, one must desire to understand the Truth”.

Narada: ” Revered Sir, I do desire to understand the Truth”.

**This earnest desire to know the Truth is called “Jijnaasa” [enquiry]

Section-17:”Vijnaanah”- Realisation [1 Verse]

Mantra-17.1: Who is a Realised One?

Sanatkumara:” Only when one is Realised, then one can declare the Truth”. Without realising, no one can declare Truth. But one must desire to understand what Realisation is!

Narada: ” Revered Sir, I do desire to understand Realisation”.

Section-18:”Matih”- Reflection [1 Verse]

Mantra-18.1: Who is qualified to Reflect?

Sanatkumara:” Only when one Reflects, then does one Realise”. No, without reflecting, one can not Realise. Only he who reflects, Realises. But one must desire to understand what Reflection is!

Narada: ” Revered Sir, I do desire to understand Reflection”.

Section-19:”Shraddha”- Faith [1 Verse]

Mantra-19.1: Who is full of Faith?

Sanatkumara:” Only when one becomes full of Faith, then can one reflect. Without Faith, no one can reflect. He who has Faith only reflects. But one must desire to understand what Faith is!

Narada: ” Revered Sir, I do desire to understand Faith”.

Section-20:”Nishthaa”- Steadfastness: Devotion [1 Verse]

Mantra-20.1: Who is full of Steadfastness?

Sanatkumara:” Only when one becomes full of steadfastness (devotion), then can one be full of faith. Without Steadfastness, no one can have faith. He who has steadfastness can  only have faith. But one must desire to understand what Steadfastness is!

Narada: ” Revered Sir, I do desire to understand Steadfastness”.

Section-21:”Kritih”- Activity:[1 Verse]

Mantra-21.1: Who is truly Active?

Sanatkumara:” Only when one is given to Action, then can one be full of Steadfastness. No, without action, one can not have steadfastness. He who acts can be steadfast. But one must desire to understand what Activity is!

Narada: ” Revered Sir, I do desire to understand Activity”.

Section-22:”Sukham”- Happiness:[1 Verse]

Mantra-22.1: Who is truly Happy?

Sanatkumara:” Only when one expects to obtain Happiness, then does one Act. Without expecting Happiness, one does not Act. Only to obtain Happiness does one Act. But one must desire to understand what Happiness is!

Narada: ” Revered Sir, I do desire to understand Happiness”.

Section-16 to Section-22 primarily teaches about three stages which are very essential for progressing in the path of acquiring Happiness. Three stages are as below:

1.Sravana Knowing the Truth: Listening to the teachings of the sages on Vedanta. Now instead of Sravana, we can use the word Study of Vedanta, because Sravana was the practice during early Vedic period as no method of writing existed.

2.Manana :Reflection is necessary: This stage is the reflection on the teachings. This means thinking about what has been heard and subjecting that into a reason based on experience gained.

3.Nididhyasana : “Faith and Steadfastness”: Stage of meditation on the Truth. It is the culmination of the practice of Sravana and Manana. We may see what BRRihadAraNyaka Upanishad says  on Nididhyasana. ” The Self , my dear Maitreyi, should be realized-should be heard of , reflected on and meditated upon; by the realization of the self, my dear”.

Sravana, Manana, Nididhyasana leads us to intuition (aparoksha Anubhuti). In this way, Brahma Kara Vritti is generated from “Sattvic anta Karana”. This “Brahma Kara Vritti” destroys the Mula-Avidya or primitive ignorance which is the root cause of all bondage, births, and deaths. When this ignorance or veil is removed, Brahman which is Self effulgent reveals itself in its pristine glory and splendour.

Conclusion:

The thirst for happiness is universal. It is the driving force behind all aspirations of human being.

Now, the question is: Where lies the happiness?

By mere empirical analysis it is difficult to find out where happiness lies, because no scientific analysis of mind can pinpoint the object of happiness. Whether it is outside or it is inside. It is neither in mind nor in any object of sense.

The answer to this question is given by the great Master Sanatkumara. Happiness neither lies in mind nor in any object, because if it is considered to be a property of mind, then it becomes finite. Same thing applies if we consider happiness as a part of object, since objects are also finite. Happiness cannot be regarded as finite because we are not satisfied with limited happiness. We are not happy with finite pleasure of this world.

In the next section: Section -23, we will learn what the Sage sanatkumara is teaching about happiness. Sanatkumara says to Narada: “Happiness is not anywhere and yet, it is everywhere. It is in a completeness of Being that you can find happiness”.

Final part of 7th Chapter The Infinite Bliss” will be published very soon !!!

Recommended readings:

  1. Back to the Truth: 5000 years of ADVAITA by Dennis Waite. **
  2. THE TEN PRINCIPAL UPANISHADS: Translated by Shree Purohit** Swami and W.B.Yeats
  3. Brahma Sutra Bhasya of Sankaracharya: Translated by Swami Gambhirananda.**
  4. Commentary of ChAndogya Upanishad: By Swami Krishnananda.
  5. ChAndogya Upanishad: By Swami GuruBhaktananda.
  6. EIGHT UPANISADS -VOL-1 with commentary of Sankaracharya, Translated by SWAMI GAMBHIRANANDA.
  7. THE TAITTIRIYA UPANISHAD: SHIKSHAVALLI-ANANDAVALLI-BHRIGUVALLI with Sri Shankara’s Commentary By Sri Swami Satchidanandera Saraswati.
  8. A-U-M Awakening to Reality: By Dennis Waite***
  9. Panchadasi: Swami Vidyaranya:
  10. Information available on internet.

It is my sincere request to the esteemed readers to share their opinion or queries if any. Suggestions to make the site attractive will be incredibly helpful for me. Readers are requested to read all the posts to have continuation of the topic from the beginning. My mail ID is: arun7663@gmail.com

The Four Great Vedic Statements [ Mahavakyas]

THE FOUR GREAT VEDIC STATEMENTS

Introduction: Four “MahaVakyas”

There are four great statements (Maha Vakyas– Great sayings), one each taken from each of four Vedas by ancient scholars. These are most famous mantras and gives the core knowledge of Veda. Traditionally these well known MahaVakyas are pointers for the aspirants seeking liberation from the cycle of births. Four MahaVakyas will be discussed in this post.

Before knowing the 4 “MahaVakyas”, let us look into one sloka from Taittiriya Upanishad.

Satyam Jnanam Anantam Brahma”:- 

Above sentence literarily means ‘the knower of “Brahman” attains the Supreme.” Taittiriya 2.1.1 which is the opening sentence of Taittiriya Upanishad. We will try to understand the essence of this sentence.

“Satyam jnanam Anantam Brahman” which means “The knower of “BRAHMAN” attains the Supreme”.  BRAHMAN is Truth, knowledge, and Infinity, which is our own very Self, the Atman.  Brahman is not an object of knowledge.  It is always witnessing subject. (দ্রষ্টা~The Seer).

First of all, we need to know the true meaning of “Brahman”.

Brahman: IT is That which is Absolute, fills all space, is complete in Itself, to which there is no second and which is continuously present in everything, in every being and everywhere. It is homogeneous in nature.

Brahman: It is the key word here!

The word “Brahman” will be used repeatedly. Meaning of Brahman is VAST. This is to be noted here that the word “Brahman” does not refer to any Cast , Creed or Sect. According to Vedanta the word ” Brahman” has been derived from the root word “brh” which means growing or expanding and suffix “man” added to it signifies absence of limitations. In Vedanta, the word Brahman is a neuter gender and hence it is referred as pronoun ” That”. It is very difficult to describe Brahman, which is ultimately indefinable, indescribable, and utterly beyond all human comprehension. Brahman can not be described through senses alone. Vedanta has however taught us how to realize Brahman which is “Supreme Consciousness”. In this article I will try to explain what I understood after reading different Scriptures. Hope readers will find it interesting and worth reading.

From Upanishads we can learn about “Brahman”.  Founder of Advaita Vedanta, 8th century scholar, Shri Adi Shankaracharya said: ” there Exists one Absolute Brahman, who is “Sat-Chit-Ananda” and homogeneous in nature .” Vedanta philosophy is part of the four Vedas are believed to be composed and orally transferred, goes back to 5000 years. The oneness of Soul(Jiva~Atman) and GOD(Param Atman), the ultimate Truth is the principal essence of Vedanta philosophy. 

The Four MahaVakyas are as follows:-

Above photo has been taken from “ANANDA DHAM”, the Ashram of my father’s Guruji. I used to visit ashram since my teen age. That time I did not understand above statements(written in Bengali script). Since then, it was in my mind to know the famous statements:

1) ” prajnAnaM brahma “:Consciousness is Infinite.

This means consciousness is Brahman. This has been taken from Rig Veda ( Aitareya Upanishad): The essence is that Brahman is Supreme knowledge. The absolute reality is the essence of what you really are.

2) ” tat-tvam-asi”: That-Thou-Art.

It means “You are that” which is from Sama Veda (ChAndogya Upanishad).

3) ” ayamAtma brahma”: This Self is the Truth.

Which means This Self is Brahman. It has been selected from Atharva Veda ( maNDukya Upanishad). Atman and Brahman are the same like the waves and the ocean are one.

4) ” aham brahmAsmi”:- I am the Infinite Reality.

Here it means “I am Brahman”. This has been taken from Yajur Veda (bRRihadAraNyaka Upanishad ).   “I AM” is that absolute reality.

Importance of the MahaVakyas:- MahaVakyas contain the essence of ageless Wisdom and Absolute Truth regarding ” Brahman” which is “SAT-CHIT-ANANDA”

To understand above four MahaVakyas, one has to study Vedanta . Vedanta consists of three basic Texts. Together they are referred as ” PRASTHANA TRAYA” , triple canon of Vedanta.

  1. Upanishads ( Shruti Prasthana):

  2. Bhagavad Gita( Smriti Prasthana : Quintessence of the teaching of entire Veda: “samasta-vedanta-sarasangraha-bhutam”).

  3. Brahma Sutra (Nyaya-Prasthana also known as uttarmimamsa sutra).

Those who wish to study the philosophy of Vedanta, may read ” The Ten Principal Upanishads” and the “Brahma Sutra” after reading the “Bhagavad Gita”. In the following paragraphs, I will write brief introduction about Brahma sutra. Rather I will emphasize on Brahma sutra because it is essential to understand the concept of Advaita Vedanta. While explaining Brahma sutra, some references of Upanishads obviously will follow.

There are four chapters in Brahma sutra. First chapter unifies Brahman. Second chapter shows no conflicts between Vedanta and other sastras (sacred texts). The third deals with practice to attain Brahman and the fourth one is result of attaining Brahman which is nothing but fruits of Self realization. The first topic of first chapter of Brahma sutra is “Jijnasadhikaranam” [ Topic-1/first chapter] which means ” The enquiry into Brahman and it’s prerequisites”. The first sentence of this chapter is ” Athato Brahmajijnasa” (Hence thereafter a deliberation on Brahman.1.1.1)

Now, this Text is for whom? A little explanation is essential here.

The Vedanta is for the person who is competent to understand and study sastras(Scriptures) ,has tranquil mind, full of faith, consistently engaged in good thoughts and associates with the knower of Truth. After attainment of certain preliminary qualifications which are known as ” SADHANA CHATUSHTAYA”~ four salvations ,one can progress towards the direction of knowing Brahman. Four salvations are:

  1. “Nitya-Anitya-vastuveveka” which means discrimination between the eternal and non eternal.
  2. ” IhamutrarthaphalabhogaViraga” : Indifference to the joys in this life or in in Heaven, and of the fruits of one’s action.
  3. ” Shatsampat : Six-fold virtues that are : i) Sama (Control of mind), ii) Dama ( Control of senses),iii) Uparati (Cessation from worldly enjoyments), iv) Titiksha ( Endurance of pleasure and pain, heat and cold), v) Sraddha (Faith), vi) Samadhana (Deep concentration).
  4. “Mumukshautva” (Desire for liberation).

Even without possessing the knowledge of “Karma Kanda” (Rituals, religious ceremonies), a desire for attaining the knowledge of Brahman( Brahma Gyan) will arise direct from the study of “Srutis”. Therefore, I will recall here the sentence ” A man full of revelation, but without desire has equal joy.” which is written in Sanskrit as ” श्रोत्रियस्यचअकामहतस्य “ means well versed in “Srutis”. Hence it implies that the enquiry of Brahman does not depend on the performance of any act but through study of Vedas. That is the essence of the section ” Ananda Valli” of Taittiriya Upanishad.

Why should one enquire Brahman? Why?

Most of the religions believe that life in earth or life in heaven are attained on the basis of one’s virtuous deeds(“KARMA”) which is transient. But once you know Brahman, you will enjoy everlasting bliss and immortality. Knowledge of Brahman destroys ignorance which is the root cause of all sufferings.

We will continue our study of Vedanta a little more in the following paragraphs. I admit that this will be lengthy for the readers, but it is essential part of Vedas which needs to be presented.

“Janmadyadhikaranam“: Definition of Brahman[Topic-2/First chapter of Brahma sutra]. First sentence here is ” Janmadyasya yatah” 1.1.2(2) means Brahman is that from which the origin, sustenance and dissolution of this Universe proceed. Brahman is eternally pure, wise, and free. He is Omnipotent and Omniscient. One can attain knowledge of brahman through reflection on it’s attributes. Would like to refer here Taittiriya upanishad-iii-1: Conversation between Varuna and his son Bhrigu Varuni on enquiry into Brahman. Bhrigu is asking his father- ” Sir, teach me Brahman”. Varuna said, ” that from whence these beings are born, that by which, when born they live, that into which they enter at their death, try to know that“. That is Brahman.

Here the point to be noted is that the origin, sustenance, and dissolution of the Universe are characteristic of the Universe because of changing (cyclic) in nature. They do not pertain to the eternal unchanging Brahman, yet they indicate Brahman which is the cause of this universe. Sruti has another definition of Brahman. ” Satyam Jnanam Anantam Brahman” means Truth, knowledge, Infinity is Brahman.

” Sastrayonitvadhikaranam” : Brahman is realizable only through the scriptures [Topic-3/First chapter of Brahma sutra]. “Sastrayonitvat”: 1.1.3(3) means the scripter is the source of right knowledge. The scriptures illumine all things like a search light. Through scripture only we get a comprehensive understanding of the nature of Brahman. Brahman is formless, colorless, attribute less. Hence it can not be grasped by the senses alone. Brahman is ONE, infinite and without second.

The Self is infinite.

There is in fact no multiplicity or plurality in that ONE, Homogeneous Being, the Supreme Being and the Ultimate. Because of superimposition and our ignorance, we have forgotten our true nature.  It alone
exists as the illuminator. This “Atman” the Real “Self” in its glorious existence, reveals its own “Sat-Chit” nature which is Anandamaya. The eternal nature of Self is Bliss only.

Vedanta says that the study of scriptures helps in realization of truth, when one is equipped with necessary fourfold discipline:-
1. Discrimination between real (Nitya নিত্য~ eternal) and unreal (Anitya অনিত্য~transitory).
2. Renunciation of the unreal (Viraga~বৈরাগ্য)
3. Six-fold qualities.
4. Longing for liberation (Moksha ~মোক্ষ প্রাপ্তি : to escape from the cycle of births and deaths)

The word “Self” is generally meant to “Atman” (soul). But the Sanskrit word is “Atman”, which cannot be translated.  This Atman is deathless, birthless, eternal and real for every individual.  It is the unchanging reality (sat ~সৎ) behind the changing body, sense organs, mind, and ego. It is Spirit, which is pure Consciousness (চিত্) and is unaffected by time-space causality. It is infinite and it is ONE without the second.
As the unchanging reality in the individual is known as Atman, same way the unchanging reality in the Universe is known as “BRAHMAN”. Vedanta says This BRAHMAN and ATMAN are one and the same.

Three key words are repeatedly used in Vedanta. Those are to be understood which are conceptual.1.Brahman: Discussed above. Next two are 2.Maya and 3.Atman; discussed below.

What is Maya? (~ Sanskrit word) :– Manifested Universe is all due to “Maya”

The appearance of this world is due to Maya-the illusory power of Brahman. Maya is neither “Sat” (existent) nor “Asat” (not existent). This world is unreal. According to Vedanta, our real nature is divine, pure, perfect, eternal, and free.  We do not have to become Brahman, because we are That. But Maya is the veil which covers our real nature. Maya is beginning less. Time arises only with Maya. It is unthinkable, indescribable (Anirvachaniya). The word illusion is often used as meaning of Maya, but scholars says it is improper. There is no equivalent word in English to mean it. What is known to us, according to ancient sacred texts, that Maya disappears when we realize our true nature.

Atman : –

Atman includes everything and everyone. It is the Total of all created beings, and so it is called Brahman. The ultimate in us is Atman. The ultimate in the cosmos is Brahman. Atman is Brahman. There can not be anything other than this Universal Reality.

According to Vedanta, The ultimate in us is ATMAN. The ultimate in Cosmos is BRAHMAN. This is the Universal Reality. Total Substance is Brahman. The same substance, when conceived as the essence of particular being is Atman. The Universe has been manifested out of this Total Substance can be said as Brahman. This is Atman, the Self of the universe. This Brahman is without a prior or a posterior, without interior or exterior. This Atman is Brahman, the perceiver of everything.

Conclusion:-

It is believed that Four MahaVakyas were chosen by Acharya Adi Sankara, and he attached 4 Mantras to 4 “Matha”s (Pitha)” in the four corners of India. Each four MahaVakyas are taken from each Veda. 

” prajnAnaM brahma “:Consciousness is Infinite [RIG VEDA]; It is connected to Govardhana Pitha

” tat-tvam-asi”: That-Thou-Art [ SAMA VEDA]; Connected to Dwarka Pitha

” ayamAtma brahma”: This Self is the Truth [ATHARVA VEDA]; Connected to Jyotirmath Pitha.                            

” aham brahmAsmi”:- I am the Infinite Reality [YAJUR VEDA]; It is connected with Sringeri Sharada Pitha

My request to the readers: Please go through some of my blogs which are relevant and specific to know more on the subject: Links are as below. 

  1. Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-6C of 6[END OF 6TH CHAPTER]
  2. Essence of Aitareya Upanishad: Part-B: 
  3. MaNDukya Upanishad- The Nature of OM: – Part-1
  4. The Divine Art !!!

Recommended readings:

  1. Back to the Truth: 5000 years of ADVAITA by Dennis Waite. **
  2. THE TEN PRINCIPAL UPANISHADS: Translated by Shree Purohit** Swami and W.B.Yeats
  3. Brahma Sutra Bhasya of Sankaracharya: Translated by Swami Gambhirananda.**
  4. Commentary of ChAndogya Upanishad: By Swami Krishnananda.
  5. Mandukya Upanishad: By Swami GuruBhaktananda.
  6. BRRihadAraNyaka Upanishad: By Swami GuruBhaktananda.
  7. Aitareya Upanishad: By Swami GuruBhaktananda.
  8. ChAndogya Upanishad: By Swami GuruBhaktananda.
  9. EIGHT UPANISADS -VOL-1 with commentary of Sankaracharya, Translated by SWAMI GAMBHIRANANDA.
  10. THE TAITTIRIYA UPANISHAD: SHIKSHAVALLI-ANANDAVALLI-BHRIGUVALLI with Sri Shankara’s Commentary By Sri Swami Satchidanandera Saraswati.
  11. A-U-M Awakening to Reality: By Dennis Waite***
  12. Panchadasi: Swami Vidyaranya:
  13. Information available on internet.

It is my sincere request to the esteemed readers to share their opinion or queries if any. Suggestions to make the site attractive will be incredibly helpful for me. Readers are requested to read all the posts to have continuation of the topic from the beginning. My mail ID is: arun7663@gmail.com

Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-7B

THE EXPANDING UNIVERSE

Introduction: Seventh Chapter:

The ChAndogya Upanishad is part of ChAndogya Brahmana of the Sama Veda which is one of the largest important Upanishads with Eight Chapters (Prapathakas) with many verses including some stories as themes to gain Upanishadic knowledge. 

**This Upanishad directly deals with the true nature of Brahman, the Supreme Self, without a second.

ChAndogya Upanishad consists of Eight chapters. The first five chapters forms the part of Karma Kanda and Upasana Kanda. Chapter- 6, 7 and 8 form the part of Jnana Kanda.

 There are 24 sections in Chapter Seven. Here we will discuss on Chapter-7, Section-7 to Section-12 to learn profound knowledge through a dialog between: Narada (the disciple) and Sage Sanatkumar, where knowledge has been imparted in steps. Each step itself is a kind of meditation. Crossing each step, one can go higher and higher and finally to the Infinity, beyond which there is nothing. That is unlimited and immortal. 

First part of Chapter-7 has been published in my blog, where Section 1 to Section 6 has been discussed. The link is here:- Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-7A

The essence of the Teaching is: – The Infinite Bliss ~ “Bhumaiva Sukham”

Journey:-    Gross → Subtle → Causal → Absolute

A request to my readers: Please read my previous posts on ChAndogya Upanishad, especially 6th chapter. Links are given below:

  1. Chapter Six: Section-1 to Section-4(Khanda-1 to Khanda-4). The link is here:  Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-6A of 6
  2. Chapter Six: Section-5 to Section-8(Khanda-5 to Khanda-8). The link is here: Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-6B of 6
  3. Chapter Six: Section-9 to Section-16(Khanda-9 to Khanda-16). The link is here: Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-6C of 6[END OF 6TH CHAPTER]

॥ छान्दोग्योपनिषत्  –  सप्तमोऽध्यायः ॥

Structure of 7th Chapter!

Mathematically, consider "Name" as an elementary set and it is subset of Speech. In this way each step are to be considered as subset of the next. Finally, all the subsets become elements of Universal set. Each stage has its significance and important to live life. Please try to understand the concept.

Part-2: Section: 6-8 (Total 6 Mantras): “DHARMA-the Universal Law”

Mantra-6.2.2: What is above Contemplation?

Narada: ” Sir, Is there anything above Contemplation”?

Sanatkumara:” Yes, than contemplation, there is something greater.”

Narada: ” Sir, then please elaborate.”

Section-7: “Vijnaanam”- Wisdom [2 Mantras]

Mantra-7.1: What is above Contemplation?

Mantra-7.1.1 Wisdom [understanding] is above Contemplation.

**Note:   Understanding of scriptures is necessary for contemplation. Through understanding, one achieves Wisdom.

Mantra-7.1.2: All sciences are understood by Wisdom.

Wisdom is above Contemplation. By wisdom alone can the Rig- Veda be understood. This is true for the Yajur Veda, Saama Veda, Atharva Veda as the fourth. the History and Puranas as the fifth, the Veda of Vedas-grammar, the rules for the worship of ancestors, mathematics, the science of portents, the science of treasures, logic, the science of ethics, the science of gods, the ancillary knowledge of the Vedas, physical science, the science of War, the science of the stars, the science related to serpents, the fine arts(celestials)

Mantra-7.1.3: All elements and Creatures are understood.

By Wisdom also understood the following subjects: All Elements: Air and Space, Water and Fire, gods and men, all creatures such as animals and birds, grasses and trees, beasts down to worms, flying insects and ants.

Mantra-7.1.4: All values, Food and Worlds are understood.

By wisdom we understand merit and demerit (all values) true and false, good, and bad, pleasant, and unpleasant, food and drink, this World and the next.

Mantra-7.1.5: Therefore, worship Wisdom.

Mantra- 7.2: Beyond Wisdom:

Mantra-7.2.1: Fruit gained by Wisdom.

Who worships Wisdom as Brahman, attains all knowledge and experience, moves within the limits of its subject, as it may please him, provided he worships Wisdom as nothing but Brahman.

Mantra-7.2.2: What is above Wisdom?

Narada: ” Sir, Is there anything above Wisdom”?

Sanatkumara:” Yes, Power is above Wisdom”

Narada: ” Sir, then please elaborate.”

Section-8: ” Balaam”- Strength (Power) [2 Verses]

Mantra-8.1.1:  Power (Strength) is above Wisdom.

Mantra-8.1.2: Greatness of a Powerful man:

One powerful man terrifies a hundred wise men.

Mantra-8.1.3:  Power helps on Spiritual Journey from beginning to End:

When man becomes powerful (gains great strength), he rises (gains spiritual power); as he rises, he serves (Karma Yoga). as he serves, he associates with wise (Discipleship), he sees, hears (Sravana), thinks (Manana), knows (Nididhyasana), acts (intense Tapas), and he realizes (Attains Self).

** Note: Power or Strength whatever the word be, “Balaam” is the Sanskrit word. Here strength does not mean just physical strength. Intellectual strength also is to be considered here. 

Mantra-8.1.4:  Power holds everything firm:

Through power we are masters of Earth, sky, heaven, mountain, men, gods, cattle, herbs, trees, beasts, worms, midges, and ants.

Mantra-8.1.5: Therefore, Worship Power.

Mantra-8.2: Beyond Power

Mantra-8.2.1: The Fruit gained from Power.

Who worships power as Brahman, moves within the limits of the powerful, as it may please him, provided he worships power as nothing but Brahman.

** Note: The word Power (or Strength) used here is not just the strength of the Body. It is to be understood as deep inner spiritual Power or strength. The primary means to obtain this power is ” Brahmacharya” [ Brahmacharya- celibacy:-  Right use of energy: sutra 2.38 says ” Brahmacharya pratisthayam viryalabhah”.  It is about controlled and disciplined sex. Brahmacharya does not mean cut off from sex. According to explanations of the above sutras by the scholars it is said that “Virya” , the seminal fluid is our life. If stored properly, it can generate lot of energy. When absorbed into the system it gets transformed into prana. Conserved sexual energy in woman also gets transformed. Seminal fluid gives stamina and strength to the brain and nerves. ## To know more:–Readers are requested to read my post on Ashtanga Yoga: Part-3]

Mantra-8.2.2: Is there anything above Power (Strength)?

Narada: ” Sir, Is there anything above Power”?

Sanatkumara:” Yes, than Power there is something above”

Narada: ” Sir, then please elaborate.”

Part-3: Section: 9-12 (Total 8 Mantras):                          ” JAGAT-the Universe”

**Note: In part-1, we have seen discussion on levels from Name up to Intelligence. In this part we have seen development of Individual’s potential. In part-2 we have seen development of Principle of righteousness. In the following part, part-3 we will see how the fundamental Elements: Food, Fire and Earth contribute our development in the level of Universe. Here we will learn how to establish connection with the entire manifested Universe. This knowledge will strengthen further for smooth Spiritual journey to reach the Goal.

Section-9: ” Annam”- Food [2 Verses]

Mantra-9.1.1:  Food is above Strength (Power).

Mantra-9.1.2:  Effect of not Eating:

If a man abstains from food for even 10 days, though he may live, he cannot see, hear, think, discriminate, act, or learn.

Importance of Food: This we have seen in many parts of different Upanishads. In Chandagyo Upanishad; Chapter-6; Khanda-7 sage Uddalaka has given lesson to Svetaketu. Please read this section: Link is here: Mantra-7.1: Svetaketu was instructed to Fast:

Mantra-9.1.3:  Effect of Eating:

When he eats, he will see, hear, think, discriminate, act, and know.

Mantra-9.1.4: Therefore, Worship Food.

Mantra-9.2: Beyond Food:

Mantra-9.2.1: The Fruit gained by Worshiping Food.

Who worships Food as Brahman, he obtains Food and drink as much as he likes, moves within the limit of all that eat, as it may please him, provided he worships food as nothing but Brahman.

Mantra-9.2.2: Is there anything above Power (Strength)?

Narada: ” Sir, Is there anything above Food”?

Sanatkumara:” Yes, than Food, there is something above”

Narada: ” Sir, then please elaborate.”

Section-10: ” Aapah”- Water [2 Verses]

** Point to be noted here: The Elements mentioned in the following sections are all equally important. Hence the sequence of superiority may be treated as secondary matter. In the process of creation, all the five basic Elements, from subtle to gross are equally important for the sustenance and maintenance of Life and the Creation.

Mantra-10.1.1:  Water is above Food.

Mantra-10.1.2:  The greatness of Rain.

In absence of Rain, creatures fall sick for lack of food. But when plentiful rain is there, living creatures become joyous, thinking, ” There will be plenty of Food.”

Mantra-10.1.3:  The greatness of Water.

All are images made of Water, Earth, Sky, Heaven, Mountain, Men, gods, cattle, herbs, trees, beasts, down to worms, midges, ants, Worship water.

Mantra-10.1.4:  Therefore, Worship Water.

Mantra-10.2: Beyond Water:

Mantra-10.2.1: The Fruit gained by Worshiping Water.

He who worships water as Brahman, he obtains all desires, becomes satisfied, and attains the sphere reached by wate. He is free to act as he wishes. Such is he worships water as nothing but Brahman.

Mantra-10.2.2: Is there anything above Water

Narada: ” Sir, Is there anything above Water”?

Sanatkumara:” Yes, than Water, there is something above”

Narada: ” Sir, then please elaborate.”

Section-11: ” Tejah”- Energy(Fire) [2 Verses]

Photo by Bradley Hook on Pexels.com

Mantra-11.1.1:  Fire is above Water

Mantra-11.1.2:  Fire (Tejah) produces Rain.

It is this Fire that, having seized the Air, warms up the space. People then say, ” It is hot, it is burning hot, there will be rain surely. Therefore, first we see Fire and then Rain follows.

Mantra-11.1.3:  Lightning flashes before Rain.

Fire creates heat. Heat makes thunder roll, makes lightning strike, whether above or below. People say: ” There is Thunder, it will rain.” It is Fire first, then water!

** Note: ” Tejah” : Commonly we use the word Fire. Sometime the word Light is also used to glorify the Sanskrit word ” Tejah”. This fire is the symbol of knowledge as well as symbol of purity. Fire burns all impurities. 

Mantra-11.1.4:  Therefore, Worship Fire.

Mantra-11.2: Beyond Fire:

Mantra-11.2.1: The Fruit gained by Worshiping Fire

Who meditates on Fire as Brahman, becomes bright, attains the receptacles of Light, full of brilliance without darkness; moves within the limits of all that is bright as it may please him, provided he worships Fire as nothing but Brahman.

** Pointes to be noted here: The word Fire may not be alone sufficient to describe “Tejah”. Light also can be used instead. However, this Tejah is meant for SUN. Different Upanishads described the significance of Tejah and SUN. Air, Space, Water, cloud, Rain, lightning etc. all are related in the Solar System. As such SuryaLoka which is none other than BrahmaLoka is the highest world of 14 Worlds (Loka) described in Vedas. Liberation is assured for sadhakas who reaches BrahmaLoka. Of course, this Liberation is “Karma Mukti”, not the “Jivan Mukti”

Mantra-11.2.2: Is there anything above “Tejah”[ Fire]

Narada: ” Sir, Is there anything above Fire”?

Sanatkumara:” Yes, than Fire, there is something above”

Narada: ” Sir, then please elaborate.”

Section-12:” Aakaashah”- Space” [2 Verses]

Mantra-12.1.1:  Space is above Fire.

Mantra-12.1.2:  Space makes room for everything.

In space, indeed, exist the SUN, the Moon, lightning, Stars and Fire.

Mantra-12.1.3: The Greatness of Space.

Through Space sound travels, through Space one hears, through Space the reply comes. In Space one rejoices, in space another does not rejoice. In Space a thing is born and grows after birth.

Mantra-12.1.4:  Therefore, Worship Space.

Mantra-12.2: Beyond Space:

Mantra-12.2.1: The Fruit gained by Worshiping Space.

He, who worships Space as brahman, attains the receptacles of light, free from sorrow, free from bondage, moves within the limits of Space, as it may please him, provided he worships space as nothing but Brahman.

Mantra-12.2.2: Is there anything above “Aakaashah”[Space]

Narada: ” Sir, Is there anything above Space”?

Sanatkumara:” Yes, there is something above”

Narada: ” Sir, then please elaborate.”

Conclusion:-

The entire chapter is conceptual. Aim is to gain higher knowledge.

Knowledge is gained in stages. The order of knowledge given by Sanatkumara is from Gross to Subtle to Subtlest[finer to finest] and then to Causal. And finally, Causal to Absolute. It must be understood that as the knowledge goes higher, the mastery over the previous knowledge is included in the next stage. See below: How you gain height of knowledge from “Name and Fame” to Ultimate Reality:- 

Next two parts of 7th Chapter will be published soon !!!

Recommended readings:

  1. Back to the Truth: 5000 years of ADVAITA by Dennis Waite. **
  2. THE TEN PRINCIPAL UPANISHADS: Translated by Shree Purohit** Swami and W.B.Yeats
  3. Brahma Sutra Bhasya of Sankaracharya: Translated by Swami Gambhirananda.**
  4. Commentary of ChAndogya Upanishad: By Swami Krishnananda.
  5. ChAndogya Upanishad: By Swami GuruBhaktananda.
  6. EIGHT UPANISADS -VOL-1 with commentary of Sankaracharya, Translated by SWAMI GAMBHIRANANDA.
  7. THE TAITTIRIYA UPANISHAD: SHIKSHAVALLI-ANANDAVALLI-BHRIGUVALLI with Sri Shankara’s Commentary By Sri Swami Satchidanandera Saraswati.
  8. A-U-M Awakening to Reality: By Dennis Waite***
  9. Panchadasi: Swami Vidyaranya:
  10. Information available on internet.

It is my sincere request to the esteemed readers to share their opinion or queries if any. Suggestions to make the site attractive will be incredibly helpful for me. Readers are requested to read all the posts to have continuation of the topic from the beginning. My mail ID is: arun7663@gmail.com

Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-7A

Introduction: Seventh Chapter:

The ChAndogya Upanishad is part of ChAndogya Brahmana of the Sama Veda which is one of the largest important Upanishads with Eight Chapters (Prapathakas) with many verses including some stories as themes to gain Upanishadic knowledge. This Upanishad is placed in the 9th position in the list of Ten Principal Upanishads. The name of the Upanishad is derived from the word   “Chanda” (Rhythm~ poetic meter).

**This Upanishad directly deals with the true nature of Brahman, the Supreme Self, without a second.

ChAndogya Upanishad consists of Eight chapters. The first five chapters forms the part of Karma Kanda and Upasana Kanda. Chapter- 6, 7 and 8 form the part of Jnana Kanda.

 There are 24 sections in Chapter Seven. Here we will discuss on Chapter-7, Section-1 to Section-6 to learn profound knowledge, the Highest knowledge, through a dialog between: Narada (the disciple) and Sage Sanatkumar.

This chapter will be published in 4 Parts:

The essence of the Teaching is: – The Infinite Happiness ~ “Bhumaiva Sukham”

A request to my readers: Please read my previous posts on ChAndogya Upanishad, especially 6th chapter. Links are given below:

  1. Chapter Six: Section-1 to Section-4(Khanda-1 to Khanda-4). The link is here:  Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-6A of 6
  2. Chapter Six: Section-5 to Section-8(Khanda-5 to Khanda-8). The link is here: Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-6B of 6
  3. Chapter Six: Section-9 to Section-16(Khanda-9 to Khanda-16). The link is here: Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-6C of 6[END OF 6TH CHAPTER]

॥ छान्दोग्योपनिषत्  –  सप्तमोऽध्यायः ॥

Structure of 7th Chapter!

Entire 7th Chapter is focused on ” Bhumavidya” means the knowledge of Infinity: “Brahma Gyan”. The knowledge has been imparted by the sage Sanatkumar to the sage Narada, step wise. Each step itself is a kind of meditation. Crossing each step one can go higher and higher and finally to the Infinity, beyond which nothing is there. That is unlimited and immortal.

Part-1: Section: 1-5 (Total 15 Mantras):                          ” The Individual SOUL

Mantra1.1: Narada’s request to Sanatkumara:

OM; “Revered Sir, teach me”, thus did Narada approach Sanatkumara. Sanatkumara replied: ” Declaring what you already know, come to me. I shall tell you what is beyond.

Mantra1.2: Narada’s Qualification:

Narada then said: ” Revered Sir, I know the Rig Veda, the Yajur Veda, and the Sama Vedas, the Atharva as the fourth. The Itihasas and Puranas as the fifth; Vedic grammar; forms of ancestor worship; mathematics; the science of portents; the science of treasures; logic; the science of ethics; etymology; the preliminary Vedas; physical science; the science of serpents; and of celestials-all this I know, Revered Sir.

Mantra1.3: Narada’s Quest:

1.3.1: Narada Seeks Knowledge

“Revered Sir, I am only knower of verbal Texts, not a knower of the Self. Indeed, I have heard from persons like your revered Self thar a knower of the Self goes beyond grief.”

1.3.2: Narada wants escape from the ocean of grief.

“I am in such a state of grief. May your Revered Self take me across this ocean of grief.”

1.3.3: Guru’s Assessment:

Sage Sanatkumara replied to Narada: ” Whatever you have studied so far is really, nothing but a Name only. [ mere certificates]

[Knower of the Brahman is Brahman:]

Mantra1.4: The greatness of Name:

1.4.1: The Value of Education

Name: Indeed is: The Rig Veda, The Yajur Veda, and the Sama Vedas, the Atharva as the fourth. The Itihasas and Puranas as the fifth; Vedic grammar; forms of ancestor worship; mathematics; the science of portents; the science of treasures; logic; the science of ethics; etymology; the preliminary Vedas; physical science; the science of the war; the science of the stars; the science related to serpents; the science of the celestials i.e. fine arts.

1.4.2: Therefore, worship the Name:

Name alone is Brahman, so worship the Name.

Mantra1.5: Beyond the Name:

1.5.1: The fruit gained by the mastery of Name:

He who in Name, worships the Infinite, attains the sphere within reach of Name. He is free to act as he wishes. Such is he who in Name worships the Infinite!

स यो नाम ब्रह्मेत्युपास्ते यावन्नाम्नो गतं तत्रास्य यथाकामचारो भवति यो नाम ब्रह्मेत्युपास्तेऽस्ति भगवो नाम्नो भूय इति नाम्नो वाव भूयोऽस्तीति तन्मे भगवान्ब्रवीत्विति ॥ ७.१.५॥

1.5.2: What is greater than Name?

Narada: ” Sir, Is there anything greater than Name”?

Sanatkumara:” Yes, than Name, there is something greater.

Narada: ” Sir, please elaborate”

Section-2: Vaak- speech (2 mantras):

Mantra-2.1: What is greater than Name?

2.1.1: Speech surely is greater than name.

2.1.2: The Greatness of Speech:

Speech makes us understand the Rig Veda; the Yajur Veda and the Sama Vedas, the Atharva as the fourth. The Itihasas and Puranas as the fifth; Vedic grammar; forms of ancestor worship; mathematics; the science of portents; the science of treasures; logic; the science of ethics; etymology; the ancillary knowledge of Vedas; physical science; the science of the war; the science of the stars; the science related to serpents; the science of the celestials i.e. fine arts. Also, Heaven and Earth [ All elements], Air, Space, and Water, Fire, [All creatures], animals, birds, grasses and trees, beasts down to warms, flying insects and ants, merit, and demerit; [ All Values]; the true and false; the good and bad; the pleasant and unpleasant. Verily, if speech did not exist, all values: neither merit, nor demerit would we understand; neither true nor false; neither good nor bad; neither pleasant nor unpleasant.

2.1.3: Therefore, worship Speech:

All this Speech alone makes us understand. Hence, worship Speech.

Mantra-2.2: Beyond Speech:

2.2.1: The fruit gained by the mastery of Speech:

He who in Speech, worships the Infinite, attains the sphere within reach of Speech. He is free to act as he wishes. Such is he who in Speech worships the Infinite!

2.2.1: What is greater than Speech?

Narada: ” Sir, Is there anything greater than Speech”?

Sanatkumara:” Yes, than Speech, there is something greater.”

Narada: ” Sir, please elaborate.”

Section-3: “Manah”-Mind (2 mantras):

Mantra-3.1: What is greater than Speech?

3.1.1:  Mind surely is greater than Speech.

3.1.2:  Mind encompasses its Predecessors:

Just as two amalakas, or two kolas or two akshas are encompassed by closed fist; so also, both Speech and Name are encompassed by the Mind.

[ In this Mantra, the significance of example is that the Mind is the Palm, and the two fruits are the Speech and Name. Name and Speech are the tools used by the Mind to express itself]

3.1.3:  Mind makes the intention:

When by the mind one intends, ” Let me learn the Mantras”, then he learns; ” Let me do sacrificial acts”, then he does; ” Let me desire offspring and cattle”, then he desires; ” Let me desire this world and the next”, then he desires.

3.1.4:  Worship the Mind:

Mind indeed is the Self; Mind indeed is the world. Mind indeed is the Infinite Truth. Hence, worship with the Mind.

Mantra-3.2: Beyond Mind:

3.2.1: The fruit gained by the mastery of Mind:

He who in Mind, worships the Infinite, attains the sphere within reach of Mind. He is free to act as he wishes. Such is he who in Mind worships the Infinite!

3.2.1: What is greater than Mind?

Narada: ” Sir, Is there anything greater than Mind”?

Sanatkumara:” Yes, than Mind, there is something greater.”

Narada: ” Sir, then please elaborate.”

Section-4: “Sankalpa”-Will (3 mantras):

Mantra-4.1: What is greater than Mind?

4.1.1:  Will surely is greater than Mind.

** Note: Though mind is very important, but it needs to be guided by the Will (Sankalpa). Mind is always wavering. It cannot decide. Will determines what actions are required to achieve the goal.

4.1.2: From Will arise all Predecessors.

Verily, when one wills, then he intends in his Mind. He sends forth his Speech. Of course, he sends forth in a Name. In the Name the Mantras are formed, and in the Mantras the Sacrifices are formed.

Mantra-4.2: The Greatness of Will:

Mantra-4.2.1: Will is the Origin of its Predecessors:

All these, indeed, merge in the Will, are made up of the Will, and abide in the Will.

Mantra-4.2.2: Will at the Causal Level:

Heaven and Earth willed; Air and Space Willed; Water and Fire willed.

***NOTE: This we have seen in multiple occasions throughout Upanishads. Will is the root of the earth, heaven, of all Worlds, Of space, Air, Fire, water, Food, life, and all that works. The will is the origin and end of the phenomenal world. Because of will, each force of nature plays its role.

Mantra-4.2.3: The Chain of Will at the Subtle & Gross Level.

By the Will of these, Rain wills. By the Will of Rain, Food wills. By the Will of Food, Pranas will. By the Will of the Pranas, Mantras will. By the Will of Mantras, Sacrificial acts will, by the Will of Sacrificial acts, the World Wills, by the Will of the world, all things Will.

Mantra-4.2.4: Therefore, Worship Will.

This is the great power of the Will. Hence, worship in the Will.

John Wheeler suggested that reality is created by observers and that ” no phenomenon is a real phenomenon until it is an observed phenomenon. John Wheeler indeed firmly believed that we live in a very interactive Universe, implying that Humans and probably other intelligent species function as observers. They thereby influence the Universe at the most fundamental level and actively participate in the fabric of reality and evolution of the Universe. He also proposed that Universe is a self-synthesized information system.

Mantra-4.3: Beyond Will

Mantra-4.3.1: Mastery Over Will:

He who in Will, worships the Infinite.

Mantra-4.3.2: As is the Goal, so the attainment.

Indeed, the worlds willed by Him, being permanent, the permanent worlds; being well-founded, the well-founded worlds, being Un distressed, the Un distressed worlds; these he attains.

Mantra-4.3.3: Fruit gained by Mastery of Will.

He who in Will, worships the Infinite, attains the sphere within reach of Will. He is free to act as he wishes. Such is he who in Will worships the Infinite!

Mantra-4.3.4: What is greater than Will?

Narada: ” Sir, Is there anything greater than Will”?

Sanatkumara:” Yes, than Will, there is something greater.”

Narada: ” Sir, then please elaborate.”

Section-5: “Chittam”-Intelligence (3 mantras):

Mantra-5.1: What is greater than Will?

Mantra-5.1.1: Intelligence is greater than Will?

Mantra-5.1.2: From Intelligence arise all Predecessors:

Verily, when one understands, then he wills, then he intends in Mind, then he sends forth Speech, and he sends it forth in a Name. In the name the Mantras become one, and in Mantras the Sacrifices become one.

Mantra-5.2: Greatness of Intelligence:

** Note: Will (Sankalpa) is good but suppose you cannot discriminate, and you will (determine) for an Evil deed, then that kind of will certainly not good for the mankind. Hence Intelligence must guide the will. Intelligence is the power to judge what is good and bad, what is right and wrong, and then a person makes an appropriate decision. That is the greatness of intelligence over will.

Mantra-5.2.1: Intelligence is above all its predecessors.

All these, indeed, merge in Intelligence, are made up of it, and abide in it.

Mantra-5.2.2: The apparently and truly Intelligent:

Therefore, even a man who knows a lot, but if he is without Intelligence, as ” He does not exist,” – this is how people speak of him. If he does really know, if he were really learned, he would not be without intelligence. On the other hand, though knowing little, if he is endowed with intelligence, him, we note, that people are keen to hear.

Mantra-5.2.3: Therefore, worship Intelligence:

Intelligence, indeed, of the others so far is the one abode of mergence for them all. Intelligence is their Soul and their support. Hence, worship with Intelligence.

Mantra-5.3: Beyond Intelligence:

Mantra-5.3.1: Mastery over Intelligence:

He worships the Infinite with Intelligence.

Mantra-5.3.2: As is the Goal, so the Attainment.

Indeed, the worlds of intelligence, being permanent, the permanent worlds; being well-founded, the well-founded worlds, being Un distressed, the Un distressed worlds; these he attains.

Mantra-5.3.3: Fruit gained by Mastery of Intelligence.

He reaches the sphere of Intelligence. He is free to act as he wishes. Such is he who with Intelligence worships the Infinite.

Mantra-5.3.4: What is greater than Intelligence?

Narada: ” Sir, Is there anything greater than Intelligence”?

Sanatkumara:” Yes, than Intelligence, there is something greater.”

Narada: ” Sir, then please elaborate.”

Part-2: Section: 6-8 (Total 6 Mantras):                          ” DHARMA-the Universal Law”

Section-6: “Dhyaanam- Contemplation [2 Verses]

Mantra-6.1: What is greater than Intelligence?

Mantra-6.1.1: Contemplation is greater than Intelligence?

Mantra-6.1.2: Greatness of Contemplation:

The Earth contemplates as it were. The sky contemplates as it were. Heaven contemplates as it were. Water contemplates as it were. The Mountains contemplate as it were. Divine beings and men contemplate as it were.

Mantra-6.1.3: The Great compared to the mean-minded.

Therefore, verily, among men here, of those who attain greatness, a share of the result of contemplation they seem to have obtained. How small-minded are the, the abusive and the slanderous, in comparison to the genuinely great ones! Truly, a share of the result of contemplation they seem to have obtained.

Mantra-6.1.4: Therefore, worship Contemplation.

Mantra-6.2: Beyond Contemplation:

Mantra-6.2.1: Fruit gained by Mastery of Contemplation.

Who worships the Infinite with Contemplation, goes to the Sphere reached by Contemplation. He is free to act as he wishes. Such is he who worships the Infinite with Contemplation.

Mantra-6.2.2: What is greater than Contemplation?

Narada: ” Sir, Is there anything greater than Contemplation”?

Sanatkumara:” Yes, than contemplation, there is something greater.”

Narada: ” Sir, then please elaborate.”

Section-7: “Vijnaanam”- Wisdom [2 Mantras]: to be continued….[Next Part:-  coming soon!!]

Conclusion:

In this section we have seen that sage Narada was proficient in Vedas, Epics, Puranas, rule of grammar, Ethics, Politics, Physical science, music, art, astrology, astronomy, six auxiliary limbs of Vedas, and all science related to this world and beyond. Sage Narada realised that these Qualifications are mere Name only. Yet, he was not satisfied with his knowledge, because he wanted to have knowledge which will give him permanent Happiness. Therefore, Narada approached Sanatkumara to learn “Bhooma Vidya”. Narada surrendered before Sanatkumar, saying : ” I have heard from other people that a person who knows the Self, crosses over sorrow. What is this Self? I am in sorrow. I am in a state of grief in spite of all this learning that I have. I have come to you, great master, with a request to take me beyond the ocean of sorrow”.

Recommended readings:
  1. Back to the Truth: 5000 years of ADVAITA by Dennis Waite. **
  2. THE TEN PRINCIPAL UPANISHADS: Translated by Shree Purohit** Swami and W.B.Yeats
  3. Brahma Sutra Bhasya of Sankaracharya: Translated by Swami Gambhirananda.**
  4. Commentary of ChAndogya Upanishad: By Swami Krishnananda.
  5. ChAndogya Upanishad: By Swami GuruBhaktananda.
  6. EIGHT UPANISADS -VOL-1 with commentary of Sankaracharya, Translated by SWAMI GAMBHIRANANDA.
  7. THE TAITTIRIYA UPANISHAD: SHIKSHAVALLI-ANANDAVALLI-BHRIGUVALLI with Sri Shankara’s Commentary By Sri Swami Satchidanandera Saraswati.
  8. A-U-M Awakening to Reality: By Dennis Waite***
  9. Panchadasi: Swami Vidyaranya:
  10. Information available on internet.

It is my sincere request to the esteemed readers to share their opinion or queries if any. Suggestions to make the site attractive will be incredibly helpful for me. Readers are requested to read all the posts to have continuation of the topic from the beginning. My mail ID is: arun7663@gmail.com

Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-6C of 6[END OF 6TH CHAPTER]

Introduction: Sixth Chapter:

The ChAndogya Upanishad is part of ChAndogya Brahmana of the Sama Veda which is one of the largest important Upanishads with Eight Chapters (Prapathakas) with many verses including some stories as themes to gain Upanishadic knowledge. This Upanishad is placed in the 9th position in the list of Ten Principal Upanishads. The name of the Upanishad is derived from the word “Chanda” (Rhythm~ poetic meter). This Upanishad directly deals with the true nature of Brahman, the Supreme Self, without a second.

ChAndogya Upanishad consists of Eight chapters. The first five chapters forms the part of Karma Kanda and Upasana Kanda. Chapter Six, Seven and Eight form the part of Jnana Kanda.
Sage Uddalaka’s son Svetaketu , having gone when 12 years old returned from Gurukul when he was 24 yrs. old, having studied all the Vedas.
Chapter Six contains Sixteen sections. On chapter Six, I have already covered Section-1 to Section-10 (Khanda-1 to Khanda-10). Please read my previous posts on Chapter Six: the links of which are given below:

  1. Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-6A of 6
  2. Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-6B of 6

Here we will see Section-11 to Section-16 to learn profound knowledge through dialog between Sage Uddalaka and his son Svetaketu.

Section-11: (Four Mantras).

The Sap of Life:

Mantra-11.1: Simile: Sap is all pervading!

Of this large Tree, dear boy, if anyone were to strike at its root, it would exude sap, a sign that is alive; if anyone were to strike in the middle, it would exude sap, a sign that it is alive; if anyone were to strike at the top, it would exude sap, a sign that it is alive. This tree by the living, sap is pervaded. Drinking constantly, it stands firm, rejoicing.

[** Every part of the Tree: “the root, the middle and the top”- is bursting with the juice of life. The tree feels this life-force and rejoices, not just now and then but constantly. It is “drinking”, i.e. always celebrating life. Why cannot we follow the example of the Tree? The existence of the Tree, the working of the Tree, the living of the Tree is due to this vitality which is referable back to Pure Being, “The Sat” which is present not only in Tree but in everything else.]

Mantra-11.2: Simile: Sap gives life!

If from one branch of this tree the life leaves, then the branch dies up. If from a second branch it leaves, then the branch, too, dries up. If from the third branch it leaves, then the branch, too, dries up. If from the whole tree life leaves, then the whole tree dries up.

[**What we call death is the departing of life from a particular body. So, death is not the death of life principle itself. ]

Mantra-11.3: Application: The Self is life-Giving Sap!

Even so, my dear boy, know thus, said the Father, ” Left by the living Self, this body surely dies, but the living Self does not die.”

Mantra-11.4a: The Conclusion- ” Tat-Tvam-Asi”

That Existence is this same subtle essence. Superimposed on IT is this entire world. (The entire world has That as itself, its Essence.) That is the Truth; That is the Self. ” That Thou Art”, O Svetaketu.

Mantra-11.4b: Svetaketu wants more Clarity:

Svetaketu asks:” Revered Sir, won’t you please explain it further to me?” The father replies: ” Be it so, dear boy.”

Section-12: (Four Mantras).

The Seed and the Banyan Tree:

Mantra-12.1: Simile: the Banyan Tree!

Father: ” Bring a fruit from Banyan Tree. Boy: ” Here it is, Revered Sir!
Father: ” Break it Boy: ” It is broken, Revered Sir!
Father: “What do you see in this? Boy: “These small particles of seeds, Sir!”
Father: ” Break one of these, my child. Boy: ” It is broken, Revered Sir!”
Father: “What do you see in it? Boy: “Nothing, Revered Sir!”

Mantra-12.2: Simile: Power locked in a Seed!

To his son the Father said: ” This subtle essence, dear boy, you do not perceive. Growing from this subtle essence, dear boy, is this huge Banyan Tree which now stands before us. Have Faith dear boy.”

** Elaboration: This little so-called subtle essence is pervading the entire Tree. What makes it possible that an atomic little speck pervades the large expanse of the Tree? The so-called large Tree is nothing but whatever is contained inside one seed, a jelly like substance. That is The Being, essence of the vast Tree of this Universe. This Being is the essence of the whole Universe. As such, we can say that ‘Being’ is one’s own Self” Tat-Tvam-Asi”. Every branch of the Tree, every leaf of the Tree, flowers of the Tree and each part of the Tree is that Essence. The same Being. This is true all of us, all individuals (Atman)

Mantra-12.3a: The Conclusion- ” Tat-Tvam-Asi”

That Existence is this same subtle essence. Superimposed on IT is this entire world. (The entire world has That as its Self, its Essence.) That is the Truth; That is the Self. ” That Thou Art”, O Svetaketu.

Mantra-12.3b: Svetaketu wants more Clarity:

Svetaketu asks:” Revered Sir, won’t you please explain it further to me?” The father replies: ” Be it so, dear boy.”

Section-13: (Three Mantras):

The Dissolved Salt: Salt solution analogy:

Mantra-13.1: Simile: Salt dissolved into water!

The father said to the boy:” Put this salt into water and then come to me in the morning. The boy did as he was advised.
The father said in the next morning:” Last night the salt which you put into the water, please bring it, my child.” Having searched for it, he did not find it, as it had completely dissolved.

Mantra-13.2: Application: The Salt is the Self!

i) All- pervasiveness of the Salt:

Father said:” My child, from the top of this water take a sip. How is it? Boy: ” It is saline.”
Father said:” Take a sip from the middle. How is it? Boy: ” It is saline.”
Father said:” Take a sip from the bottom. How is it? Boy: ” It is saline.”

ii) Invisibility of the Salt

Father: Throw this water away and come to me. He did as he was told. Boy: The salt is there throughout.

iii) Conclusion Drawn:

To him the Father said: Indeed, it is there! Existence, dear boy, also you do not see; but It is there all the same!

Mantra-13.3a: The Conclusion- ” Tat-Tvam-Asi”

That Existence is this same subtle essence. Superimposed on IT is this entire world. (The entire world has That as its Self, its Essence.) That is the Truth; That is the Self. ” That Thou Art”, O Svetaketu.

Mantra-13.3b: Svetaketu wants more Clarity:

Svetaketu asks:” Revered Sir, won’t you please explain it further to me?” The father replies: ” Be it so, dear boy.”

Section-14: (Three Mantras):

The Blindfolded Captive.

Mantra-14.1a: A man is blindfolded and abandoned:

For example, dear boy, if a man from the Gandhara province were taken to and abandoned in a forest blindfolded. There whether he is facing the north, or the east, or the south, or the west- he would shout for help: ” I have been brought here blindfolded and abandoned.”

Mantra-14.1b: The man gets direction and reaches destination:

Now imagine that thereupon some good man might take off the eye-bandage and instruct him; ” The Gandhara region is in this direction, kindly proceed along this direction, village to village, by enquiry, instructions and judgement”. Ultimately the Man returns the Gandhara region.

Mantra-14.2: Necessity of a Guide:

Even so, in this world, one who has a guide such a man gets to know the right direction. For him, the only delay now is that of taking the steps to get liberated and then merging in the Truth.

Mantra-14.3a: The Conclusion- ” Tat-Tvam-Asi”

That Existence is this same subtle essence. Superimposed on IT is this entire world. (The entire world has That as its Self, its Essence.) That is the Truth; That is the Self. ” That Thou Art”, O Svetaketu.

Mantra-14.3b: Svetaketu wants more Clarity:

Svetaketu asks:” Revered Sir, won’t you please explain it further to me?” The father replies: ” Be it so, dear boy.”

Section-15: (Three Mantras):

A Sick Man on his Death Bed:

Mantra-15.1: Simile: A dying man!

Dear boy, take an example of a sick man, where all his relatives assemble and ask him:” Do you remember me?” As long as his speech is not merged in the Mind, the mind in Prana, prana in Fire and fire in the Supreme Deity (Existence~ SAT), so long he knows them.

Mantra-15.2: Application: Merging into The Absolute: Supreme Deity (Existence~ SAT)!

When his Speech is merged in the Mind, mind in Prana, Prana in fire, and Fire in the Supreme Deity (Existence), therefore, he really knows them not!

Points to be noted: For a sage, the process of dying described in the example above, signifies the cessation of ignorance. The outcome is Enlightenment. The whole meaning is philosophical which represents Self-Realisation. Speech represents all the organs of senses. When Speech is merged, mind still functions. but when mind is merged in Prana, it is the stage of samadhi. all thoughts are diminished, except the finest of them.

Mantra-15.3a: The Conclusion- ” Tat-Tvam-Asi”
That Existence is this same subtle essence. Superimposed on IT is this entire world. (The entire world has That as its Self, its Essence.) That is the Truth; That is the Self. ” That Thou Art”, O Svetaketu.

Mantra-15.3b: Svetaketu wants more Clarity:

Svetaketu asks:” Revered Sir, won’t you please explain it further to me?” The father replies: ” Be it so, dear boy.”

Section-16: (Three Mantras):

The Heated AXE:

Mantra-16.1: How guilt is proven?

i) A suspect is arrested:

Dear boy, another man with hands bound, is charged with: ” He is a thief. ” He is accused of committing a theft: ” Heat the axe for him.”

ii) A Self-Test to prove Guilt:

If he is the doer of the crime, then his falsity is proven by this self-test. If he is connected to falsehood, by that falsehood itself he enshrouds himself. As he grasps the heated axe, he is burnt, and thus he is punished.

Mantra-16.2: How innocence is proven?

If he has not committed the theft, he is true to himself and with truth for his protector, grasps the heated axe, he is not burnt, and thus he is acquitted. The man that was not burnt, lived in Truth. Remember that the Truth (Sat) and Self are One.

Mantra-16.3a: The Conclusion- ” Tat-Tvam-Asi”

That Existence is this same subtle essence. Superimposed on IT is this entire world. (The entire world has That as its Self, its Essence.) That is the Truth; That is the Self. ” That Thou Art”, O Svetaketu.

Mantra-16.3b: Svetaketu now convinced:

Svetaketu understood what he said, yes, he understood what his father Uddalaka said.

[ Finally, Svetaketu is convinced of the procedure he has to follow to reach the Source of Being, The Self. ]

Finally, what is the meaning of “Tat-Tvam-Asi”?

Tat-Tvam-Asi = Sat-Chit-Ananda.

Tat-Tvam-Asi=YOU ARE THAT: This statement relates the Individual Self to the Universal Self. The direct Knowledge of that total Identity is the immediate means to Liberation (Moksha).

Link for: – Sanskrit version of ChAndagyo Upanishad.

॥ इति षोडशः खण्डः ॥ ॥ इति षष्ठोऽध्यायः ॥

**THE END OF CHAPTER- 6**

Conclusion:-

Chhandagyo Upanishad investigates philosophically the most meaningful and most conceptualized thoughts in Indology such as Cosmology, Metaphysics, Theology, Transcendentalism, Phenomenology, and Epistemology. However, the concept of Brahman has undoubtedly been the fundamental element or minor root of the Chhandagyo Upanishad. In this connection, I would request my esteemed readers to read one special post ” The Divine Art” which is highly conceptual and intellectual. Link is here: ” The Divine Art”

Recommended readings:

  1. Back to the Truth: 5000 years of ADVAITA by Dennis Waite. **
  2. THE TEN PRINCIPAL UPANISHADS: Translated by Shree Purohit** Swami and W.B.Yeats
  3. Brahma Sutra Bhasya of Sankaracharya: Translated by Swami Gambhirananda.**
  4. Commentary of ChAndogya Upanishad: By Swami Krishnananda.
  5. ChAndogya Upanishad: By Swami GuruBhaktananda.
  6. EIGHT UPANISADS -VOL-1 with commentary of Sankaracharya, Translated by SWAMI GAMBHIRANANDA.
  7. THE TAITTIRIYA UPANISHAD: SHIKSHAVALLI-ANANDAVALLI-BHRIGUVALLI with Sri Shankara’s Commentary By Sri Swami Satchidanandera Saraswati.
  8. A-U-M Awakening to Reality: By Dennis Waite***
  9. Panchadasi: Swami Vidyaranya:
  10. Information available on internet.

It is my sincere request to the esteemed readers to share their opinion or queries if any. Suggestions to make the site attractive will be incredibly helpful for me. Readers are requested to read all the posts to have continuation of the topic from the beginning. My mail ID is: arun7663@gmail.com

Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-6B of 6

Introduction: Sixth Chapter:

The ChAndogya Upanishad is part of ChAndogya Brahmana of the Sama Veda which is one of the most largest important Upanishads with Eight Chapters (Prapathakas) with many verses including some stories as themes to gain Upanishadic knowledge. This Upanishad is placed in the 9th position in the list of Ten Principal Upanishads. The name of the Upanishad is derived from the word   “Chanda” (Rhythm~ poetic meter). This Upanishad directly deals with the true nature of Brahman, the Supreme Self, without a second.

ChAndogya Upanishad consists of Eight chapters. The first five chapters forms  the part of Karma Kanda and Upasana Kanda. Chapter Six, Seven and Eight form the part of Jnana Kanda.

Sage Uddalaka’s  son Svetaketu , having gone when 12 years old returned from Gurukul when he was 24 yrs old , having studied all the Vedas.

Chapter Six contains Sixteen sections. My previous post was on Chapter Six, Section-1 to Section-4(Khanda-1 to Khanda-4). The link is here:  Essence of ChAndogya Upanishad: Part-6A of 6

Here we will see Section-5 to Section-8 to learn profound knowledge through dialog between Sage Uddalaka and his son Svetaketu.

Here in section-8, we will see one of the four MahaVakyas: “Tat-Tvam-Asi” .

The Essence of Self Knowledge:

Section:-5: (Five Mantras).

Mantra-5.1: The Triplication of Food

Food, when eaten, becomes divided into three parts: i} That which is its grossest ingredient becomes the faecal matter. ii) Its middling part becomes flesh and iii) its subtlest part becomes the MIND.

Mantra-5.2: The Triplication of Water.

Water, when drunk, becomes divided into three parts: i) What is its grossest ingredient becomes the Urine; ii) Its middling part becomes blood; iii) Its subtlest part becomes the PRANA.

Mantra-5.3: The Triplication of Fire.

Fire, when consumed, becomes divided into three parts: i) What is grossest ingredient becomes the bones; ii) Its middling part becomes marrow; iii) Its subtlest part becomes Speech.

Mantra-5.4: Summary: The subtlest effects:

Hence, dear boy, MIND is made up of Food; PRANA is made up of Water and SPEECH is made up of Fire.

Mantra-5.5.: Svetaketu wants further elaboration:

Svetaketu asks: ” Revered Sir, wont you again explain it to me”. The father replies “Be it so my boy”.

Section-6: (Six Mantras).

Mantra-6.1: Simile of Curd transforms into Butter

Dear boy, of the CURD, that is being churned, that which is the subtlest part rises upwards, and becomes clarified BUTTER.

From curd to Butter: The Butter is always present in the Curd, but it could not be seen until the process of churning took place. The churning separated the Butter.

Mantra-6.2: Food transforms into Mind

In the same way, dear boy, of the Food that is being eaten, that which is subtlest part rises upwards, and becomes the Mind.

Mantra-6.3: Water transforms into Prana

Dear boy, of the water that is being drunk, that which is the subtlest part rises upwards, and becomes the Prana.

Mantra-6.4: Fire transforms into Speech

Dear boy, of the Fire, that is being burnt, that which is the subtlest part rises upwards, and becomes Speech.

Mantra-6.5: The Subtlest Effects:

Hence, dear boy, Mind is made up of Food; Prana is made up of Water and Speech is made up of Fire.

Mantra-6.6: Svetaketu wants more clarity:

Svetaketu again asks: ” Revered Sir, further explain it to me”. The father replies “Be it so dear boy”.

Section-7: (Six Mantras).

An Experiment on Life:

Mantra-7.1: Svetaketu was instructed to Fast:

Dear boy, man consists of sixteen parts. For fifteen days do not eat. Drink as much as water as you like, for Prana is made up of water. If one does not drink, his Prana is cut off.

Mantra-7.2: The Effect of Fasting:

For fifteen days, Svetaketu did not eat. Then he approached his father, saying: ” Revered Sir, what shall I say?”. “My dear boy, now chant the Rig, Yajur and Sama Vedas.” said the father. The boy said: ” They do not at all arise in me, Revered Sir.”

Mantra-7.3a: Simile for loss of Speech:

The father said:” Dear boy, just as, from a large burning Fire, a single ember, the size of a fire fly that is left over, by an amount that is certainly not as great as before, it will now burn.

Mantra-7.3b: Application of the Simile :

Even so, dear boy, of your sixteen parts, only one part is left over now; and by means of that alone, you can not perceive the Vedas. Eat, then you will understand me.”

Mantra-7.4 : Svetaketu eats and recovers his mind:

Svetaketu then ate well, and approached his father again. This time, whatever the father asked him, he answered them all well.

Mantra-7.5a: Simile for recovery of Speech:

The father said:” Dear boy, just as from a large burning Fire, a single ember, the size of a fire fly that is left over, by adding straw to it, it is made to blaze up again; by an amount that is evergreen than before, will it now burn.

Mantra-7.5b: Application of the Simile :

Even so, dear boy, of your sixteen parts, only one part had remained; and that part, being nourished by food, has been made to blaze up once more; and by means of that alone you are now able to know the Vedas!

Mantra-7.6: Conclusion– The Subtlest Effects:

Hence, dear boy, Mind is made up of food; the Prana is made up of Water and Speech is made up of Fire. From his words Svetaketu understood it- Yes he understood it!

Section-8: (Seven Mantras).

Retracing from Effect to Cause:

Adhyaropa or Superimposition: This process takes us downwards from the Cause to its numerous effects. There is another term in Vedanta, known as Apavada or De-superimposition which is reverse to that of Adhyaropa. In this section we will learn the reverse process. We trace our steps upwards from the effects that we know, to the Cause that we do not know

Mantra-8.1: Example-1:Experience of Deep Sleep:

“Sata Saumya tada sampanno bhavati” : One gets absorbed into the true being that one is .

Once the Sage Uddalaka Aruni said to his son Svetaketu: ” Dear boy, know from me the true nature of Sleep. When a man is sleeping, he is said then to be with with ‘Existence’ dear boy. He has become united with It and is resting in his own nature. ” Hence, ” He is sleeping” – thus do people speak of him, for , indeed, he rests in his own nature.

In sleep, you get into yourself, you enter yourself, you become yourself, and know nothing but yourself. This is sleep. You have withdrawn yourself from all outside connections and relationships.

Mantra-8.2: Example-2:Birds Returning to Roost:

Photo by luizclas on Pexels.com

Just as a Bird, tied to a string, after flying in various directions; finding no resting place elsewhere, where it is tied, is where it takes refuge; Even so dear boy, it is with the Mind; after flying in various directions, finding no resting place elsewhere, in Prana alone does it take refuge, for tied to the Prana, dear boy, is the Mind.

Mantra-8.3: Example-3:A message from Hunger:

The nature of hunger and Thirst- know this from me, dear boy. When a man is Hungry, it is said that then Water has led a way what he has eaten. Just as people speak of the leader of cows, the leader of horses, and of men; even so, they speak of Water as the leader of food. A ‘shoot’ is pushed forth from below. One can not know this directly, dear boy; surely there must be some ‘root’ present.

Mantra-8.4: Example-4: The Root and the Shoot:

Where could the root of the Body be apart from food? Even so, dear boy, with Food as the shoot, look for water as the root; with water as the shoot, dear boy, look for fire as the root; and with Fire as the shoot, dear boy, look for Existence as the root. All these creatures, dear boy, have Existence as their root, as their abode, and as their support.

Mantra-8.5: Example-5: A message from Thirst:

Again, when a man is Thirsty, it is said that then Fire has led away what has been drunk. Just as people speak of the leader of cows, the leader of horses, and leader of men; even so they speak of that Fire as the leader of water. A ‘shoot’ is pushed forth from below. One cannot know this directly, dear boy; surely there must be some ‘root’ present.

Mantra-8.6a: Adhyaropa- Tracing the Root:

Where could the root of Food be apart from water? With water as the shoot, dear boy, look for fire as the root; and with Fire as the shoot, dear boy, look for Existence as the root. All these creatures, dear boy, have Existence as their root, have Existence as their abode, and have Existence as their support.

Mantra-8.6b:  The Creation and Dissolution of Man:

How, indeed, dear boy, these three Elements, on reaching man, each one becomes threefold triplicated, that has already been explained to you. Dear boy, at the time of a man’s departure, his speech merges in mind! Mind merges in Prana, Prana in fire, and Fire in the Supreme Deity, Existence.

§: The effect is consumed by the cause and is absorbed into its own Self

By the way of the analysis of the constituents of the individual, it has thus been pointed out by Uddalaka, the sage, that everything in this personality is made up of the essence of the three elements, -Fire, Water and Earth.  And what we call hunger is nothing but the dissolution of the physical food by the element of water and the absorption into the system. What you call Thirst is similarly the absorption of the Water element in the system by the Fire principle within us. The effect is consumed by the cause and is absorbed into its own Self. This process continues until all effects are absorbed into the final Cause of all things, where they abide absolutely and completely.

Mantra-8.7a: Conclusion — “Tat Tvam Asi” ~ Maha Vakya:

That Existence is this same subtle essence. Superimposed on It, is this whole World: Tat Tvam Asi, Svetaketu. That is the Self. That Thou Art, O Svetaketu.

Mantra-8.7b: Svetaketu wants more Clarity:

Svetaketu asks:” Revered Sir, won’t you please explain it further to me?” The father replies: ” Be it so, dear boy.”

Section-9: (Four Mantras).

Photo by Swapnil Sharma on Pexels.com

Photo by David Hablu00fctzel on Pexels.com

Honey from different Trees:

“Tat Tvam Asi” ~ Maha Vakya: This we have first seen in Section Eight. Now from section Nine onwards up to section sixteen we will see same Maha Vakya :”Tat Tvam Asi” eight more times.

Mantra-9.1: Simile: Many Trees, One Honey.

Dear boy, consider this example: Bees procure(dislodge) Honey from different trees, by collecting their juices and reducing then into one essence. Then, these juices have no differentiation, such as ” I am the juice of this tree, I am the juice of that tree.”

Mantra-9.2: Application: Many Creatures, One Existence.

Even so, dear boy, all these creatures, having merged into Existence, do not know, ” We have merger into Existence.

Mantra-9.3: Endless Rebirth for the ignorant.

These creatures that are here(in ignorance), the tiger or lion, the wolf or boar, the worm or flying insect, the gnat or mosquito- whatever they are that they become again.

Mantra-9.4a: Conclusion — “Tat Tvam Asi”

That Existence is this same subtle essence. Superimposed on It, is this whole world.(The whole world has That as its Self, its Essence.) That is the Truth; That is the Self. ” That Thou Art”, O Svetaketu.

Mantra-9.4b: Svetaketu wants more Clarity:

Svetaketu asks:” Revered Sir, won’t you please explain it further to me?” The father replies: ” Be it so, dear boy.”

Section-10: (Four Mantras).

Rivers merge into Ocean:

Mantra-10.1: Simile: Many Rivers, One Ocean.

These rivers, dear boy, flowing to the east are called ‘ Eastern’ rivers and flowing west, ‘western’ rivers. They rise from the Ocean and merge in the ocean, becoming the Ocean once again. There these rivers, as themselves, they do not know “I am this river, I am that river.”

Mantra-10.2: Application: Many forms, One Existence.

Even so, dear boy, all these creatures, having merged into Existence, do not know, ” We have merger into Existence.

Mantra-10.3: Endless Rebirth for the ignorant.

These creatures that are here(in ignorance), the tiger or lion, the wolf or boar, the worm or flying insect, the gnat or mosquito- whatever they are that they become again.

Mantra-10.4a: Conclusion — “Tat Tvam Asi”

That Existence is this same subtle essence. Superimposed on It, is this whole world.(The whole world has That as its Self, its Essence.) That is the Truth; That is the Self. ” That Thou Art”, O Svetaketu.

Mantra-10.4b: Svetaketu wants more Clarity:

Svetaketu asks:” Revered Sir, won’t you please explain it further to me?” The father replies: ” Be it so, dear boy.”

§§: Ultimate cause dissolves in the Absolute:

What is the ultimate cause? The cause ultimate can only be that which is not absorbed into a higher cause. The absorption process ceases when the ultimate cause is reached. The grosser forms get absorbed into the subtler ones, and the subtler ones reach the causal state, the so called ultimate cause from the empirical point of view. This ultimate cause dissolves in the Absolute. There, everything comes to a cessation. The individuality gets dissolved, as it were. It gets tuned up to the ultimate Reality. So, there is an absorption of the grosser element of the earth into the water element, the water element  into the fire element and the fire element into the ultimate Reality which is called Sat, pure Being.

End of section-10 of 6th Chapter of Chhandagyo Upanishad:

“The most familiar form of Energy is the Photon, a massless, irreducible particles of light”.

[pg-339: Death by Black Hole]

Conclusion:-

Chhandagyo Upanishad investigates philosophically the most meaningful and most conceptualised thoughts in Indology such as Cosmology, Metaphysics, Theology, Transcendentalism, Phenomenology, and Epistemology. However the concept of Brahman has undoubtedly been the fundamental element or minor root of the Chhandagyo Upanishad. In this connection, I would request my esteemed readers to read one special post    ” The Divine Art” which is highly conceptual and intellectual. Link is here: ” The Divine Art”

Recommended readings:

  1. Back to the Truth: 5000 years of ADVAITA by Dennis Waite.**
  2. THE TEN PRINCIPAL UPANISHADS: Translated by Shree Purohit** Swami and W.B.Yeats
  3. Brahma Sutra Bhasya of Sankaracharya: Translated by Swami Gambhirananda.**
  4. Commentary of ChAndogya Upanishad: By Swami Krishnananda.
  5. ChAndogya Upanishad: By Swami GuruBhaktananda.
  6. EIGHT UPANISADS -VOL-1 with commentary of Sankaracharya, Translated by SWAMI GAMBHIRANANDA.
  7. THE TAITTIRIYA UPANISHAD: SHIKSHAVALLI-ANANDAVALLI-BHRIGUVALLI with Sri Shankara’s Commentary By Sri Swami Satchidanandera Saraswati.
  8. A-U-M Awakening to Reality : By Dennis Waite***
  9. Panchadasi: Swami Vidyaranya: 
  10. Information available on internet.

It is my sincere request to the esteemed readers to share their opinion or queries if any. Suggestions to make the site attractive will be highly helpful for me. Readers are requested to read all the posts to have continuation of the topic from the beginning. My mail ID is : arun7663@gmail.com

Essence of Katha Upanishad :Part 4C of 4: -The Concluding Part-

Nachiketas at the door of Death

Preface: Patience is essential to read this article:

  • The article is based on my studies, my concept, my thoughts on the subject. It is further supplemented  with my experiences and self realization.
  • ☆I found some link between modern science(Quantum mechanics) and teachings of ancient sages as mentioned in Vedanta, regarding Universe, Supreme Consciousness or the Ultimate truth , the Ultimate Reality whatever we say.
  • ☆ The term “MAN” wherever used in this entire text is intended to consider as “HUMAN” irrespective of gender differences.
  • ♡ Having gone through the Vedanta/ancient texts, commentaries, translated by different writers, translators, publishers on the same topic, I have tried my best to share the subject matter as I understood and convinced too. My intention is to reach to you with the topic that I found very useful for human lives. I am not good in English literature. Please give your valuable suggestions for the improvement and valuable inputs to make the text beneficial for mankind.
  • ☆ The Spiritual context is purely based on ancient sacred texts. Sanskrit slokas are taken from books and websites. There may be little variation in the translations and commentaries. I have shared my own views and explanations according to my concept gathered in the subject through experience and intuitions. There is no discrimination against any religion, race, cast or creed.
  • Your feedback will be highly appreciated. I am sure that the subject matter is highly logical and does not bring any conflict. Hope you will enjoy reading. Regards. NAMASTE. I can be reached at : arun7663@gmail.com

Introduction: Death is a Teacher:

Katha Upanishad (Kathopanishad) is one among ten principal Upanishads and part of Krishna Yajurveda. Katha Upanishad consists of two Adhayas (Chapters). Each Chapter has three Vallis (sections). This is a legendary story of a little boy Nachiketas, barely ten years old, son of Sage Vajasravasa (also known as sage Gautama), who meets Yama (The Death God in Hindu philosophy). Through conversation, Yama reveals Supreme Knowledge to Nachiketas, the knowledge of the nature Atman and the path to gain Wisdom,  Moksha (liberation from the cycle of birth and death).

Earlier I have published Valli-1 to Valli-3 of Book-1 and Valli-1, Valli-2 of Book-2. The links are given below:-

1.Essence of Katha Upanishad: Part-1 of 4

2.Essence of Katha Upanishad: Part-2 of 4

3.Essence of Katha Upanishad: Part-3 of 4

4.Essence of Katha Upanishad : Part-4A of 4

5.Essence of Katha Upanishad :part 4B of 4

In this final part, I will discuss in details on BOOK-2; Valli -3.

The entire Sanskrit version of Katha Upanishad (Sanskrit Mantras) are available in this site: Link is Here:

Glorify The Supreme:

In the previous chapters we have seen that Lord Yama has answered to all the boons of Nachiketas, where Third Boon was the main for attaining Supreme “Brahman”. In the Book-2, Section-2, we have seen that answer to the Third Boon has two distinct stages for the attainment of The Supreme.

  1. Sadhana: The path where the seeker struggles for Self improvement.
  2. Attainment of the Goal of Non-Duality.

In this final section we will see the Glorious Vision of Life:

Eternal creation is a Tree:

Mantra-2.3.1: Eternal creation is a Tree, having its roots above and branches below; This is the ancient Ashwattha (peepul) Tree. That is verily Purity Itself, living in all things and beyond. That is Brahman. That is also called the Immortal. In That rest all the worlds; and none can Transcend That. This is verily That!

The “Terror of the Thunderbolt”!

Mantra-2.3.2: This whole Universe, with whatever is in it, emerges from Brahman and vibrates with Prana. It instils great terror, hangs like a thunderbolt overhead. Those who know this become Immortal.

Order in the Cosmos!

Mantra-2.3.3: For fear of Him, Fire burns; for fear of Him, the SUN shines; for fear of Him rain pours, proceed Indra and Vayu; for fear of Him proceeds Death, the Fifth (Panchamah).

Rebirth continues until Realization.

Mantra-2.3.4: If one does not succeed in realizing Him, before the fall of the Body, then in the worlds of created things, a rebirth for the Body is ordained.

“Four Worlds of Reality”

Mantra-2.3.5: As in the mirror, so it is within one’s own Self; as in a dream, so in the world of forefathers; as in a reflection seen in water, so in the world of the Gandharvas; as between light and shade, so in the world of Brahma.

The Dissimilarity of the Senses & Self:

Mantra-2.3.6: Having known, the senses does not belong to the Self, but to the Elements; as also their rising and setting, and that they all have separate origins, the man of intelligence does not come to grief.

Steps from Sense Organs towards Total Mind:

Mind is above Sense:

Mantra-2.3.7: The mind is superior to the sense organs; the intellect is superior to the mind; Nature (“Mahat”) is superior to the intellect; the Unmanifested is superior to the Nature(“Mahat”).

Ladder from Total Mind(Hiranyagarbha) to Attriubuteless Brahman:

Mantra-2.3.8: But superior to the Unmanifested is the Purusha; who is unconditioned,  filling all things and indeed without attributes, knowing whom, a man becomes freed and moves towards Immortality.

No Eye can see Him, nor has He a face to be seen:

Mantra-2.3.9: His Form does not exist within the range of vision; none can behold Him with eyes(senses). But, through Meditation, by controlling the mind with the Intellect, He can be found in the Feart (By intuition is He revealed ).Those who know this become Immortal.

Total withdrawal of the Senses:

Mantra-2.3.10: When mind and senses are at rest, when the discrimination of the Intellect is finished, when the “Five” come to rest, the Five senses together with the mind, and the intellect, too stops its functioning, that state (state of intuition) is said to be the highest, the Final Condition.

Yoga Brings – A Quite Mind:

Mantra-2.3.11: That is Yoga, declare the wise ones, where there is firm control over the senses, and one is freed from the fluctuations of the mind. When that condition is reached, the Yogi can do no wrong. Before it is reached, Yoga seems union and again disunion.

The Final Gate into Eternity:

Mantra-2.3.12: He can not be known through Discourse, nor through speech, nor through mind, nor through the eye can It be attained. Apart from Him who speaks of It as ” He Exists” finds Him. How can a man who does not believe so find Him?

Faith Earns Favour to go Further:

Mantra-2.3.13: i) The Self should be realized first as ” It Exists”; and then, ii) as ” It Really is” in essence. Of these two, when “It Exists” is believed or accepted on faith, then ” It Really is ” become more favourable to one, the Truth dawns.

When the Desires of Heart is finished, it becomes Immortal:

Mantra-2.3.14: When the desires are given up totally, man still in the Body, is united with the Self and the mortal becomes Immortal, and he attains Brahman even here, while living.

 This alone is the Law:

Mantra-2.3.15: When the knot of the heart is cut, the mortal becomes Immortal. This alone is the Teaching.

[Above Mantra has an inner meaning. Knot of the Heart is symbolical. It is meant to separate Ego from the Consciousness.]

Mantra-2.3.16: A hundred and one in number are the channels of the Heart; Of them, towards the crown of the Head passes through one of them (the Sushumna). Going up through that channel, one gets Immortality. The others that have different directions, become the causes of Death.

Final Teaching

Mantra-2.3.17: God, the innermost Self, Of the size of the Thumb, the Purusha, the indwelling Self, is ever seated in the hearts of men. One should separate Him from One’s body; as the arrow maker strip the reed. Him, one should know as pure and Immortal. Him, one should know as pure as Immortal.

Conclusion of the Upanishad

Mantra-2.3.18: Nachiketas has been instructed by Lord Yama. He attained the Knowledge of the Self and also the whole process of Yoga. A knower of Brahman, free from all impurities, he has become freed forever from the grip of Death. Any other seeker, too, can become the same if he knows the inner Self in the same way.

Peace Mantra:

Mantra-2.3.19: May He protect us both ( by revealing knowledge)! May He take pleasure in us both! May we show courage together! May Spiritual Knowledge shine before us. May we never hate one another! OM! Peace, Peace and Peace be everywhere.

Conclusion:

Failure to comprehend the Essential Unity of Being is the Cause of Rebirth.

Why do we take rebirth or otherwise we can say we move from death to death. Why? It is due to wish of fulfilling desires that remain till death. But if we can realize the True Reality of the Self, the Eternal Self, from whom everything manifests, the desires get vanished, get dried up. All desires melt is the light of the Self. This is Nirvana. Nachiketas wanted to know, what happens to the Souls after death. Lord of Death ” Yama ” explained the reality through conversations between them. That is the Essence of Katha Upanishad.

Recommended readings:

  1. Back to the Truth: 5000 years of ADVAITA by Dennis Waite.**
  2. THE TEN PRINCIPAL UPANISHADS: Translated by Shree Purohit** Swami and W.B.Yeats
  3. Brahma Sutra Bhasya of Sankaracharya: Translated by Swami Gambhirananda.**
  4. Commentary of Katha Upanishad: By Swami Krishnananda.
  5. Katha Upanishad: By Swami GuruBhaktananda.
  6. EIGHT UPANISADS -VOL-1 with commentary of Sankaracharya, Translated by SWAMI GAMBHIRANANDA.
  7. THE TAITTIRIYA UPANISHAD: SHIKSHAVALLI-ANANDAVALLI-BHRIGUVALLI with Sri Shankara’s Commentary By Sri Swami Satchidanandera Saraswati.
  8. Commentary of Mandukya Upanishad: By Swami Krishnananda.
  9. MANDUKYA Upanishad By Swami GuruBhaktananda.
  10. A-U-M Awakening to Reality : By Dennis Waite***
  11. Panchadasi: Swami Vidyaranya: 
  12. Information available on internet.

It is my sincere request to the esteemed readers to share their opinion or queries if any. Suggestions to make the site attractive will be highly helpful for me. Readers are requested to read all the posts to have continuation of the topic from the beginning. My mail ID is :   arun7663@gmail.com 

 

Essence of Katha Upanishad :part 4A of 4

Nachiketas at the door of Death

Preface: Patience is essential to read this article:

  • The article is based on my studies, my concept, my thoughts on the subject. It is further supplemented  with my experiences and self realization.
  • ☆I found some link between modern science(Quantum mechanics) and teachings of ancient sages as mentioned in Vedanta, regarding Universe, Supreme Consciousness or the Ultimate truth , the Ultimate Reality whatever we say.
  • ☆ The term “MAN” wherever used in this entire text is intended to consider as “HUMAN” irrespective of gender differences.
  • ♡ Having gone through the Vedanta/ancient texts, commentaries, translated by different writers, translators, publishers on the same topic, I have tried my best to share the subject matter as I understood and convinced too. My intention is to reach to you with the topic that I found very useful for human lives. I am not good in English literature. Please give your valuable suggestions for the improvement and valuable inputs to make the text beneficial for mankind.
  • ☆ The Spiritual context is purely based on ancient sacred texts. Sanskrit slokas are taken from books and websites. There may be little variation in the translations and commentaries. I have shared my own views and explanations according to my concept gathered in the subject through experience and intuitions. There is no discrimination against any religion, race, cast or creed.
  • Your feedback will be highly appreciated. I am sure that the subject matter is highly logical and does not bring any conflict. Hope you will enjoy reading. Regards. NAMASTE. I can be reached at : arun7663@gmail.com

Introduction: Death is a Teacher:

Katha Upanishad belongs to Katha Branch of Krishna Yajurveda. Katha Upanishad is a favorite one in all ages and it is placed in third position in the list of Ten Principal Upanishads.

“Kata Upanishad” is divided in two ” parts( Adhyaya). Book-1 & Book-2. I have published  Essence of Book-1 in three parts. The links are given below:-

1.Essence of Katha Upanishad: Part-1 of 4

2.Essence of Katha Upanishad: Part-2 of 4

3.Essence of Katha Upanishad: Part-3 of 4

In this part, I will discuss in details on BOOK-2; Valli -1

काठकोपनिषदि द्वितीयाध्याये – प्रथमा वल्ली :–

“Path to realization of Atman”

The Nature of Atman: 

Book-2 has 49 verses in total. It is subdivided into three chapters(Valli). This part contains 15 Mantras of Prathama Valli.

Know the Power of Knowledge:– But before that let us know two obstacles to Knowledge.

We the Human face two obstacles in life. Both are obstacles in the path of Enlightenment. They are:——–

a) The External world of Senses.

b) The internal world of Mind. 

BOOK-2 CHAPTER-1 :(Adhyaya-2: Valli-1)

पराञ्चि खानि व्यतृणत् स्वयम्भू-
    स्तस्मात्पराङ्पश्यति नान्तरात्मन् ।
कश्चिद्धीरः प्रत्यगात्मानमैक्ष-
    दावृत्तचक्षुरमृतत्वमिच्छन् ॥ १॥

Mantra1: Lord of Death Yama Said:” The Self-Existent created the senses out-going, therefore one looks outward, not into the atman within. A rare discriminating man arises, desirous of immortality, sees the atman within.”

Mantra-2: The ignorant man runs after pleasures, sinks into the entanglement of death; but the wise man seeking the immortality, does not run among things that die.

The Cognizer of Sense Experiences:

येन रूपं रसं गन्धं शब्दान् स्पर्शाꣳश्च मैथुनान् । 
एतेनैव विजानाति किमत्र परिशिष्यते । एतद्वै तत् ॥ ३॥

Mantra-3: By , that they are cognized. whatever form, taste, smell, sound, touch and sexual joy one encounters, is by that alone. What is there unknowable to That in this world? This is verily That. (एतद्वै तत् ~This is Mahavakya of this Text)

Witness of the Three States.

Mantra-4: The wise man by meditating upon the all pervading Self, understands the objects of Dream and those of Waking State. That Great Omnipresent Atman, Having realized this , the wise man goes beyond sorrow.

[We may refer Mandukya Upanishad, from where we can know about the different states of Consciousness: 1} Waking, 2) Dreaming, 3) Deep Sleep and 4) Turiya] Interested readers may please read my blog on Mandukya Upanishad:  The Link is Here:-- 

Mantra-4 presents the Self as the Witness of the three states of waking, dream and deep sleep. The Deep Sleep state is not mentioned as no objects are perceived in it. The perceiver is indicated as being the Self.

Mantra-5: He who knows that the enjoyer of this honey is one’s own dear Atman, the sustainer of his life, the Lord of the past and the future, no more thereafter does he ” wish to save himself”

Knowing the Truth, that the Individual Self, the eater of the fruit of action, is the Universal Self, maker of past and future, knows that he has nothing to fear.

Hiranyagarbha ~ Brahman in Subtle Creation:

Mantra-6: He is the “First-Born” of the Austerity of Brahma; He is born prior to the five elements; He enters and take his seat in the heart cavity, in the midst of the elements- He now truly Sees. This is verily That! [एतद्वै तत्]

This means that: the boundless power, source of every power, manifesting Itself as Life, entering into every Heart, living there among the elements, that is Self: “Brahman”

Mantra-7: It is She (Hiranyagarbha) from whom Prana is Born; She is the Enjoyer in the form of the Devas; She enters and takes her seat in the heart of cavity, in the midst of the elements-She is now truly Born. This is verily That![एतद्वै तत्]

The essence of the Mantra-6 & 7 has to be understood minutely.

यः पूर्वं तपसो जातमद्भ्यः पूर्वमजायत । 
गुहां प्रविश्य तिष्ठन्तं यो भूतेभिर्व्यपश्यत । एतद्वै तत् ॥ ६॥

 या प्राणेन संभवत्यदितिर्देवतामयी ।
 गुहां प्रविश्य तिष्ठन्तीं या भूतेभिर्व्यजायत । एतद्वै तत् ॥ ७॥

Mantra: 6 reflects the views in the perspective of Brahman and Mantra:7 views in the perspective of Human in the Earth.

“Hiranyagarbha” is Brahman Himself in a conditioned form. Hiranyagarbha is to be known as ” the First Born”(Poorvam Jaatam). ” Pranena Sambhavati” means from whom Prana is born.

The Tapasvin in Brahman is called Ishwara, which combines with the creative power called Maya at the Causal level. The first fruit of this union is “Hiranyagarbha”, which also is known as “Cosmic Womb” at the subtle level, who represents the Female potential to produce creation.

To understand the concept of Brahman-Ishwara-Hiranyagarbha-Virat(The creation), I request to read my another blog " The Divine Art", the link is here:--

Three types of Worshippers:

अरण्योर्निहितो जातवेदा गर्भ इव सुभृतो गर्भिणीभिः 
। दिवे दिवे ईड्यो जागृवद्भिर्हविष्मद्भिर्मनुष्येभिरग्निः । एतद्वै तत् ॥ ८॥

Mantra-8: Lodged between two pieces of wood(known as Arani), is the Fire of Knowledge that signifies Omniscience. It is like a foetus that is well-protected(nourished), there in womb of pregnant women. Day by day, it is carefully tended and adored(worshipped). i) By the sleepless one (the awakened in his contemplations);ii) by the offers of oblations(the householder) and iii) by the men (Upasakas) who worship triple Fire               (Nachiketas Fire). This is verily That! [एतद्वै तत्]

Here is the mystic meaning of the above Mantra.

In ancient time, Fire was created by the ignition of two sticks-the upper and lower aranis are the two sections of the mathava which ignites fire and keeps it hidden in them. One stick can not generate Fire, but two are necessary. Jatavedas means Agni (Fire). Just as rubbing is necessary to ignite Fire, some sort of igniting force is necessary to manifest Hiranyagarbha. We have Him in us; we carry Him with us always; just as pregnant women carry the foetus in their wombs wherever they go, we move about with Him, and we cannot live without Him. The Agni (Fire) is symbolically worshipped by the householders as the fivefold Agni which has become a Ritual only. People mistake this Agni, Earthly Fire as the real, instead of recognizing it as the Universal Fire. The Agni we worship is a symbol of the Vaishvanara-agni. Prana is Life manifesting itself as energies of various kinds, just as electricity can be manifest as heating or mechanical or other works. This mysterious living Being within individual bodies is That answer to Nachiketas’ question about Hiranyagarbha.

Essence of Mantra-6,7 & 8: The whole of Virat, the gross manifestation, has to be considered as being nothing but Brahman Himself. The same applied earlier to Hiranyagarbha. Now this is extended to include that even Virat too stand for Brahman alone.

Brahman- The Absolute:

Mantra-9: That from which the SUN (Hiranyagarbha) arises, and into which it merges or sets- That upon which depend all the Deities. None ever transcends That (The Supreme Brahman). This is verily That! [एतद्वै तत्]

Brahman is Both Here & Thereafter:

Mantra-10: That which is here is thereafter; whatever is there, is likewise here. He goes from death to death[Transmigrates], who sees any difference between there and here.

One should not differentiate and categorize “Brahman”-the Supreme. Brahman is Non-Dual and therefore can not be differentiated. He can only be known as one Homogenous Whole. He is both ” There and Here” . He is both in conditioned and unconditioned state. He is transcendent as well as immanent respectively. He is beyond as well as within.

Train your Mind that– there is but ONE; he  who divides the ONE, moves from Death to Death.

Mantra-11: This is to attained through the Mind alone; There is no diversity here whatsoever. He goes from death to death; who sees any difference between “Here & There”.

The “Thumb-Sized Brahman”

Why and whom to fear?

Mantra-12: The Purusha of the size of a thumb; resides in the middle(core) of the body. He is the Lord of the past and future; knowing Him one does not fear thereafter. This is verily That! [एतद्वै तत्]

Mantra-13: The Purusha of the size of a thumb; is like a light without smoke. He is the Lord of the past and future. He Exists today, and He will exist tomorrow. This is verily That! [एतद्वै तत्]

Mantra-14: Just as water rained on inaccessible height, gets dispersed as it runs to lower regions; so also one who perceives the selves differently, cannot avoid running after them endlessly.

The Self of the wise men remains pure.

Mantra-15: Just as pure water when into pure ; it is poured, it becomes verily pure water only; so also the pure thoughts of men of knowledge, poured on the Self, remain pure, O Gautama.


  *काठकोपनिषदि द्वितीयाध्याये - प्रथमा वल्ली*

पराञ्चि खानि व्यतृणत् स्वयम्भू-
    स्तस्मात्पराङ्पश्यति नान्तरात्मन् ।
कश्चिद्धीरः प्रत्यगात्मानमैक्ष-
    दावृत्तचक्षुरमृतत्वमिच्छन् ॥ १॥

पराचः कामाननुयन्ति बाला-
    स्ते मृत्योर्यन्ति विततस्य पाशम् ।
अथ धीरा अमृतत्वं विदित्वा
    ध्रुवमध्रुवेष्विह न प्रार्थयन्ते ॥ २॥

येन रूपं रसं गन्धं शब्दान् स्पर्शाꣳश्च मैथुनान् ।
एतेनैव विजानाति किमत्र परिशिष्यते । एतद्वै तत् ॥ ३॥

स्वप्नान्तं जागरितान्तं चोभौ येनानुपश्यति ।
महान्तं विभुमात्मानं मत्वा धीरो न शोचति ॥ ४॥

य इमं मध्वदं वेद आत्मानं जीवमन्तिकात् ।
ईशानं भूतभव्यस्य न ततो विजुगुप्सते । एतद्वै तत् ॥ ५॥

यः पूर्वं तपसो जातमद्भ्यः पूर्वमजायत ।
गुहां प्रविश्य तिष्ठन्तं यो भूतेभिर्व्यपश्यत । एतद्वै तत् ॥ ६॥

या प्राणेन संभवत्यदितिर्देवतामयी ।
गुहां प्रविश्य तिष्ठन्तीं या भूतेभिर्व्यजायत । एतद्वै तत् ॥ ७॥

अरण्योर्निहितो जातवेदा गर्भ इव सुभृतो गर्भिणीभिः ।
दिवे दिवे ईड्यो जागृवद्भिर्हविष्मद्भिर्मनुष्येभिरग्निः । एतद्वै तत् ॥ ८॥

यतश्चोदेति सूर्योऽस्तं यत्र च गच्छति ।
तं देवाः सर्वेऽर्पितास्तदु नात्येति कश्चन । एतद्वै तत् ॥ ९॥

यदेवेह तदमुत्र यदमुत्र तदन्विह ।
मृत्योः स मृत्युमाप्नोति य इह नानेव पश्यति ॥ १०॥

मनसैवेदमाप्तव्यं नेह नानाऽस्ति किंचन ।
मृत्योः स मृत्युं गच्छति य इह नानेव पश्यति ॥ ११॥

अङ्गुष्ठमात्रः पुरुषो मध्य आत्मनि तिष्ठति ।
ईशानं भूतभव्यस्य न ततो विजुगुप्सते । एतद्वै तत् ॥ १२॥

अङ्गुष्ठमात्रः पुरुषो ज्योतिरिवाधूमकः ।
ईशानो भूतभव्यस्य स एवाद्य स उ श्वः । एतद्वै तत् ॥ १३॥

यथोदकं दुर्गे वृष्टं पर्वतेषु विधावति ।
एवं धर्मान् पृथक् पश्यंस्तानेवानुविधावति ॥ १४॥

यथोदकं शुद्धे शुद्धमासिक्तं तादृगेव भवति ।
एवं मुनेर्विजानत आत्मा भवति गौतम ॥ १५॥

  इति काठकोपनिषदि द्वितीयाध्याये प्रथमा वल्ली ॥

Conclusion:

Failure to comprehend the Essential Unity of Being is the Cause of Rebirth.

Why do we take rebirth or otherwise we can say we move from death to death. Why? It is due to wish of fulfilling desires that remain till death. But if we can realize the True Reality of the Self, the Eternal Self, from whom everything manifests, the desires get vanished, get dried up. All desires melt is the light of the Self. This is Nirvana. Nachiketas wanted to know, what happens to the Souls after death. Lord of Death ” Yama ” explained the reality through conversations between them. That is the Essence of Katha Upanishad.

Recommended readings:

  1. Back to the Truth: 5000 years of ADVAITA by Dennis Waite.**
  2. THE TEN PRINCIPAL UPANISHADS: Translated by Shree Purohit** Swami and W.B.Yeats
  3. Brahma Sutra Bhasya of Sankaracharya: Translated by Swami Gambhirananda.**
  4. Commentary of Katha Upanishad: By Swami Krishnananda.
  5. Katha Upanishad: By Swami GuruBhaktananda.
  6. EIGHT UPANISADS -VOL-1 with commentary of Sankaracharya, Translated by SWAMI GAMBHIRANANDA.
  7. THE TAITTIRIYA UPANISHAD: SHIKSHAVALLI-ANANDAVALLI-BHRIGUVALLI with Sri Shankara’s Commentary By Sri Swami Satchidanandera Saraswati.
  8. Commentary of Mandukya Upanishad: By Swami Krishnananda.
  9. MANDUKYA Upanishad By Swami GuruBhaktananda.
  10. A-U-M Awakening to Reality : By Dennis Waite***
  11. Panchadasi: Swami Vidyaranya: 
  12. Information available on internet.

It is my sincere request to the esteemed readers to share their opinion or queries if any. Suggestions to make the site attractive will be highly helpful for me. Readers are requested to read all the posts to have continuation of the topic from the beginning. My mail ID is :   arun7663@gmail.com 

 

Essence of Prashna Upanishad: Part-2 of 6

Preface:

  • The article is based on my studies, my concept, my thoughts on the subject. It is further supplemented  with my experiences and self realization.
  • ☆I found some link between modern science(Quantum mechanics) and teachings of ancient sages as mentioned in Vedanta, regarding Universe, Supreme Consciousness or the Ultimate truth , the Ultimate Reality whatever we say.
  • Having gone through the Vedanta/ancient texts, commentaries, translated by different writers, translators, publishers on the same topic, I have tried my best to share the subject matter as I understood and convinced too. My intention is to reach to you with the topic that I found very useful for human lives. I am not good in English literature. Please give your valuable suggestions for the improvement and valuable inputs to make the text beneficial for mankind.
  • ☆ The Spiritual context is purely based on ancient sacred texts. Sanskrit slokas are taken from books and websites. There may be little variation in the translations and commentaries. I have shared my own views and explanations according to my concept gathered in the subject through experience and intuitions. There is no discrimination against any religion, race, cast or creed.
  • Your feedback will be highly appreciated. I am sure that the subject matter is highly logical and does not bring any conflict. Hope you will enjoy reading. Regards. NAMASTE. I can be reached at : arun7663@gmail.com

” Prana” is The Universal Energy, which moves the Whole Universe.

Introduction:

Prashna Upanishad comes from the Brahmana portion of the Atharva Veda, belonging to Pippalada Sakha. It has 67 mantras spread over six chapters. Each chapter contains one question. Prashna means question.  The scientific approach of Vedanta is the basis of the Prashna Upanishad, where the teacher and the students are engaged in an enquiry into the nature of Universe.

This Upanishad leads the aspirant from the known to the unknown, from the manifest to the unmanifest, from the grossly materialistic mind to the Supremely subtle, Absolute and Pure Consciousness’.

We will discuss only about the Second Question in this part.
The First Question has been discussed in my previous blog. The Link is here: Essence of Prashna Upanishad: Part-1 of 6

Peace invocation:-

ॐ भद्रं कर्णेभिः श‍ृणुयाम देवा
भद्रं पश्येमाक्षभिर्यजत्राः ।
स्थिरैरङ्गैस्तुष्तुवाꣳसस्तनूभिर्व्यशेम देवहितं यदायुः ॥

स्वस्ति न इन्द्रो वृद्धश्रवाः
      स्वस्ति नः पूषा विश्ववेदाः ।
स्वस्ति नस्तार्क्ष्यो अरिष्टनेमिः
      स्वस्ति नो बृहस्पतिर्दधातु ॥

ॐ शान्तिः शान्तिः शान्तिः ॥

In this Upanishad, there are six disciples. Each asks a question to the Guru and Guru answers them. Each question and answer becomes a chapter. The first question refers to the origin of the created beings, the second to the constituents of Human personality, the third to the nature of origin of Prana, the fourth is about the psychological aspect of the Human personality , the fifth is about “pranava” and the sixth is about the metaphysical principle in man. The need of faith, austerity and continence of body and mind for spiritual knowledge is emphasized.

Here we will look into the discussion of Prana, the invisible Power by which material life is sustained. From this chapter onwards we will study about the true Spiritual path, towards the realm of the Spirit, called Prana.

The Second question by Bhargava:

Mantra 2.1:  Bhargava of Vidarbha questioned the Master” O Venerable Sir, How many Devas (Or Deities) support the living being? Which of them gives Life to this Body? Again, who among them is the greatest?

We see here that the question no-2 is on microcosm, where as question no-1 was on macrocosm. From the creation of the world as well as living beings, the question has now shifted to how each individual is really governed? The student here wants to know the administrative setup how the tiny part of the Universe is governed. Who is behind this animating body?

§ Each Deity (Deva) claimed to be Supreme.

Mantra 2.2: The Master replied ” Indeed Space is the foremost Deity (Deva); then come Air, Fire, Water and Earth; Next come Speech, Mind, Eye and Ear too.” Wanting to show their glory, they quarrelled among themselves.

§ Who is Chief among them?

Mantra 2.3: Prana the chief of them, said ” Be not lost in delusion, it is I alone, dividing myself fivefold who keeps this body going and gives the support needed by it”. But they had no faith in Prana’s word.

§ Prana goes on Strike!

Prana got agitated and threatened to quit.   As he got up to leave from the body, the other organs followed suit. When it settled down they all settled down with it. As bees go out when their queen goes out and return when she returns, even so did speech, mind, eye, ear and the rest. They, being satisfied, praised Prana.

The organs realized, that if Prana did leave, they would have to depart from the body, for they can not survive without the presence of Life!

§ Glorification of Prana:

Mantra 2.5: As Fire, Prana burns: This is energy aspect. It is seen the Sun. It is the rain and clouds in it’s aspect as Air and Water; Earth is it’s matter aspect, seen as the Moon. So Prana is formless and has form too. It is Immortal!

§ Prana as All Knowledge and Administration:

Mantra 2.6: As Spokes in the hub of a Wheel, everything rests on Prana, including the Rig-Veda, the Yajur-Veda, the Sama-Veda, the Kshattriyas and the Brahmanas.

§ Prana as All living creatures.

Mantra 2.7: Life, Prajapati (Lord of creation), moving in the womb, master of five streams! All things offer you their tribute.

From above verse we understand that the sense organs bring offerings to Prana. Prana dwelling in the body is like a King (Prajapati)and the sense organs are like his Subjects. Offerings are token of love, reverence and respect to another. By Prana are all senses and mind supported.

§ Prana as a ” Courier Service”

Mantra 2.8: ” You are the Chief carrier of offerings to the Gods and carry the first oblations to the forefathers. You are the Truth that sages practice. You also help guide the organs so that they function correctly.

§ Life! Creator , protector, Destroyer ! Sun in Heavenly circuit! Master of Stars!

Mantra 2.9: ” O Prana, You are Indra; you are Rudra too in prowess. You are also their Protector. As the Sun you move about in the sky and you are the Lord of all luminous bodies.

§ Prana as the Giver of Rain.

Mantra 2.10: ” When you cause the Rain, O Prana, all livings are delighted, who think that there will be as much food as they would like to have.”

§ Prana  is ” Vishvasya Sat-patih”

Mantra 2.11″ ” O Prana, you are pure by nature. You are the sacred ekarshi fire, the consumer of everything, the gracious Lord of the world. We offer you oblations, O all pervading Air, you are our father.

§ Prayer to Prana

Mantra 2.12: Make that auspicious form of yours which abides in our speech, hearing, sight, and which also pervades the mind and never forsake us.

Mantra 2.13: May Life, Master of the three worlds, protect us as a mother protect her children. Grant us Wisdom, grant us prosperity.

Note: Concept of Prana is explained in “Tattva Bodha”

Conclusion:-

Prana” is vital energy and invisible to us. It is like Electric Power ,which gives life to the machines and machines run, animates.  Same way this vital energy “Prana” animates us, the live bodies.  It runs the 1st layer the Physical body. This prana is external to further subtler energy which is Mind. 

** Upanishad do not say any word which may create hatred about anything living or non-living.

Books of Related Interest:

  1. THE DIVINE MATRIX: Bridging Time, Space, Miracles and Belief. By GREGG BRADEN
  2. THE TEN PRINCIPAL UPANISHADS.****** Translated By: Shree Purohit Swami and W.B.YEATS.
  3. BLACK HOLES: The BBC Reith Lectures : Stephen Hawking.
  4. Taking the Quantum Leap: The new Physics for Non scientists: By Fred Alan Wolf
  5. You are the Universe by Deepak Chopra and Menas Kafatos.
  6. BIOCENTRISM : How life and Consciousness are the keys to understanding the True nature of the Universe: By Robert Lanza MD with BOB BERMAN
  7. The Self Aware Universe: How Consciousness creates the material world: By Amit Goswami, Ph.D.
  8. Back to the Truth: 5000 years of ADVAITA by Dennis Waite.**
  9. THE TEN PRINCIPAL UPANISHADS: Translated by Shree Purohit** Swami and W.B.Yeats
  10. Brahma Sutra Bhasya of Sankaracharya: Translated by Swami Gambhirananda.**
  11. Commentary of ChAndogya Upanishad: By Swami Krishnananda.
  12. ChAndogya Upanishad: By Swami GuruBhaktananda.
  13. EIGHT UPANISADS -VOL-1 with commentary of Sankaracharya, Translated by SWAMI GAMBHIRANANDA.
  14. THE TAITTIRIYA UPANISHAD: SHIKSHAVALLI-ANANDAVALLI-BHRIGUVALLI with Sri Shankara’s Commentary By Sri Swami Satchidanandera Saraswati.
  15. A-U-M Awakening to Reality : By Dennis Waite***
  16. Panchadasi: Swami Vidyaranya: 
  17. Information available on internet.

It is my sincere request to the esteemed readers to share their opinion or queries if any. Suggestions to make the site attractive will be highly helpful for me. Readers are requested to read all the posts to have continuation of the topic from the beginning. My mail ID is : arun7663@gmail.com

What is Consciousness?: In the perspective of Vedanta

Introduction: 

This part is in continuation of my first post on the topic “What is Consciousness: General Perspective.”. Readers are requested to read the first post to have a general idea on Consciousness.

All that is known is knowing. It is “knowing”, that knows knowing. All that is experienced now is Consciousness. How that “something” which is infinite take shapes in finite as experience? How does Consciousness appear to itself?  As multiplicity and diversity of the Self?  In an attempt to discuss this question,  an analogy,  imagine a scene of dream. Dream breaks, then what remains in mind?  What was in dream? Where is the scene seen? Seen by whom?          

In the study of Consciousness , there is a break through by Upanishads: NON-DUAL VEDANTA (ADVAITA VEDANTA). Let’s look into ancient insights for personal life, all the way back to 5000 years old . The whole purpose is about overcoming the human sufferings. That is the essence of Non-Dual Vedanta. It is not a Religion. It is not about mystical experiences too. It is about daily experiences like awaking , dreaming, deep sleep. Now let us apply some logical thoughts and investigate. Vedanta is an investigation to find out who or what we are? When we will realize that we are not limited to this body of flesh and blood, but we are immortal consciousness. It is a journey from not knowing to knowing. It is not against any faith, neither it is a religion. No rituals, no path. Simply reasoning. There are methodologies to understand, to establish logics. We may refer the text “DIG DRISHYA VIVEKA which has been written some 700 years back. Eminent author, scholar of that period, known as Vidyaranya Swami composed that Text. Please follow the explanations very carefully. Points to be noted are:

  • We see the world through eyes. Eyes are distinct from what it sees. Here, eyes are the seer.
  • I am aware of the eyes , that eyes are object. Mind is seer and eyes are now object. Eyes and mind are separate.

Let us think deeply. Mind is the observer of the body , because it observes through all sense organs. it is seer here. Let us  observe Mind now. Mind itself which constitutes our thoughts, feeling ,emotions , ideas are changing, which are never static. I am aware that whether,

  • I am happy or not.
  • I understand or do not understand.
  • I like or do not like.
  • I love or do not love.
  • I hate or do not hate.
  • I am angry or not angry.

All above are expressions of our mind. These are wave of thoughts. So, I am aware of all the changes in my mind. Therefore, I am the witness of the mind. Hence mind is seen by Me. Evidently , I am distinct from the MIND. I am not the mind, but witness of the mind. Seer and seen are different. I am that who illumines my MIND.

 

Now the logic is : I must not forget that “I”, the witness of the mind, whatever I am, I am distinct from the Mind. I am thus aware and conscious of the Mind, the variations in Mind. Generally, we identify ourselves most closely with our Minds. I am this person who thinks, feels has a personality (my personality-that i am proud of ” I AM “

But this person, this Mind is who I think “I AM” and here we are being told, if you are aware of the contents of your mind , then you cannot be the mind, “YOU ARE THAT”=> which is aware of the Mind, that which is witness of the Mind. This witness, this awareness is Consciousness.  Mind being observed by Consciousness. Therefore, we have first crossed bodily self to a sense of mental self and then finally to a sense of witness. Now I have become the witness of my Body and Mind.

Now that I am distinct from this Body and Mind . So, Who Am I? 

Answer is :–  I Am the Consciousness. I Am the Witness of the Body and Mind. This Consciousness Self, this pure Subject, is not an object. It cannot be known. I AM always Awareness, Consciousness, not something else.

” O Rama ! The world is nothing but a mere vibration of Consciousness in space. It seems to Exist even as a Goblin seems to exist in the eyes of the ignorant. All this is But Maya. For here there is no contradiction between the infinite Consciousness and the apparent existence of the Universe. It is like marvelous dream of a person who is awake”….  from “YOGA VASISTHA” as said to Lord Rama by the Sage Vasistha.”

The idea that Consciousness is not an object is fundamental insight going all the way back to the “Upanishads”. According to teachings of Upanishads, Consciousness is not an object. Whatever we are aware of is not Consciousness. What we see, hear, smell or taste ,or think of, or understand, or objectify in any manner, what so ever, none of  these is Consciousness. These are objects shinning in Consciousness.

What is Consciousness? 

Please listen to this Lyrics ” Nirvana Shatakam” a creation of Shree Adi Shankaracharya. 

Vedanta defines Consciousness very precisely. ” Neti, neti” Whatever we can be aware of , either directly through our senses or through our mind or thoughts, or indirectly through scientific instruments, all of these are objects.

That which is aware of all these objects is Consciousness. It is purely subjective. Consciousness is uniquely distinct from the objective Universe.

“NO MIND”  : What is it?

Now we will try to understand that mind is also object. Let us think this way. Look. Here is the world outside. I am aware of it. Now, I change my attention to the Body, then to the eyes. Yes, now I am aware of the eyes. Now changed my attention to the mind which is aware of the eyes. Then comes thoughts, feelings and emotions on what is seen. Now I am aware of my Mind which has experienced all the feelings so far. Let me push backwards to suppose that I drop the mind. ” NO MIND”  Mind becomes blank. Now there is blankness. Absence of thoughts. But I am aware of that too. That is an experience which is not common. Now think ” what is it that is aware of Blankness, that there is no thoughts in the mind. It is Consciousness which is illuminating up all our experiences, is non-objective. We call it ” Pure Consciousness” This pure does not mean any good or better. It is without any attribute. The main point is that “Pure Consciousness” is not mixed up with any object. This  “Pure Consciousness” is universal. Omnipresent, omniscient, omnipotent, indivisible, infinite, unbound so forth so on. 

Now, if I am this “Pure Consciousness”, distinct from body and mind, experiencing changes in body and mind, also experiencing external world through this body and mind, then in a sense, I am free from body and mind. That is my real Identity. That is what “I AM” Therefore, birth, ageing, diseases, death are changes in body and anger, jealousy ,sorrows, joy etc. are all fluctuations of mind are all objective part. I AM beyond these changing experiences. Because I experience it, it must be something different from me. The mind undergoes us and downs. Mind is the cause of our sufferings, pleasure and pain. The frustrations, the anxieties, the fear are all objects of my awareness. I am not these. I am ever free from them. Before they were there, I was there. When they appear, they shine in my light and when they disappear, I am still there, the same ever shining light of Consciousness. 

Upanishad says ” That shining, everything else shines, by its light everything is lit up.” 

Once we understand above, there will be great sense of freedom. Even the worst experience in the body, the worst experiences in the mind, which are objects and not attached to me, the consciousness illuminating the objects as experience.

What is experience?

According to Vedanta, consciousness working through the mind illuminating the body is a bodily experience. consciousness through illuminating the mind is an experience of the mind. Consciousness through the body and mind is an experience of the world outside. Therefore EXPERIENCE = CONSCIOUSNESS + OBJECT.

The world changes, body changes, mind changes, but they are all revealed by this one light of consciousness which I AM which is our real nature. So the non objective, pure subject, this is a very deep insight. Neuroscience or modern science or philosophy of mind can not define consciousness. Non Dual Vedanta means Consciousness is the ultimate reality. There is no second reality.

Now the question is that each of us is pure subject, awareness only, illumining the body and mind, then this awareness, this pure subject , how many of those are there? If there are millions of people out there, then millions of consciousness there?   Millions of people, Billions of other living creatures have millions or billions consciousness? No there is single one Consciousness. Here I will stick to Non Dual theory. Advaita Vedanta: Why do you think that there are many consciousness? It is true that we have different bodies, different minds, they are distinct bodies, distinct minds, but consider this pure consciousness which is not mixed with any object, not a body , not a mind, then how can we distinguish one consciousness from the other. That is why Advaita says there is one Consciousness. 

Example: 1) A Jar made of clay with lots of holes. Light inside. We see the light from all the holes. It appears that many lights coming out of the jar. But actually, there is one lamp flame which is shinning through many holes.

Bhagavad Gita says: Consciousness is one and undivided in all beings , but it appears to be divided, when shinning through many bodies and minds.           [  slokas: BG: Ch-13: 16-18.]

The article will continue….Final part will be published soon.

List of Books : Recommended For Interested Readers:

  1. Thought As a System: By DAVID BOHM 
  2. BIOCENTRISM:– How life and consciousness are the keys to Understanding the True Nature of The Universe: By Robert Lanza, MD with BOB BERMAN
  3. Beyond Biocentrism- Rethinking Time, Space, Consciousness and the illusion of Death. By Robert Lanza, MD with BOB BERMAN
  4. Entangled Minds- Extra Sensory Experiences in A Quantum Reality. By DEAN RADIN.
  5. Expand Your Consciousness through DAVID K MILLER
  6. QUANTUM ENIGMA -Physics Encounter Consciousness: By Bruce Rosen Blum and Fred Kuttner.
  7. Back to the Truth: 5000 years of ADVAITA by Dennis Waite.**
  8. THE TEN PRINCIPAL UPANISHADS: Translated by Shree Purohit** Swami and W.B.Yeats
  9. Brahma Sutra Bhasya of Sankaracharya: Translated by Swami Gambhirananda.**
  10. EIGHT UPANISADS -VOL-1 with commentary of Sankaracharya, Translated by SWAMI GAMBHIRANANDA.
  11. A-U-M Awakening to Reality : By Dennis Waite***
  12. Panchadasi: Swami Vidyaranya: 
  13. Information available on internet.

Useful link: 

[Unified field of consciousness backed up by modern science (tmhome.com)] 

It is my sincere request to the esteemed readers to share their opinion or queries if any. Suggestions to make the site attractive will be highly helpful for me. Readers are requested to read all the posts to have continuation of the topic from the beginning. My mail ID is : arun7663@gmail.com

Please go through the following post for knowledge on Pure Consciousness. ” The Divine Art”

The Divine Art !!!

What is Consciousness?: General Perspective

Preface:

  • The article is based on my studies, my concept, my thoughts on the subject. It is further supplemented  with my experiences and self realization.
  • ☆I found some link between modern science(Quantum mechanics) and teachings of ancient sages as mentioned in Vedanta, regarding Universe, Supreme Consciousness or the Ultimate truth , the Ultimate Reality whatever we say.
  • ♡ Having gone through the Vedanta/ancient texts, commentaries, translated by different writers, translators, publishers on the same topic, I have tried my best to share the subject matter as I understood and convinced too. My intention is to reach to you with the topic that I found very useful for human lives. I am not good in English literature. Please give your valuable suggestions for the improvement and valuable inputs to make the text beneficial for mankind.
  • Your feedback will be highly appreciated. I am sure that the subject matter is highly logical and does not bring any conflict. Hope you will enjoy reading. Regards. NAMASTE. I can be reached at : arun7663@gmail.com

Introduction:

In this article we will focus on the analysis of Pure Consciousness in the perspective of Modern Science and Advaita Vedanta. The article will be covered in three parts. First part is on a “General Perspective.”

There is no full proof scientific definition of Consciousness in general . However we can define on the basis of Eastern philosophy , ancient Indian philosophy and modern science this way:–

According to Advaita Vedanta philosophy, Reality is identified as “Brahman” . Brahman is identified as singular in nature, identical to the Self and known as Pure Being (Sat) , Awareness (Chit) and Bliss (Ananda). The visible world(Matter) is considered to be illusory (Maya~ Mithya). Bhagavad Gita says: Consciousness is one and undivided in all beings , but it appears to be divided, when shinning through many bodies and minds. [ include slokas: Ch-13: 16-18.]

What is Consciousness? : Consciousness is that, in which all experiences appear. It is that with which all experience is known and it is that out of which all experiences are made.

Any objective thoughts, memories, ideas, concepts, feelings, sensations, smells, sights, sounds etc. all of these appear in something that something we call Awareness or Consciousness.

The common name is “I ” or “Self”. According to Vedas (Sacred Texts of ancient India) , Brahman is Infinite being. All these refer to  “THAT” in which experience appears. With which it is known and out of which it is made. Conventional view is that our thoughts and feelings appear in ourselves. The experience of sensations in the body appears in ourselves is also Consciousness. Perceptions also appear in same Consciousness. In the same field thoughts etc. also appears.

Please read the following Paragraph carefully. I am sure that You will get some intuitive knowledge :

If we observe carefully, we will see these thoughts appear in some kind of Field. They appear in that space. Consciousness is not though a space but say a field or space like. Now may we close our eyes and allow our thoughts to move freely wherever it goes according to previous experiences. Think for a moment. It can be observed minutely. Does my attention ever leave the field of consciousness or awareness?  Thoughts inside “I AM” and sound outside “I AM” are not separate. They are linked. Allow our attention to go wherever it goes and have a single question. Does ever my attention leave the awareness?  Try to leave the field out. Imagine out of box now, such as that experience which you have not experienced earlier. or remember that you landed on the Mars. New sets of perceptions appear. Now, are these new perceptions inside Consciousness or outside Consciousness? Is there any feeling, perceptions outside Consciousness? Can we leave our Consciousness where there is no feeling?

Simply and clearly nobody has ever come in contact with any experience outside of Consciousness or Awareness. Strangely our entire world culture is founded on a single belief . According to Science, there is a substance which exists outside Consciousness and that substance is Matter. Matter is the fundamental reality of all existence. Classical physics, reductionists  and science at least believe this that Consciousness is derived from Matter. This is the primary assumption as a whole. Since the invention of matter, scientists are saying that Consciousness is product of Matter.

Now question arises.  Q-1)  What is the nature of Universe? Q-2) How Consciousness can be derived from matter? Both are contradictory. For question no. 1): Science do not ever acknowledge that we have answer. For question no. 2): How is Consciousness derived from Matter (from brain arises consciousness…but brain is matter). We presumed that the stuff called matter is Universe and then we ask how Consciousness derived from matter.

What is the Universe made of?

Is there any answer to the nature of Universe? So far, whatever we know about the Universe is based on perceptions. It is materialism. What is the Universe made of? We are trying to explore the Universe. All we know is perceptions and perceptions appear in Consciousness. Therefore until we know the nature of Consciousness, where perceptions appear, we are unable to know what is true about the perceptions. It is most important to know Consciousness because perceptions appear in it.

Awareness is our experience.

Now therefore, Awareness is our subject to be known, the field of study. We are aware of  what we have experienced. What is the nature of that knowing that is more important. Until we know the nature of knowing with which our experience is known, or until we know the nature of the Consciousness where our experience appears we cannot know anything that is true about the body, mind and beyond.

We must first know what the nature of consciousness is?

Now if we ask ourselves ” Am I aware”?  Then comes the answer “yes”. There is some gap between two thoughts. What happens is that after putting the first question “Am I aware” question makes some pause and ask the system to get the reply and there it collapses and reply the answer “yes”. During this gap of time, awareness tests itself momentarily. In the pause between the question, I am aware that I am aware. Consciousness knows itself. That is the pause and it is Consciousness itself who replies yes I am aware. I AM AWARE THAT I AM AWARE.

Think of that which is not objective and see.

Consciousness recognizes its own Being. Only Consciousness knows that it is Consciousness. The finite mind, thought can tell nothing, but it is the Consciousness. Finite mind knows that it is only objective.  Only blankness is the answer. No mind is the answer. Although thought is made of Consciousness only, yet it cannot know the stuff it is made of. Consciousness is a field which is aware that it is a field adding a space like quality. Actually, it is not a field. It has no dimension. It is indescribable. Since we cannot imagine anything without dimension so to speak about it, we can relate only. So, we can say it as space like quality. Consciousness is space like where thoughts appear. It is empty from the point of view of objective. It is free from objective. It is like a screen of awareness where all the experiences appear. Thoughts, perceptions, sensations appear in it, but Consciousness is like a space. It is not empty, but it is empty of all objective contents. It has no finite quality. Being infinite, empty, not finite, it is indivisible. There is single Consciousness (NON DUAL). Consciousness is fundamental. We can say it is Universal consciousness. It has no border, it has no shape, no form, not distinguishable, the single infinite, indivisible entity(The whole, the ONE).

David Chalmers a famous Australian philosopher and Cognitive scientist has said that there are two problems with Consciousness: 1. Hard problem and 2. Easy Problem.

What is the hard problem of Consciousness?

The hard problem is: Why does consciousness feel the way it does? Why does it feel like anything?

What is the easy problem of consciousness?

The easy problem is :

  1. Finding the neural correlate of Consciousness.
  2. Explaining the ability to apply information to thinking and behaviour.
  3. Explaining the ability to focus attention, recall items from memory, integrate perceptions etc.

The article will continue….Next part will be published soon.

Conclusion: 

The knowing of consciousness with which we experience, cannot be divided into parts. Trace the “I” to its origin after removing all experiences to the essence of nature of our minds, we will land into same Consciousness. Our finite minds overlap, and we call that the outside world and part of minds which do not overlap, we call it that thoughts and feelings. Our minds are the elements of the Universal consciousness. We do share the world of same Consciousness. So, now the big question is ,how the matter appears from Consciousness. How is it possible to appear the world from Consciousness that is the interesting question? Next parts will be based on 1. Quantum Physics and 2. Vedanta(Upanishad)

List of Books : Recommended For Interested Readers:

  1. Thought As a System: By DAVID BOHM 
  2. BIOCENTRISM:– How life and consciousness are the keys to Understanding the True Nature of The Universe: By Robert Lanza, MD with BOB BERMAN
  3. Beyond Biocentrism- Rethinking Time, Space, Consciousness and the illusion of Death. By Robert Lanza, MD with BOB BERMAN
  4. Entangled Minds- Extra Sensory Experiences in A Quantum Reality. By DEAN RADIN.
  5. Expand Your Consciousness through DAVID K MILLER
  6. QUANTUM ENIGMA -Physics Encounter Consciousness: By Bruce Rosen Blum and Fred Kuttner.
  7. Back to the Truth: 5000 years of ADVAITA by Dennis Waite.**
  8. THE TEN PRINCIPAL UPANISHADS: Translated by Shree Purohit** Swami and W.B.Yeats
  9. Brahma Sutra Bhasya of Sankaracharya: Translated by Swami Gambhirananda.**
  10. EIGHT UPANISADS -VOL-1 with commentary of Sankaracharya, Translated by SWAMI GAMBHIRANANDA.
  11. A-U-M Awakening to Reality : By Dennis Waite***
  12. Panchadasi: Swami Vidyaranya: 
  13. Information available on internet.

Useful link: 

[Unified field of consciousness backed up by modern science (tmhome.com)] 

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The Divine Art !!!

 THE DIVINE ART: FOUR STAGES OF MANIFESTATION OF UNIVERSE

Light on the analogy of painted picture: “Universal Superimposition”:

Introduction:

A Text from “Panchadasi” composed by The Sage Vidyaranya Swami: — 

“Panchadasi” is a comprehensive Text (Prakarana Grantha) on Advaita Vedanta, composed during 14th century A.D. It has fifteen chapters divided into three sections; Five chapters in each section: Sections are: 1. Viveka (Discrimination), 2. Deepa (Illumination), 3. Ananda (Bliss). Sixth chapter explains on the process of manifestation of the Universe which is fourfold. We will discuss on 6th Chapter. Analogy of painting of art explains the principle of Advaita Vedanta in quite simple manner. 

Sixth Chapter: “Chitra Deepa Prakarana”

  1. First step: Piece of white cloth, pure in its original state to start painting.
  2.  Second step: The cloth is then stiffened with starch to turn it to a canvas.
  3. Third step: Artist draw Outline of the painting according to his imagination in mind.
  4. Fourth Step: Finally, the outline is filled with different colors and thus a complete picture appears on the canvas.

The Universe is like a vast painted picture:

Similar to the process of the painting, there are four stages in the process of creation of this Universe. There is an all pervading, unchangeable background, Pure Consciousness, known is “Brahman” which is the first stage of creation. As cloth has to exist for drawing painting, similarly, Pure Consciousness exists for the creation of Universe. That is the first stage. Second stage- stiffening of cloth is compared with the concentrated Will of Cosmic Being. In the pure Being, there is no question of Will.  The stiffened form is Ishwara, where The Maya is superimposed with pure Consciousness. The third stage, drawing outline is similar to faint picture of cosmos, can be seen as “Hiranyagarbha. Fourth stage is the gross manifestation. The Virat”

1. Pure white cloth is equivalent to Nirguna Brahman:

Pure Consciousness~ Nirguna Brahman

Now, we will discuss on the analogy drawn: Pure Consciousness which is the nature of Brahman, is the substratum of all things, and this may be compared with pure white cloth. Swami Vidyaranya says, for analogy, Pure white cloth is equivalent to Nirguna Brahman (Nirguna means~ Non-qualified Brahman). This is first unchanging stage of projection of Universe.

2. Starch which stiffened the white cloth is Maya.

Maya superimposed with Nirguna Brahman

Nirguna Brahman (Pure Consciousness), the absolute in itself is not projecting the universe. With the help of Maya, it is projecting itself as the universe. Just as in the rope-snake example, where rope appears to be snake. But it is actually rope. Due mistake it happens. Similarly, ignorance, the Maya plays the role of rope. Therefore, Brahman (Sat-Chit-Ananda) is projecting the Universe when Maya is superimposed with Pure Consciousness. This has been compared with the starched canvas. This is second stage of manifestation of Universe (Maya Upahita Chaitanya)

3. Third stage indicates drawing of the outline: That is “Hiranyagarbha”

Nirguna Brahman, with the power of the Maya, with subtle bodies projecting as Hiranyagarbha.

 Same Sat-Chit-Ananda, Nirguna Brahman, with the power of the Maya, associated with the subtle bodies are projected as “Hiranyagarbha”. Five subtle elements: known as Tanmatra  (तन्मात्र) out of which our mind, intellect, in the subtle body ( sukshmah sarira ) is formed. Pranamaya kosha, ManoMaya kosha and VijnaMaya Kosha are created. Thus, the drawing of the outline is formed. This is third stage of projection of Universe.

4. The same Hiranyagarbha with all physical bodies is Virat. 

Once the outline is drawn, the painter fills in the color, Diverse colors. That completes the full painting. And that is gross body. Same is applicable to the formation of the Universe. Hiranyagarbha, associated with gross bodies becomes gross physical Universe. Same Consciousness which is Nirguna Brahman now with Maya is Ishwara and again associated with all subtle bodies is Hiranyagarbha. The same Hiranyagarbha associated with all physical bodies is Virat. This is final and changing stage of manifestation of Universe.

Thus, the analogy drawn by Swami Vidyaranya, is unique. Easy to understand the concept of “Nirguna Brahman” and “Saguna Brahma” White cloth is compared with “Nirguna Brahman”(Pure Consciousness~ Sacchidanand Brahma).  And the Virat is Saguna Brahman.

Sacchidanand Brahman associated with power of Maya is termed as Ishwara.

Consciousness associated with Maya, subtle bodies and with physical bodies is Virat the final form. What we see as Universe. This Virat Roopa was seen by Arjuna [ Bhagavad Geeta-eleventh chapter]. Arjuna asked Shri Krishna, I would like to see your Divine form.  

Now let us investigate into details of Virat. We see Virat as scattered. Now think I am an individual. And there are other beings, billions and billions of living beings, microorganisms, plants, oceans, mountains, microscopic elements, macroscopic materials, stars, planets, Sun moon galaxies etc. which all exists before us.  Though, they look separate, but actually not. Because all these appear in ONE PURE CONSCIOUSNESS. 

What lesson we get from four stages of painting with the analogy given by Vidyaranya Swami? What is real is the cloth. The canvas. How can we say that? Because painting doesn’t exist without cloth. 

Only Reality here is the cloth. Pure white cloth. No starch, no outline, no painting. Basically, it is cloth even after all association. Before association it is cloth. After all association, it is cloth. Suppose the completed painting shows nature, animals, people. Ultimately, if you think carefully, in the picture, each object of the painting is nothing but a piece of cloth. All characters, such as men, women, children, whatever be shown in the painting are basically a piece of cloth. We may even consider a movie hall. Where the screen is basically a cloth. Screen remains screen before and after the movie. What we see in the movie is known to us. Similarly, this Universe is a vast projection of Supreme Consciousness. What is that? Can we not say now that “YOU ARE THAT (TAT TVAM ASI)” That means each of us is Pure Consciousness, Brahman. Advaita Vedanta says us that in the background we are all pure Consciousness.

Famous Verse from “Viveka Chudamani” a prakarana grantha(Sacred Text) is:  “Brahma Satya Jagat Mithya, Jivo Brahmaivanaparah.

Brahma Satya Jagat Mithya”: It means Brahman