☆The article is purely based on my studies, my thoughts, my concept, my experiences and self realization.
☆I found some link between modern science and teachings of ancient sages as mentioned in Vedanta, regarding Universe, Supreme Consciousness or the Ultimate truth whatever we say.
☆ The term “MAN” wherever used in this entire text is intended to consider as “HUMAN” irrespective of gender differences.
♡ Having gone through the sacred books/ancient texts, translated by different writers, translators, publishers on the same topic, I have tried my best to share the subject matter as I understood. My intention is to reach to you with the topic that I found very useful for human lives. I am not good in English literature. Please give your valuable suggestions for the improvement and valuable inputs to make the text beneficial for mankind.
☆ The Spiritual context is purely based on ancient sacred texts. There is no discrimination against any religion, race, cast or creed. Your positive feedback will be highly appreciated. NAMASTE
Recap: This post is the concluding part of the article ” What is Joy”
- Part-1:- What is Joy (Part-1)” In this part we have seen that section VIII of Brahmananda Valli, the second part of “Taittiriya Upanishad” define the unit of Human Joy. Thereafter in the successive slokas, it has been shown that each time we go to the next higher world(Loka), joy is multiplied by 100. Finally, at the top most Loka, the joy has become 100,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00 units. However, according to Taittiriya Upanishad ” A man full of revelation, but without desire has equal joy.” in each loka. In Sanskrit, the sentence is : —” श्रोत्रियस्यचअकामहतस्य “ – which means a man well versed in Vedas (Scriptures) has equal Joy.
- Part-2:- In part-2 we have discussed the real meaning of the statement ” A man full of revelation, but without desire has equal joy.” What revelation is that? Revelation means knowing Vedas. A brief description on Vedanta has been given in part-2. Brahma sutra “Topic-1” to “Topic-3′ was explained. Part-3 will cover Brahma Sutra “Topic-4” and some mantras from principal Upanishads.
- Readers are requested to send queries on any part to my mail ID: email@example.com
We will continue from last topic ( Topic-3/Chapter 1) of Brahma sutra that was discussed in part-2.
Knowledge of Brahman can not be gathered by mere reasoning. Knowledge can be attained through intuition or revelation. Intuition is the final result of the enquiry into Brahman. There are three stages which are very essential for progressing in this path. Three stages are as below:
1.Sravana : Listening to the teachings of the sages on Vedanta. Now instead of Sravana, we can use the word Study of Vedanta, because Sravana was the practice during early Vedic period as no method of writing existed.
2.Manana : This stage is the reflection on the teachings. This means thinking about what has been heard and subjecting that into a reason based on experience gained.
3.Nididhyasana : Stage of meditation on the truth [MahaVakyas]. It is the culmination of the practice of Sravana and Manana. We may see what BRRihadAraNyaka Upanishad says on Nididhyasana. ” The Self , my dear Maitreyi, should be realized-should be heard of , reflected on and meditated upon; by the realization of the self, my dear”.
Sravana, Manana, Nididhyasana leads us to intuition (aparoksha anubhuti). In this way, “Brahma Kara Vritti ” is generated from ” Sattvic anta Karana ” after following four means of Salvation (discussed in part-2) and teachings of Guru , who has understood the real significance of MahaVakyas. This ” Brahma Kara Vritti” destroys the mula-Avidya or primitive ignorance which is the root cause of all bondage, births and deaths. When this ignorance or veil is removed, Brahman which is Self effulgent reveals itself in its pristine glory and splendour.
Part- 3 starts here with Brahma Sutra Topic-4 of Chapter-1 which says :-” Samanvayadhikaranam” [Sanskrit] which means Brahman is the main purport of all Vedantic texts. First statement is ” Tattu Samanvayat” means Brahman is to be known only from Scriptures. ChAndogya Upanishad, chapter six beautifully explained the topic. In the next few paragraphs we will concentrate on famous lines from different Upanishads. These lines will give us more knowledge about Brahman.
A little about ChAndogya Upanishad: Once upon a time, there lived one Shwetaketu, son of sage Uddalaka. One day Uddalaka said to his son ” My son! find a teacher and learn. None of our family has remained a Brahman in name only. So at the age 12, Shwetaketu was sent to “GURUKULA” for studying Vedas for 12 years. When Shwetaketu returned home after completion of studies, sage Uddalaka noticed that Shwetaketu has become a stiff necked arrogant and self willed young man of 24 years. Watching his attitude, sage asked him ” My son, you think such a big of yourself, but did you ask your teacher about that initiation ,which makes a man hear what is not heard, think that is thought of, know what is not known? Shwetaketu gave a negative reply. Shwetaketu said his father ” I have not learnt that. Please teach me that my Lord”. Then sage started teaching that lesson, by knowing which everything is known. This conversation between sage Uddalaka and his son is the main topic of ChAndogya Upanishad. One of the Four mahaVakyas “ tat tvam asi” has been quoted 9 times to deliver Brahma Gyan. We will see in the next paragraph a few mantras from ChAndogya along with mantras from other Upanishads where Brahman is the main purport.
- ” Being only this was in the beginning without a second”—-ChAndogya: VI-2-1.
- ” The Atman which is free from sin that it is which we must search out, that it is which we must try to understand”—-ChAndogya: VIII-7-1.
- ” In the beginning all this was Atman or Self only”— Aitareya -Aranyak-II-4-1-1.
- ” Let a man worship him as Atman or the Self” —- BRRihadAraNyaka : I-4-7
- ” Let a man worship him as Atman only as his true state” —- BRRihadAraNyaka : I-4-15
- ” This is Brahman without cause and effect, without anything inside or outside; this Self is Brahman perceiving everything.—– BRRihadAraNyaka : II-5-19
- ” He who knows Brahman becomes Brahman—– Mundaka Upanishad—III-2-9.
- ” The wise who knows the Atman as bodiless within the bodies, as unchanging among changing things, as great and omnipresent does never grieve” –Katha Upanishad II-1-2 . [Such person is not attached to anything.]
Brahman cannot become an object of perception because it is extremely subtle, abstract, infinite and all – pervading. Senses and mind derive power from Brahman the ultimate source. Brahman is Self luminous, Self existent, Self knowledge, Self delight and Self contained. When one realizes Brahman, he is totally free from all sorts of miseries. He attains the Moksha( liberation from the cycle of birth and death). The state of moksha, the final emancipation is Eternal.
Thus we see Vedantic texts teach that Brahman is Eternal, all knowing , absolutely self-luminous and indivisible. Therefore proper understanding Vedanta leads a man to the final emancipation. This is the concept behind the line ” A man full of revelation, but without desire has equal joy.”
Now in this concluding passage, let me describe a little about Vedas, without which the content will not be completed. Four Vedas are divided broadly into two parts. :
- Karma Kanda: pUrva mimAMsA : The ritual portion:- Mainly concerned with the earlier part of the Vedas. It is associated with the philosopher Jaimini, believed to be disciple of Maharshi Vyas regarded as original compiler of the Vedas. This part lays down various rituals and sacrificial acts to be performed for attaining specific goals like gaining enough wealth, progeny, expanding kingdom, heaven etc.. However this is not the intention of the Vedas that people should continue to perform these sacrificial, rituals to enjoy the results thereof. These are teaching to divert one’s mind from improper way of life to a proper way of life. Ultimate teachings is that one should perform actions without desire and attain the purity of mind and thereby become fit for Self-knowledge. That is what Lord Krishna taught through Bhagavad Gita.
- Gyan Kanda : uttara mimAMsA : The knowledge portion : Mainly concerned with the later parts of the Vedas, the philosophical part popularly known as Upanishads and also as Vedanta, i.e., conclusion of Vedas. Philosopher Badarayana is said to be the author of Vedanta which includes Brahma Sutra.
Finally, Atman = Brahman is the purport of the entire Advaita philosophy. There is non-dual reality(Brahman), there is no separate existence of world and there is no second. This is the final Revelation.
- Back to the Truth: 5000 years of ADVAITA by Dennis Waite.
- THE TEN PRINCIPAL UPANISHADS: Translated by Shree Purohit Swami and W.B.Yeats
- Brahma Sutra Bhasya of Sankaracharya: Translated by Swami Gambhirananda.
- You are the Universe; Discovering Your Cosmic Self and Why it Matters: By Deepak Chopra & Menas Kafatos.
- THE TAITTIRIYA UPANISHAD: SHIKSHAVALLI-ANANDAVALLI-BHRIGUVALLI with Sri Shankara’s Commentry By Sri Swami Satchidanandera Saraswati.
- Information available on internet.